Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

2,193 results found
Article

Spinal dermoid cyst

Spinal dermoid cysts are uni or multilocular cystic tumours lined by squamous epithelium containing skin appendages (hair follicles, sweat glands, sebaceous glands) 6. They are congenital in origin. Forty percent are intramedullary, and 60% are extramedullary 6. This article specifically relat...
Article

Spinal dural arteriovenous fistula

Spinal dural arteriovenous fistulas (SDAVF) are the most common type of spinal vascular malformation, accounting for ~70% of all such lesions. This article specifically relates to spinal dural arteriovenous fistulas. For a discussion of intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulas refer to the mai...
Article

Spinal dura mater

The spinal dura mater is the outermost layer of the meninges that surround the spinal cord. Gross Anatomy The spinal dura mater is a fibrous, non-adherent, tough layer surrounding the spinal cord.  It is separated from the wall of the vertebral canal by the epidural space. This space contains ...
Article

Spinal ependymoma

Spinal ependymomas are the most common spinal cord tumour overall, seen both in adult and paediatric population.  This article specifically relates to spinal cord ependymomas. For a discussion of intracranial ependymomas and for a general discussion of the pathology refer to the main article: e...
Article

Spinal epidural abscess

Spinal epidural abscess represents infection of the epidural space, located between the spinal dura mater and the vertebral periosteum. It can present with rapidly deteriorating neurological function due to compression. Imaging is best performed with MRI and emergency surgery is often required. ...
Article

Spinal epidural mass

The differential diagnosis for a spinal epidural mass includes: epidural metastasis epidural abscess herniated nucleus pulposus epidural haematoma epidural arteriovenous malformation epidural angiolipoma epidural lipomatosis
Article

Spinal epidural space

The spinal epidural (extradural) space is distinctly separate from and not continuous with the cranial epidural space. Its exact definition and description are contentious 3.  Gross anatomy The spinal epidural space is located in the spinal canal between the spinal dura mater and the vertebral...
Article

Spinal ganglioglioma

Spinal gangliogliomas are rare, comprising 1.1% of all spinal cord neoplasms 2. They are more frequent in children, representing 15% of intramedullary neoplasms in the paediatric age group 4. This article specifically relates to spinal gangliogliomas. For a discussion on intracranial gangliogli...
Article

Spinal haemangioblastoma

Spinal haemangioblastomas are the third most common intramedullary spinal neoplasm, representing 2-6% of all intramedullary tumours 1,4,7. This article specifically relates to spinal hemangioblastomas. For a discussion on intracranial hemangioblastomas and a general discussion of the pathology ...
Article

Spinal hydatid disease

Spinal hydatid disease is an uncommon manifestion of hydatid disease, caused by the larval stage of Echinococcus granulosus, or less commonly E. alveolaris or E. multilocularis, and describes a spectrum of disease involving the spinal cord, the spine, or both. For a general discussion, and for ...
Article

Spinal meningeal cyst

Spinal meningeal cysts are diverticulae of the arachnoid or dura mater or of the nerve root sheath. They are uncommon, usually asymptomatic and typically found incidentally at MRI.  Clinical presentation They cysts are usually asymptomatic, but if they are large, they may cause mass effect and...
Article

Spinal meninges

The spinal meninges are contained within the spinal canal and encase the spinal cord, spinal nerve roots and the cauda equina. Gross anatomy They are composed of three layers (outer to inner) dura mater (also known as theca or pachymeninx) arachnoid mater pia mater Collectively the arachno...
Article

Spinal meningioma

Meningiomas arising from the coverings of the spinal cord represent a minority of all meningiomas (approximately 12% 5) but are the second most common intradural extramedullary spinal tumour representing 25% of all such tumours 2. Despite usually being small, due to the confines of the spinal ca...
Article

Spinal metastases

Spinal metastases is a vague term which can be variably taken to refer to metastatic disease to any of the following: vertebral metastases (94%) may have epidural extension intradural extramedullary metastases (5%) intramedually metastases (1%) Each of these are discussed separately. Below ...
Article

Spinal muscular atrophy

Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a type of congenital neuromuscular disease affecting anterior horn cells of the brainstem and spinal cord. Epidemiology This disorder affects 1 in 6000-10000 infants 1. Clinical presentation The condition typically affects infants and young children, presenti...
Article

Spinal myxopapillary ependymoma

Spinal myxopapillary ependymomas are a variant type of spinal ependymoma that occur almost exclusively in the conus medullaris and filum terminale. They represent 13% of all spinal ependymomas, and are by far the most common tumours of the conus medullaris and filum terminale.   Epidemiology T...
Article

Spinal nerve sheath tumours

Spinal nerve sheath tumours are the most common intradural extramedullary mass. They include, in order of decreasing frequency: spinal schwannoma (30% of all intradural extramedullary lesions 6 and 65% of intradural extramedullary nerve sheath tumours 7) spinal neurofibroma spinal ganglioneu...
Article

Spinal neurenteric cysts

Spinal neurenteric cysts are a rare type of foregut duplication cyst, accounting for ~1% of all spinal cord tumours. They are usually classified as spinal or intracranial and are associated with vertebral or CNS abnormalities respectively.  Pathology Neurenteric cysts result from incomplete re...
Article

Spinal neurofibroma

Spinal neurofibromas are benign peripheral nerve sheath tumours, usually of the localized subtype. This article specifically relates to spinal neurofibromas. For a general discussion of neurofibromas, including their epidemiology and pathology, refer to neurofibroma. For a discussion of the gen...
Article

Spinal paraganglioma

Spinal paragangliomas are tumours of neuroendocrine origin that rarely involve the central nervous system, usually the filum terminale and cauda equina). They are indolent and considered WHO grade I lesions 5.  Paragangliomas overall are most commonly located within the adrenal gland (pheochrom...
Article

Spinal pia mater

The spinal pia mater (or pia mater spinalis) is the innermost layer of the spinal meninges. In congruence to the cranial pia being closely related to the surface of the brain, the spinal pia is closely related to the surface of the spinal cord.  Gross anatomy The spinal pia mater is continuou...
Article

Spinal pilocytic astrocytoma

Although rare, pilocytic astrocytomas are the most common spinal cord tumours in the paediatric population. This article specifically relates to spinal pilocytic astrocytomas. For a discussion on intracranial pilocytic astrocytomas refer to pilocytic astrocytoma. For a general discussion on spi...
Article

Spinal primitive neuroectodermal tumour

Spinal primitive neuroectodermal tumours (PNETs) are rare. Most cases are secondary to metastatic spread through the subarachnoid space from a primary intracranial tumour although rare cases of primary spinal PNETs have been reported. This article specifically relates to spinal PNETs. For a dis...
Article

Spinal schwannoma

Spinal schwannomas are schwannomas arising from nerves within the spinal canal. They are the most common intradural extramedullary spinal tumours, representing 30% of such lesions. They are most frequently seen in the cervical and lumbar regions, far more frequently than in the thoracic spine. ...
Article

Spinal subarachnoid space

The spinal subarachnoid space is the space between the arachnoid mater and pia mater in the spine and is continuous with the intracranial subarachnoid space.  It communicates with the intracranial subarachnoid space via the foramen magnum and ends at the level of the S2 vertebra.  It is a relat...
Article

Spinal subdural space

The spinal subdural space is a potential area between the spinal arachnoid mater and the spinal dura mater. Unlike the cranial subdural space, the spinal subdural space does not contain any bridging veins, and thus haemorrhage into this area only occurs in very rare cases 1.  It only contains a...
Article

Spindle cell oncocytomas of the pituitary gland

Spindle cell oncocytomas (SCO) of the pituitary gland, also referred as adenohypophysis spindle cell oncocytomas, are rare, relatively benign (WHO grade I), and nonfunctional tumours commonly showing clinical and radiologic presentations mostly indistinguishable from the much more common non-sec...
Article

Spinocerebellar ataxia

Spinocerebellar ataxias comprise a large (and expanding) group of diseases characterised by degeneration of the spinal cord and cerebellum.  There are well over 25 individual spinocerebellar ataxias referred to sequentially as SCA1, SCA2 ... in order of their discovery and genetic characterisat...
Article

Spinocerebellar tract

The spinocerebellar tracts are afferent neurons that convey proprioceptive data from the spinal cord to the cerebellum. There are anterior and posterior spinocerebellar tracts, the latter also referred to as Flechsig's tract. Both the anterior and posterior spinocerebellar tracts lie in the peri...
Article

Spinothalamic tracts

The spinothalamic tracts are ascending pathways in the spinal cord primarily concerned with sensory function. They are responsible for transmitting pain, temperature, coarse (non-discriminative) touch and pressure sensations 1. The spinothalamic tract is divided into lateral and anterior tracts...
Article

Splenial artery

Splenial artery or posterior pericallosal artery arises most commonly from the parieto-occipital branch of the PCA. It represents an important collateral supply from the posterior to anterior cerebral arteries as it anastomoses with the pericallosal artery. Variant anatomy the splenial artery ...
Article

Split hand sign

The split hand sign is a clinical sign classically seen in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and refers to loss of pincer grasp due to preferential wasting of the thenar eminence (abductor pollicis brevis and first dorsal interosseous muscle) with relative preservation of the the hypothenar em...
Article

Spoke wheel sign (meningioma)

The spoke wheel sign refers to the pattern of vessels coursing through meningiomas, when seen in cross-section.  It is the result of the same phenomenon which results in the sunburst pattern (vessels seen from the side rather than in cross-section). Terminology A similar appearance also referr...
Article

Stab wound: overview

Stab wounds are a form of penetrating trauma that may be self-inflicted or inflicted by another person either accidentally or intentionally. They may be caused from a variety of objects and may occur anywhere in the body. Terminology Although commonly caused by a knife as well, slash injuries ...
Article

St. Anne-Mayo grading system of astrocytomas

The St. Anne-Mayo grading system, also known as the Daumas-Duport grading system, introduced in 1988 was for a time a popular system for grading diffuse astrocytomas but has now largely been replaced by the WHO grading system which is, however, derived from the St Anne-Mayo system and thus share...
Article

Staphyloma

Staphyloma is the term given to an eye whose scleral-uveal coats are stretched with uveal protrusion. This most commonly occurs posteriorly, although anterior staphyloma also is recognised. As opposed to coloboma, staphyloma defect is located off-center from the optic disc, typically temporal to...
Article

Starfield pattern (fat embolism)

A starfield pattern has been described as being typical of DWI imaging of patients with cerebral fat embolism1,2. Although the term is closely linked to the diagnosis of fat embolism, it should be noted that such an appearance is merely the result of very numerous microemboli. As such a similar ...
Article

Status epilepticus

Status epilepticus is an acute and prolonged seizure that persists for a sufficient length of time or is repeated frequently enough that recovery between attacks does not occur. It is a clinical emergency associated with a high morbidity and mortality. Epidemiology The estimated incidence of ~...
Article

Stenogyria

Stenogyria refers to a pathological condition in which shallow sulci separate multiple "narrow gyri" 1. It is often reported in association with Chiari type II malformation. It differs from polymicrogyria because the cortex is histologically normal organized. Moreover in stenogyria the general s...
Article

Steroid responsive encephalopathy associated with autoimmune thyroiditis

Steroid-responsive encephalopathy associated with autoimmune thyroiditis (SREAT), also known as Hashimoto encephalopathy, is a rare and well-recognised neurological complication of autoimmune thyroid disease and occurs independently of the thyroid status. Patients exhibit neurological symptoms i...
Article

Stiff person syndrome

Stiff person syndrome, previously known as stiff man syndrome, was first described in 1956 by Moersch and Woltman of Mayo Clinic 1 and is a very rare neuromuscular disease characterised by: progressive muscle stiffness of the spine and lower extremities muscle spasms triggered by external stim...
Article

Straight sinus

The straight sinus is one of the main dural venous sinuses and is found at the junction between the falx cerebri and the tentorium cerebelli and is triangular in cross section. It receives the inferior sagittal sinus, the vein of Galen at its anterior end and some superior cerebellar veins alo...
Article

Stria medullaris

The stria medullaris is a fiber bundle containing efferent fibers from the septal nuclei, lateral preoptico-hypothalamic region, and anterior thalamic nuclei to the habenula. It forms a horizontal ridge on the medial surface of the thalamus.
Article

Striatocapsular infarct

Striatocapsular infarcts, also known as basal ganglionic capsular infarcts or lenticulostriate infarcts, are uncommon infarcts involving the caudate nucleus, putamen, and anterior limb of the internal capsule without any involvement of the cortex, caused by either a complete or partial proximal ...
Article

Stroke

Stroke is a clinical diagnosis that refers to a sudden onset focal neurological deficit of presumed vascular origin. It is divided into two broad categories: ischaemic stroke  (80% 2) haemorrhagic stroke (15%) Haemorrhage may be due to hypertension or other secondary causes such as vascular ...
Article

Stroke in children and young adults

Brain ischaemia/infarction in children and young adults can result from several causes. embolic phenomena cyanotic heart disease cardiomyopathies mitral valve prolapse Osler-Weber-Rendu syndrome arterial dissection trauma spontaneous fibromuscular dysplasia Marfan syndrome Ehlers Danl...
Article

Stroke protocol (MRI)

MRI protocol for stroke assessment is a group of MRI sequences put together to best approach brain ischaemia. CT is still the choice as the first imaging modality in acute stroke institutional protocols, not only because the availability and the easy and fast access to a CT scanner, but also du...
Article

Stroke (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Stroke is a clinical diagnosis where an acute neurological deficit follows a cerebrovascular insult. There are two main groups of stroke: ischaemic (>80%) or haemorrhagic (<20%) 1. Reference article This is a summary arti...
Article

Stupp protocol for glioblastoma

The Stupp protocol has become standard of care for the treatment of glioblastoma (GBM) since its publication in 2005 and has lead to significant survival improvements 1. It consists of radiotherapy and concomitant chemotherapy with temozolomide, an alkylating agent. According to the original st...
Article

Sturge-Weber syndrome

Sturge-Weber syndrome, or encephalotrigeminal angiomatosis, is a phakomatosis characterised by facial port wine stains and pial angiomas.  It is part of a wide spectrum of possible phenotypes included in the craniofacial arteriovenous metameric syndrome (CAMS). Epidemiology Sturge-Weber syndr...
Article

Subacute combined degeneration of the cord

Subacute combined degeneration of the cord (SACD) is caused by a vitamin B12 deficiency. Epidemiology Most common in patients older than 40 and especially older than 60 7.  Clinical presentation The clinical presentation of SACD is usually with loss of vibration and proprioception in the han...
Article

Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis

Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE), also known as Dawson disease, is a rare chronic, progressive and fatal encephalitis that affects primarily children and young adults, caused by a persistent infection of immune resistant measles virus. Epidemiology  1 in 100,000 people infected with ...
Article

Subarachnoid cisterns

The subarachnoid cisterns are discrete named spaces within the subarachnoid space where the pia mater and arachnoid membrane are not in close approximation. The subarachnoid tissue is not as abundant here as in the normal subarachnoid space and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) gathers to form pools or ...
Article

Subarachnoid FLAIR hyperintensity

There are a wide range of causes for subarachnoid FLAIR hyperintensity, both pathological and artifactual.  Differential diagnosis Pathological causes subarachnoid haemorrhage meningitis leptomeningeal carcinomatosis FLAIR vascular hyperintensities in acute stroke 1,4,8 moyamoya disease ...
Article

Subarachnoid haemorrhage (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) is bleeding into the subarachnoid space. This is usually found centrally (around the circle of Willis) but can occur in other parts of the brain. Reference article This is a summary article;...
Article

Subarachnoid space

The subarachnoid space is the interval between the arachnoid membrane and the pia mater. It is occupied by delicate connective tissue trabeculae and intercommunicating channels containing cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The cavity is small in the normal brain. Over the gyri, the arachnoid membrane a...
Article

Subclavian steal syndrome

Subclavian steal syndrome (SSS) and subclavian steal phenomenon both result from occlusion or severe stenosis of the proximal subclavian artery resulting in retrograde flow in the ipsilateral vertebral artery. Terminology Subclavian steal phenomenon refers to steno-occlusive disease of the pro...
Article

Subcortical leukomalacia

Subcortical leukomalacia corresponds to a continuous disease spectrum of periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) as the vascular border zones shift towards the periphery as the brain further matures. For this reason white matter lesions move from the periventricular to the subcortical zone. Please r...
Article

Subcortical U-fibres

Subcortical U-fibres, also known as short association fibres, represent connections between adjacent gyri of the brain, located within the cortex or immediately deep to it in the very outer parts of the subcortical white matter 1.  They are among the last parts of the brain to myelinate, as lat...
Article

Subdivisions of the cerebellar vermis (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic to remember the nine lobules of the cerebellar vermis is: Like Cats Catching Dogs For The Party Up North Mnemonic L: lingula C: central lobule C: culmen D: declive F: folium T: tuber P: pyramid U: uvula N: nodulus
Article

Subdural empyema

Subdural empyema (SDE) is uncommon, but nonetheless can account for a significant number of intracranial infections. Epidemiology Subdural empyemas account for approximately 20-33% of all intracranial infections. Clinical presentation Clinical presentation depends to some degree on the aetio...
Article

Subdural haemorrhage

Subdural haemorrhage (SDH) is a collection of blood accumulating in the subdural space, the potential space between the dura and arachnoid mater of the meninges around the brain. SDH can happen in any age-group, is mainly due to head trauma and CT scans are usually sufficient to make the diagnos...
Article

Subdural haemorrhage (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Subdural haemorrhage (SDH) is a collection of blood between the dura and the arachnoid layers of the meninges. They are common and can occur in any age range, usually related to a history of head trauma. Prognosis tends to ...
Article

Subdural hygroma

Subdural hygromas refer to the accumulation of fluid in the subdural space. In many cases, it is considered an epiphenomenon of head injury when it is called a traumatic subdural hygroma.  Epidemiology Subdural hygromas are encountered in all age-groups but are overall most common in the elder...
Article

Subdural space

The subdural space (epiarachnoid space) is a potential space that exists between the meningeal layer of the dura mater and the inner arachnoid mater of the leptomeninges which are adherent to each other 1. Gross anatomy The meningeal layer of dura mater is usually adherent to the underlying ar...
Article

Subependymal giant cell astrocytoma

Subependymal giant cell astrocytomas (SGCAs or alternatively SEGAs) are benign tumours (WHO grade I), seen almost exclusively in young patients with tuberous sclerosis. They can be either asymptomatic or symptomatic due obstructive hydrocephalus, surgery treatment is often curative.  On imaging...
Article

Subependymoma

Subependymomas are uncommon, benign (WHO grade I) tumours which are slow growing and non-invasive. They tend to occur in middle-aged and older individuals and usually identified as an incidental finding.  Terminology These tumours were previously also known as subependymal astrocytomas, not to...
Article

Subfalcine herniation

Subfalcine herniation, the most common cerebral herniation pattern, is characterised by displacement of the brain (typically the cingulate gyrus) beneath the free edge of the falx cerebri due to raised intracranial pressure.  Radiographic features CT The easiest method of evaluating for subfa...
Article

Subiculum

The subiculum (plural: subicula) is located in the mesial temporal lobe and is a subdivision of the hippocampal formation, along with Ammon’s horn, the entorhinal cortex and the hippocampus proper. It is the predominant output source of the hippocampal formation. Structure The subiculum occup...
Article

Sub-insular bright spots

Sub-insular bright spots are actually no more than multiple small perivascular spaces located between the insular cortex and the claustrum (within the extreme capsule), following the perforating vessels that arise from the branches of the MCA. They are extremely frequent (80-100% of patients) 1...
Article

Subparietal sulcus

The subparietal sulcus is a sulcus on the medial surface of the parietal lobe that separates the precuneus from the posterior aspect of the cingulate gyrus. It is considered a posterior continuation of the cingulate sulcus even if these sulci are most commonly discontinuous.
Article

Subperiosteal abscess of the mastoid

Subperiosteal abscess of the mastoid is one of the more frequent complications of acute otomastoiditis and results in coalescent mastoiditis extending through the external cortex of the mastoid sinus. This can occur in any direction: postauricular: common as the bone is particularly thin ("Mace...
Article

Substantia innominata

The substantia innominata, or substantia innominata of Meynert, is an area of mixed grey and white matter located within the anterior perforated substance in the basal forebrain. It contains the acetylcholine rich basal nucleus of Meynert. Gross anatomy The substantia innominata is a thin ban...
Article

Substantia nigra

The substantia nigra is one of the brainstem nuclei and part of the extrapyramidal system. While other nuclei such as the red nucleus are as small and contained within an axial slice at the superior colliculi (see figure), the substantia nigra is seen in axial slices at both superior and inferio...
Article

Subthalamic nuclei

The subthalamic nuclei are small paired structures that are part of the functional basal ganglia. They are located ventral to the thalamus, dorsal to the substantia nigra and medial to the internal capsule. The subthalamic nucleus receives its main input from the lateral pallidum (external segm...
Article

Sugar coating

The so-called "sugar coating" or zuckerguss (German for sugar icing) is seen in post-contrast images of the brain and spinal cord in patients with leptomeningeal drop metastases or leptomeningeal carcinomatosis. It is seen both as a result of CNS involvement from distant primaries as well as dir...
Article

Sulcal effacement

Sulcal effacement is a local secondary sign of mass effect in the cranium. Any lesion exerting mass effect on brain parenchyma can push adjacent gyri together, thereby displacing the CSF from the sulci. It is greatest at the site where the cause of the mass effect is located (e.g. tumour, haemo...
Article

Sunburst sign (meningioma)

The sunburst sign refers to the characteristic vascular supply seen in some meningiomas when seen from the side (tangential to the dural attachment). It is the result of the same phenomenon which results in the spoke wheel pattern of vessels (viewed in cross-section, parallel to dural attachment...
Article

Sunset eye sign

The sunset eye sign (also known as the setting sun phenomenon) is a clinical phenomenon encountered in infants and young children with raised intracranial pressures (seen in up to 40% of children with obstructive hydrocephalus and 13% of children with shunt dysfunction 1).  It consists of an up...
Article

Superficial middle cerebral vein

The superficial middle cerebral vein (SMCV) (also known as the Sylvian vein) is one of the superficial cerebral veins. It usually passes along the Sylvian fissure posteroanteriorly, it collects numerous small tubutaries which drain the opercular areas around the lateral sulcus. It curves anterio...
Article

Superficial siderosis

Superficial siderosis is a rare condition which results from the deposition of haemosiderin along the leptomeninges, with eventual neurological dysfunction. On imaging, it is classically characterised on MRI as a rim of low signal coating the surface of the brain or spinal cord, particularly no...
Article

Superficial veins of the brain

Superficial veins of the brain predominantly drain the cerebral cortex, and include: superior cerebral veins (or superficial cerebral veins) inferior cerebral veins superficial middle cerebral veins superior anastomotic vein (of Trolard) inferior anastomotic vein (of Labbe) Some also inclu...
Article

Superior anastomotic vein

The superior anastomotic vein (or vein of Trolard) connects the superior sagittal sinus and the superficial middle cerebral vein (of Sylvius). Its size is dictated by the relative size of the superficial middle cerebral vein and the anastomotic vein of Labbé. The vein of Trolard is smaller than...
Article

Superior cerebellar artery

The superior cerebellar artery (SCA) arises from the distal basilar artery, just below the posterior cerebral artery (PCA) and typically supplies: whole superior surface of the cerebellar hemispheres down to the great horizontal fissure superior vermis dentate nucleus most of the cerebellar ...
Article

Superior cerebellar artery infarct

Superior cerebellar artery infarcts affect the superior cerebellar hemispheres, cerebellar vermis and parts of the midbrain. The superior cerebellar artery is the most constantly identified vessel arising from the basilar artery with its origin just below the posterior cerebral artery in the dis...
Article

Superior cerebellar peduncle

The superior cerebellar peduncles (SCP) are a paired white matter fibre tracts that connect the cerebellum with the midbrain. The SCP contains vital afferent and efferent fibres including cerebellothalamic, cerebellorubral and ventrospinocerebellar tracts. Radiographic features The superior ce...
Article

Superior cerebral veins

The superior cerebral veins drain the superior portion of the cerebral cortex. They run up and medially before draining into the superior sagittal sinus. In a proportion of patients, a large such vein connects the superficial middle cerebral vein to the sinus, and is known as the superior anasto...
Article

Superior frontal gyrus

The superior frontal gyrus is the medial most gyrus of the frontal lobe's superolateral surface, running from the the frontal pole anteriorly, all the way to the precentral sulcus and precentral gyrus posteriorly. Laterally it is bounded by the superior frontal sulcus, which separates it from t...
Article

Superior frontal sulcus

The superior frontal sulcus is one of the major sulci of the frontal lobe, separating the superior frontal gyrus medially, from the middle frontal gyrus inferolaterally. It runs posteriorly from the frontal pole, parallel to the interhemispheric fissure, back to the precentral sulcus which it in...
Article

Superior geniculocalcarine tract

The superior geniculocalcarine tract or superior optic radiation, also known by its eponymous name Baum’s loop, is the posterior/superior fibres of the optic radiation. These superior fibres pass dorsally and posteriorly from the lateral geniculate nucleus through the retrolentiform internal cap...
Article

Superior hypophyseal artery

The superior hypophyseal artery (or arteries) is a branch from the C6 segment of the internal carotid artery. It is usually a single trunk which then divides into many small branches, which go on to supply: optic nerve optic chiasm pituitary gland (anterior gland) pituitary stalk It is ofte...
Article

Superior medullary velum

The superior (or anterior) medullary velum is a thin layer of tissue that is suspended between the superior cerebellar peduncles forming the roof of the fourth ventricle along with the inferior medullary velum. It is enclosed by pia mater dorsally and ependyma ventrally. The lingula of the vermi...
Article

Superior occipital sulcus

The superior occipital sulcus is a sulcus of the occipital lobe that separates the superior from the middle occipital gyri. It is usually seen as a posterior continuation of the intraparietal sulcus.

Updating… Please wait.
Loadinganimation

Alert accept

Error Unable to process the form. Check for errors and try again.

Alert accept Thank you for updating your details.