Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

2,246 results found
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Caroticotympanic artery

The caroticotympanic branch (tympanic branch) is a small branch from the C2 segment of the internal carotid artery. It is a vestigial remnant of the hyoid artery. It passes posterolaterally into the middle ear cavity and anastomoses with the inferior tympanic artery (a branch of the external ca...
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Carotid artery stenosis

Carotid artery stenosis also referred as extracranial carotid artery stenosis, is usually caused by an atherosclerotic process and is one of the major causes of stroke and transient ischemic attack (TIA) 1.  This article refers to stenosis involving carotid bulb and the proximal segment of inte...
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Carotid cave

The carotid cave is a potential dural space formed by the redundant distal dural ring on the medial aspect of the clinoid segment of the internal carotid artery (ICA). It has been reported to be present in ~80% of cadaveric specimens 3. Gross anatomy The clinoid segment of the ICA is bounded b...
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Cartilaginous meningioma

Cartilaginous meningiomas are extremely rare histological variants of meningiomas grouped into the subtype of metaplastic meningiomas, being WHO grade I tumours. They are characterised by the cartilaginous transformation observed within the tumour. Although reported numbers are too small to con...
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Cases in radiology (video tutorials)

The cases featured in these video lectures are specifically selected to teach important concepts in radiology over a broad range of topics. The tutorials vary in difficulty from basic to advanced. For maximum learning, try the cases for yourself in Radiopaedia quiz mode first.  We love this ser...
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Cataract

Cataracts are an opacification or thickening of the lens within the globe and are the leading cause of blindness in the world 2.  Clinical presentation Visual deterioration occurs with increasing degrees of severity, and left untreated may present as complete blindness. The diagnosis is made c...
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Cauda equina

The cauda equina is the collective term given to nerve roots distal to the conus medullaris, which occupy the lumbar cistern.  It's name comes from the Latin for "horse's tail".
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Cauda equina syndrome

Cauda equina syndrome is considered an incomplete cord syndrome, even though it occurs below the conus, and refers to a collection of symptoms and signs that result from severe compression of the descending lumbar and sacral nerve roots. It is most commonly caused by an acutely extruded lumbar d...
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Caudal epidural injection

Caudal epidural injections, or sacral hiatus epidural injections, are one of several possible spinal epidural injections.  Indications Typically, epidural injections are performed in patients who are currently not surgical candidates. The caudal injection can be performed when patients are on ...
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Caudal regression syndrome

Caudal regression syndrome (CRS) represents a spectrum of structural defects of the caudal region. Malformations vary from isolated partial agenesis of the coccyx to lumbosacral agenesis. Epidemiology Caudal regression syndrome is rare, with an estimated incidence of 1:7500-100,000 7,10. The ...
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Caudate nucleus

Caudate nuclei are paired nuclei which along with the globus pallidus and putamen are referred to as the corpus striatum, and collectively make up the basal ganglia. The caudate nuclei have both motor and behavioural functions, in particular maintaining body and limb posture, as well as controll...
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Caudothalamic groove

The caudothalamic groove is an important landmark when performing neonatal cranial ultrasound. Gross anatomy As the name suggests, it is located between the caudate nucleus and thalamus, and is a shallow groove projecting from the floor of the lateral ventricle. It is approximately at the leve...
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Causes of acute confusion in the elderly (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to help recall some of the causes of acute confusion in the elderly include: How Come 'Dis DoDo Is Excited  Mnemonic H: hypoxia C: constipation D: drug effects D: diabetes D: dehydration I: infection E: electrolyte imbalance
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Causes of dementia (mnemonic)

The causes of dementia can be remembered using the mnemonic: VANISHED Mnemonic V: vitamin deficiency: B1, B6, B12, folate A: autoimmune: cerebral vasculitis, systemic lupus erythematosus N: normal pressure hydrocephalus, neoplasia I: infection: Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, herpes simplex enc...
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Cavernous sinus

The cavernous sinuses are paired dural venous sinuses.  Gross anatomy The cavernous sinus (CS) is located on either side of the pituitary fossa and body of the sphenoid bone between the endosteal and meningeal layers of the dura. It spans from the apex of the orbit to the apex of the petrous t...
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Cavernous sinus contents (mnemonic)

The structures inside and beside the cavernous sinus and their relative positions can be recalled with the following mnemonic: O TOM CAT Consider a coronal view of the cavernous sinus. 'O TOM' are the first letters of components of the lateral wall of cavernous sinus considered vertically, fr...
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Cavernous sinus haemangioma

Cavernous sinus haemangioma is an uncommon cause of a cavernous sinus mass. Preoperative diagnosis is important to avoid unexpected surgical blood loss.  Epidemiology Cavernous haemangiomas of the cavernous sinus account for less than 1% of all parasellar masses 1. They have a predilection for...
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Cavernous sinus mass

A cavernous sinus mass has a wide differential including:  meningioma orbital apical inflammation with cavernous sinus involvement (Tolosa-Hunt syndrome) infection  schwannoma  any of the cranial nerves traversing the cavernous sinus: III, IV, V (V1 and V2) and VI trigeminal schwannoma is ...
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Cavernous sinus thrombosis

Cavernous sinus thrombosis (CST) is a rare condition, most commonly infectious in nature, and the diagnosis on imaging is not always straightforward. It has high mortality and morbidity rates. Epidemiology CST is rare with ~4.5 cases per 1,000,000 per year 5. It is the least common dural venou...
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Cavernous venous malformation

Cavernous venous malformation, also traditionally referred to as a cavernous haemangioma (despite it not being a tumour) or cavernomas, are non-neoplastic slow flow venous malformations found in many parts of the body.  Terminology Despite the ubiquity of use of the traditional terms cavernoma...
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Cavum septum pellucidum

Cavum septum pellucidum (CSP) ("hollow" septum pellucidum) is a normal variant CSF space between the leaflets of the septum pellucidum. Terminology It is sometimes called the fifth ventricle, but this term is not in current use as a CSP does not have any direct communication with the ventricul...
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Cavum veli interpositi

A cavum veli interpositi (CVI) is a normal variation where there is a dilated CSF space involving the velum interpositum. When larger than 1 cm in axial transverse measurement, with outwardly bowed margins and positive mass effect, the term cyst of the velum interpositum or cavum veli interposit...
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Cavum vergae

The cavum vergae (CV), along with the cavum septum pellucidum (CSP) is a persistence of the embryological fluid-filled space between the leaflets of the septum pellucidum and is a common anatomical variant. The CV is sometimes referred to as the 6th ventricle 3.  Gross anatomy The CV is the po...
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Cavum vergae cyst

Cavum vergae cysts are rare lesions which are usually asymptomatic. It should not be confused with cavum septum pellucidum et vergae which is common. Although there is no actual pathological distinction between a run-of-the mill cavum vergae and a cavum vergae cyst, the later is sometimes used t...
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CEC syndrome

CEC syndrome refers to the combination of coeliac disease, epilepsy and bilateral occipital calcifications. This is also known as Gobbi syndrome. Patients with cerebral calcifications and coeliac disease without epilepsy are considered as having an incomplete form of CEC syndrome 1. Epidemiolog...
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Cella media index

The cella media index is one of the methods used to assess ventricle size with respect to brain tissue and cerebral atrophy. It is the ratio of biparietal diameter of skull to maximum external diameter of lateral ventricles at cella media (i.e central part of lateral ventricles).A normally cella...
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Central base of skull

The central base of skull is a region of the skull base centred on the pituitary fossa and includes surrounding structures. Despite no single universally accepted definition of this region, it is frequently used clinically and is conceptually useful particularly when considering tumours of the ...
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Central canal

The central canal is the longitudinal CSF-filled space which runs the entire length of the spinal cord and represents the most caudal portion of the ventricular system. It is lined by ependyma. Gross anatomy The central canal spans the length of the spinal cord from the caudal angle of the fou...
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Central control of respiration

A number of cell groups in the reticular formation of the pons and medulla are responsible for the central control of the respiratory cycle: inspiratory centre (a.k.a. dorsal respiratory group) - bilateral groups of cells in the region of the nucleus of the tractus solitarius in the dorsum of t...
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Central cord syndrome

Central cord syndrome is the most common type of incomplete spinal cord syndrome, usually the result of trauma, accounting for ~10% of all spinal cord injuries. As the name implies, this syndrome is the result of a damage to the central portion spinal cord and in the setting of trauma most commo...
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Central giant cell lesions (granuloma)

Central giant cell lesions (granulomas), also known as giant cell reparative cysts/granulomas, occurs almost exclusively in the mandible, although cases in the skull and maxilla have been reported. Epidemiology It is most frequently seen in young women (F:M 2:1) 5 and typically presents in the...
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Central nervous system curriculum

The central nervous system curriculum is one of our curriculum articles and aims to be a collection of articles that represent the core central nervous system knowledge. Definition  Topics pertaining to the intracranial content (brain, pituitary, dura, intracranial vasculatures). There will be...
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Central nervous system embryology

Central nervous system (CNS) embryology is complex, and below is a brief summary of its development.  The early CNS begins as a simple neural plate that folds to form a groove then tube, open initially at each end. Within the neural tube stem cells generate the two major classes of cells that m...
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Central nervous system germinoma

Intracranial germinomas, also known as dysgerminomas or extra-gonadal seminomas, are a type of germ cell tumour and are predominantly seen in paediatric populations. They tend to occur in the midline, either at the pineal region (majority) or along the floor of the third ventricle/suprasellar re...
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Central nervous system vasculitides

Central nervous system (CNS) vasculitides represent a heterogeneous group of inflammatory diseases affecting the walls of blood vessels in the brain, spinal cord, and the meninges. Please refer to the article on vasculitis for a general discussion of that entity.  The aim of this article will ...
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Central neurocytoma

Central neurocytomas are WHO grade II neuroepithelial intraventricular tumours with fairly characteristic imaging features, appearing as heterogeneous masses of variable size and enhancement within the lateral ventricle, typically attached to the septum pellucidum. They are typically seen in you...
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Central pontine myelinolysis

Central pontine myelinolysis (CPM) is now more commonly referred to as osmotic demyelination syndrome, which recognises that the same phenomenon is also seen in other areas of the brain (previously known as extrapontine myelinolysis).  As such the condition is described in the osmotic demyelina...
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Central sulcus

The central sulcus (of Rolando) is a very important landmark in both anatomical and functional neuroanatomy. Gross anatomy The central sulcus separates the frontal lobe from the parietal lobe, and more specifically separates the primary motor cortex anteriorly from the primary somatosensory co...
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Central tegmental tract high T2 signal

High T2 signal of the central tegmental tract, which connects the red nucleus and inferior olivary nucleus, is an uncommon finding typically encountered in early childhood.  The central tegmental tract refers mainly to the extrapyramidal tracts connecting between the red nucleus and the inferio...
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Centrum semiovale

The centrum semiovale is a mass of white matter superior to the lateral ventricles and corpus callosum, present in each of the cerebral hemispheres, subjacent to the cerebral cortex. It has a semi-oval shape and contains projection, commissural, and association fibres. Inferolaterally these fib...
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Cephalocele

Cephalocele refers to the outward herniation of CNS contents through a defect in the cranium. The vast majority are midline. Epidemiology The estimated incidence is 0.8-4:10,000 live births 13 with a well recognised geographical variation between types; however, this has been speculated to be ...
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Cephalohaematoma

Cephalohaematomas are traumatic subperiosteal haematomas of the skull that are usually caused by birth injury. They are bound between the periosteum and cranium, and therefore cannot cross sutures. Being bound by a suture line distinguishes them from subgaleal haematoma, which can cross sutures....
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Cerebellar agenesis

Cerebellar agenesis is a rare congenital abnormality which can result from failure to develop normal cerebellar tissue or destruction of normally developed tissue. For a more general overview of cerebellar malformations, please refer to the article on classification systems for malformations of...
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Cerebellar haemorrhage

Cerebellar haemorrhage is a form of intracranial haemorrhage and is most frequently seen in the setting of poorly controlled hypertension, although this can of course also be secondary to an underlying lesion (e.g. tumour or vascular malformation) or due to supratentorial surgery (see remote cer...
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Cerebellar infarction

Cerebellar infarction is a relatively uncommon subtype of ischaemic stroke. It may involve any of the three arteries supplying the cerebellum: superior cerebellar artery (SCA): superior cerebellar arterial infarct anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA): anterior inferior cerebellar arteria...
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Cerebellar liponeurocytoma

Cerebellar liponeurocytomas, also known as neurolipocytomas, are rare tumours of the cerebellum with neurocytic differentiation and abundant accumulation of intracellular lipid. They are considered WHO grade II tumours 1.  Epidemiology As only a small number of cases have been reported, detail...
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Cerebellar nuclei

The cerebellar nuclei comprise 4 paired deep grey matter nuclei deep within the cerebellum near the fourth ventricle. They are arranged in the following order, from lateral to medial: dentate nuclei (the largest and most lateral)  emboliform nuclei  globose nuclei fastigial nuclei (most medi...
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Cerebellar tonsillar ectopia

Cerebellar tonsillar ectopia denotes an inferior location of the cerebellar tonsils below the margins of the foramen magnum. It, therefore, encompasses both minor asymptomatic tonsilar ectopia and Chiari I malformations.  Terminology Use of the term cerebellar tonsillar ectopia is not uniform....
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Cerebellar tonsils

Gross Anatomy The cerebellar tonsils are ovoid structures on the inferiormedial surface of each cerebellar hemisphere. They are attached to the underlying cerebellum by the tonsillar peduncle 1-4. Relations medial: uvula of the vermis superior: flocculonodular lobe anterior: posterior surfa...
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Cerebellopontine angle cistern

The cerebellopontine angle cistern is a triangular CSF-filled subarachnoid space that lies between the anterior surface of the cerebellum and the lateral surface of the pons. Gross anatomy Boundaries superior: tentorium cerebelli posterior: anterior surface of cerebellum inferior: lower cra...
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Cerebellopontine angle lipoma

Cerebellopontine angle (CPA) lipomas account for ~10% of all intracranial lipomas. Characteristically lipomas of the CPA have the facial nerve and vestibulocochlear nerve coursing through it on their way to the IAM. They are associated with intravestibular lipomas and sensorineural hearing loss...
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Cerebellopontine angle mass

Cerebellopontine angle (CPA) masses frequently occur, many of which are relatively specific for the region.  Pathology Cerebellopontine angle masses can be divided into four groups, based on imaging characteristics:  enhancing mass mass with high T1 signal on MRI mass with CSF intensity/den...
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Cerebellopontine angle mass (mnemonic)

Mnemonics for the common cerebellopontine angle masses include: AMEN or MEAN SAME Mnemonics AMEN/MEAN A: acoustic schwannoma  (~80%) M: meningioma  (~10%) E: ependymoma  (~5%) N: neuroepithelial cyst (arachnoid/epidermoid)  (~5%) SAME S: schwannoma  acoustic schwannoma much more commo...
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Cerebellum

The cerebellum, meaning "the little brain", sits at the base of the brain in the posterior cranial fossa below the tentorium and behind the brainstem.  Gross anatomy The cerebellum has the following features: three surfaces: anterior (petrosal), superior (tentorial), inferior (suboccipital) ...
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Cerebral abscess (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Cerebral abscesses represent focal areas of infection within brain parenchyma, usually containing pus and having a thick capsule. They typically have enhancing walls and can mimic a number of other significant pathologies. ...
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Cerebral air embolism

Cerebral air embolism is rare but can be fatal. They may be venous or arterial and are often iatrogenic in cause.  Clinical presentation Presentation is often varied and non-specific but include confusion, motor weakness, decreased consciousness, seizure and vision loss.  Pathology Cerebral ...
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Cerebral amyloid angiopathy

Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) is a cerebrovascular disorder caused by the accumulation of cerebral amyloid-β (Aβ) in the tunica media and adventitia of leptomeningeal and cortical vessels of the brain. The resultant vascular fragility tends to manifest in normotensive elderly patients as lob...
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Cerebral amyloid angiopathy-related inflammation

Cerebral amyloid angiopathy-related inflammation, also known as cerebral amyloid angiitis or cerebral amyloid inflammatory vasculopathy, is an uncommon cerebral amyloid deposition disease, closely related to the far more common non-inflammatory cerebral amyloid angiopathy, and can present as are...
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Cerebral amyloid deposition diseases

Cerebral amyloid deposition diseases are a group of related conditions characterised by the accumulation of cerebral amyloid-β (Aβ) in various parts of the central nervous system. They lead to inflammation, neurotoxicity, and vascular friability, and are typically encountered in the elderly.  F...
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Cerebral amyloidoma

Cerebral amyloidomas are the rarest manifestation of cerebral amyloid deposition, typically appearing as solidly enhancing masses.  Epidemiology Reported numbers are low due to the rarity of this condition, making generalisations about epidemiological features difficult. Generally, cases have ...
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Cerebral angiography

Cerebral angiography is an interventional procedure for the diagnosis and/or treatment of intracranial pathology. Indications Cerebral digital subtraction angiography (DSA) is indicated in a variety of settings including: diagnosis and treatment of: aneurysms acute ischaemic stroke vascula...
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Cerebral aqueduct (of Sylvius)

The cerebral aqueduct (of Sylvius) is the structure within the brainstem that connects the third ventricle to the fourth. It is located within the midbrain, surrounded by periaqueductal grey matter (PAG) with the tectum of midbrain located posteriorly and the tegmentum anteriorly. It is filled ...
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Cerebral arteriovenous fistula

Cerebral arteriovenous fistulae (CAVF) are cerebral vascular malformations or acquired conditions in which there is an abnormal direct communication between a venous and an arterial channel without the presence of a true nidus.  dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF) caroticocavernous fistula (CCF...
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Cerebral arteriovenous malformation

Cerebral arteriovenous malformations (CAVMs), also known as classic brain AVMs, are a common form of cerebral vascular malformation and are composed of a nidus of vessels through which arteriovenous shunting occurs. Terminology This article corresponds to the classic form of arteriovenous malf...
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Cerebral atrophy

Cerebral atrophy is the morphological presentation of brain parenchymal volume loss that is frequently seen on cross sectional imaging. Rather than being a primary diagnosis, it is the common endpoint for range disease processes that affect the central nervous system. Though often no identifiabl...
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Cerebral blood flow (CBF)

Cerebral blood flow (CBF) is one of the parameters generated by perfusion techniques (CT perfusion and MR perfusion). CBF is defined as the volume of blood passing through a given amount of brain tissue per unit of time, most commonly milliliters of blood per minute per 100g of brain tissue 1. ...
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Cerebral blood volume (CBV)

Cerebral blood volume (CBV) (often relative CBV: see below) is one of the parameters generated by perfusion techniques (CT perfusion and MR perfusion). CBV is defined as the volume of blood in a given amount of brain tissue, most commonly milliliters of blood per 100 g of brain tissue 1. CBV ca...
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Cerebral cavernous venous malformation

Cerebral cavernous venous malformations, commonly known as cavernous haemangioma or cavernoma, are common cerebral vascular malformations, usually with characteristic appearances on MRI.  Cavernous malformations are found throughout the body. This article focuses on cerebral cavernous venous ma...
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Cerebral cortex

The cerebral cortex and underlying connecting white matter accounts for the largest part of the human brain. It is composed of five different types of neurones arranged into distinct layers (in most places 6 layers) admixed with supporting glial cells (astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and microglia)...
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Cerebral fat embolism

Cerebral fat embolism is one manifestation of fat embolism syndrome. Epidemiology Cerebral fat embolism typically occurs in patients with bony fractures (usually long bones of the lower limb). Rarely it has been described as part of a sickle cell crisis with bone marrow fat necrosis and subseq...
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Cerebral haemorrhagic contusion

Cerebral haemorrhagic contusions are a type of intracerebral haemorrhage and are common in the setting of significant head injury. They are usually characterised on CT as hyperdense foci in the frontal lobes adjacent to the floor of the anterior cranial fossa and in the temporal poles. Epidemio...
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Cerebral hemiatrophy

Cerebral hemiatrophy has a variety of causes, and is generally associated with seizures and hemiplegia. Causes include: congenital idiopathic (primary) intrauterine vascular injury acquired perinatal intracranial haemorrhage Rasmussen encephalitis postictal cerebral hemiatrophy basal gan...
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Cerebral hemisphere

The two cerebral hemispheres are divided in the midsagittal plane by the interhemispheric fissure. Together they fill most the intra-cranial cavity. Gross anatomy The medial surface of each cerebral hemisphere is flat, the inferior surface is irregular and even slightly concave anteriorly, whi...
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Cerebral herniation

Cerebral herniation, also referred to as acquired intracranial herniation, refers to shift of cerebral tissue from its normal location, into an adjacent space as a result of mass effect.  Pathology There are a number of different patterns of cerebral herniation which describe the type of herni...
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Cerebral hydatid disease

Cerebral hydatid disease (neurohydatidosis) is caused by Echinococcus granulosus or less commonly E. alveolaris or E. multilocularis. The larval stage is the cause of hydatid disease in humans 1. For a general discussion, and for links to other system specific manifestations, please refer to th...
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Cerebral intraparenchymal hyperattenuations post thrombectomy

Cerebral intraparenchymal hyperattenuations have been increasingly recognised on CT scans following mechanical thrombectomy for treatment of thromboembolic ischaemic stroke. It is a term that encompasses both contrast staining and petechial haemorrhagic change, and is used as distinguishing betw...
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Cerebral malaria

Cerebral malaria is a rare intracranial complication of a malarial infection. Epidemiology Cerebral malaria is mainly encountered in young children and adults living or travelling in malaria-endemic areas. It is estimated to occur in ~2% of patients with acute Plasmodium falciparum infection, ...
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Cerebral meninges

The cerebral meninges surround the brain and is made up of three layers (from outermost to innermost): dura mater arachnoid mater pia mater The dura mater can also be known as pachymeninx. The arachnoid mater and pia mater are collectively known as the leptomeninges 3. The spinal meninges ar...
Article

Cerebral microhaemorrhage

Cerebral microhaemorrhages, or cerebral microbleeds, are small focal intracerebral haemorrhages, often only visible on susceptibility-sensitive MRI sequences. Pathology Common aetiologies cavernous malformations 8 especially Zabramski classification type IV malformations causes include mult...
Article

Cerebral oedema

Cerebral oedema refers to a number of interconnected processes which result in abnormal shifts of water in various compartments of the brain parenchyma. It has traditionally been broadly divided into vasogenic cerebral oedema and cytotoxic cerebral oedema, the latter a term commonly used to den...
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Cerebral oedema (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Cerebral oedema describes the collection of additional fluid within the white matter of the brain. It is the brain's response to an insult and may take one of two broad forms: vasogenic (white matter) and cytotoxic (grey an...
Article

Cerebral peduncles

The cerebral peduncles (also known as the cerebral crus) are the part of the midbrain that link the remainder of the brainstem to the thalami and thereby, the cerebrum. They are the most anterior structure in the midbrain and contain the large ascending and descending tracts that run to and from...
Article

Cerebral perfusion pressure

Cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) is the pressure gradient between the systemic blood pressure (MAP) and the intracranial pressure (ICP) 1. It is expressed by the following equation:  CPP = MAP - ICP CPP corresponds to the pressure necessary to pump blood from the aorta into the cranial compar...
Article

Cerebral proliferative angiopathy

Cerebral proliferative angiopathy (CPA), previously known as diffuse nidus type AVM, is a cerebral vascular malformation separated from classic brain AVM and characterised by the presence of normal brain parenchyma interspersed throughout the tangle of vessels that corresponds to the nidus 1,2. ...
Article

Cerebral radiation necrosis

Cerebral radiation necrosis refers to necrotic degradation of brain tissue following intracranial or regional radiation either delivered for the treatment of intracranial pathology (e.g. astrocytoma, cerebral arteriovenous malformation) or as a result of irradiation of head and neck tumours (e.g...
Article

Cerebral ring enhancing lesions

The differential for peripheral or ring enhancing cerebral lesions includes: cerebral abscess tuberculoma neurocysticercosis metastasis glioblastoma subacute infarct/haemorrhage/contusion demyelination (incomplete ring) tumefactive demyelinating lesion (incomplete ring) radiation necros...
Article

Cerebral ring enhancing lesions (mnemonic)

Convenient mnemonics for the causes of cerebral ring enhancing lesions are: MAGIC DR or DR MAGIC DR MAGIC L MAGICAL DR Mnemonics MAGIC DR or DR MAGIC M: metastasis A: abscess G: glioblastoma I: infarct (subacute phase) C: contusion D: demyelinating disease R: radiation necrosis or re...
Article

Cerebral sulci and fissures

Cerebral sulci and fissures are grooves between the adjacent gyri on the surface of the cerebral hemispheres. By allowing the cortex to invaginate to form sulci and gyri the surface area of the cortex is is increased threefold 4. The result is that the surface area of the human cortex is 2200 cm...
Article

Cerebral transthyretin-associated amyloidoses

Cerebral involvement can be seen transthyretin-associated amyloidoses and presents as a neurodegenerative disease.  Epidemiology Age of presentation is very wide, ranging from adolescence to old age 1.  Clinical presentation Clinical presentation is variable, but includes 1: dementia spast...
Article

Cerebral vascular malformations

Vascular malformations of the central nervous system can be divided, as they can elsewhere, into high and low flow malformations. High flow arteriovenous malformation (AVM) cerebral AVM (pial/parenchymal AVM) cerebral proliferative angiopathy dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF) pial arteri...
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Cerebral vascular territories

An understanding of cerebral vascular territories is important in understanding stroke and complications from surgery and endovascular procedures.  Although one could be excused for thinking that within the brain, such a carefully organised organ, blood supply would be constant, the truth is th...
Article

Cerebral vasospasm following subarachnoid haemorrhage

Cerebral vasospasm following subarachnoid haemorrhage is a major complication of subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH). It is overtaking rebleed as the major cause of mortality and morbidity in the subgroup of patients with SAH who reach the hospital and receive medical care. Epidemiology It is seen ...
Article

Cerebral veins

The cerebral veins drain the brain parenchyma and are located in the subarachnoid space. They pierce the meninges and drain further into the cranial venous sinuses. The cerebral veins lack muscular tissue and valves. The cerebral venous system can be divided into: superficial (cortical) cerebr...

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