Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

2,007 results found
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Corticospinal tract

The corticospinal tract is a descending neural pathway primarily concerned with motor function extending from the motor cortex down to synapse with motor neurones of the spinal cord.  Gross anatomy Central connections Corticospinal fibres arise from neurones in the cerebral cortex. Most of th...
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Cotton wool appearance (bone)

The cotton wool appearance is a plain film sign of Paget disease and results from thickened, disorganized trabeculae which lead to areas of sclerosis in a previously lucent area of bone, typically the skull. These sclerotic patches are poorly defined and fluffy. See also Other Paget disease re...
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Coup-contrecoup injury (brain)

A coup-contrecoup injury is a term applied to head injuries and most often cerebral contusions and traumatic subarachnoid haemorrhage. It refers to the common pattern of injury whereby damage is located both at the site of impact (often less marked) and on the opposite side of the head to the po...
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Coup de poignard of Michon

Coup de poignard of Michon refers to spinal subarachnoid haemorrhage, usually as a result of a spinal AVM. Presentation is with sudden excruciating back pain, akin to being stabbed with a dagger (poignard = french for dagger). It is the corollary of the thunderclap headache.
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Cowdry bodies

Cowdry bodies are neuronal intranuclear inclusions seen in Herpes simplex virus infections.
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Cranial foramina

The cranial foramina are the holes that exist in the base of skull to allow the passage of structures into and out of the cranium: anterior ethmoidal foramen condylar canal foramen caecum foramen lacerum carotid canal foramen magnum foramen ovale foramen rotundum foramen spinosum foram...
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Cranial nerve enhancement

Enhancement of cranial nerves has a lenghy differential including 1-2: infection mycobacterial: tuberculosis, leprosy bacterial: mycoplasma spirochetes: Lyme disease, syphilis viruses: e.g. herpes zoster virus, influenza virus, human herpesvirus 1 (HHV1) 3 funguses parasites granulomatou...
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Cranial nerves

The cranial nerves are the 12 paired sets of nerves that arise from the brain or brainstem and leave the central nervous system through cranial foraminae rather than through the spine.  Cerebrum The first and second cranial nerves derive from the telencephalon and diencephalon respectively and...
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Cranial nerves (mnemonic)

There are many cranial nerve mnemonics that can be memorable and rude/lewd. Either way, they can be helpful for remembering the names of the twelve cranial nerves, as well as remembering which nerves are sensory, motor, or both. Remembering cranial nerve names in order of CN I to CN XII: On ol...
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Craniopharyngioma

Craniopharyngiomas are relatively benign (WHO grade I) neoplasms that typically arise in the sellar/suprasellar region. They account for ~1-5% of primary brain tumours, and can occur anywhere along the infundibulum (from the floor of the third ventricle, to the pituitary gland). There are two p...
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Cranioplasty

Cranioplasty is the surgical intervention to repair cranial defects, and is mostly performed after traumatic injuries. The procedure is performed using different materials and techniques, with no consensus about the best option. Methyl-methacrylate is the prosthetic material most extensively use...
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Craniosynostosis

Craniosynostosis refers to premature closure of the cranial sutures. The skull shape then undergoes characteristic changes depending on which suture(s) close early. Epidemiology There is a 3:1 male predominance. Pathology Primary forms are either sporadic or familial. Secondary craniosynosto...
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Craniotomy

Craniotomy is a surgical procedure where a piece of calvarial bone is removed to allow intracranial exposure. The bone flap is replaced at the end of the procedure, usually secured with microplates and screws. If the bone flap is not replaced it is either a craniectomy or cranioplasty.  Classif...
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Creatine peak

Creatine is one of the compounds examined in MR spectroscopy. It resonates at 3.0 ppm chemical shift and is found in metabolically active tissues (brain, muscle, heart) where it is important in storage and transfer of energy. It tends to be maintained at a relatively constant level, and is predo...
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Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is a spongiform encephalopathy that results in a rapidly progressive dementia and other non-specific neurological features and death usually within a year or less from onset.   On imaging, it classically manifests as T2/FLAIR hyperintensities within the basal gan...
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Crista galli

The crista galli is a thick, midline, smooth triangular process arising from the superior surface of the ethmoid bone, projecting into the anterior cranial fossa. It separates the olfactory bulbs, which lie either side of it in the olfactory fossae of the cribriform plate. It serves as an anteri...
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Crossed cerebellar diaschisis

Crossed cerebellar diaschisis (CCD) refers to a depression of blood flow and metabolism affecting a cerebellar hemisphere occurring as a result of a contralateral focal supratentorial lesion, classically an infarct.   Clinical presentation Other than neurological deficits and other clinical fe...
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Cryptococcosis

Cryptococcosis is a fungal infection caused by Cryptococcus neoformans, a globally distributed fungus that is commonly found in soil, especially that containing pigeon and avian droppings. Infection is acquired by inhaling spores of fungus.  Epidemiology Occurs worldwide without any defined en...
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CSF cleft sign

The CSF cleft sign in neuroimaging can be used to distinguish an extra-axial lesion from an intra-axial lesion, and is typically used in the description of a meningioma. Classically, the cleft was regarded as representing a thin rim of CSF between tumour and brain parenchyma. However, it often ...
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CSF flow studies

CSF flow studies are performed using a variety of MRI techniques and are able to qualitatively assess and quantify pulsatile CSF flow. The most common technique used is time resolved 2D phase contrast MRI with velocity encoding.  Note, when referring to CSF flow in the setting on imaging we are...
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CSF rhinorrhoea

CSF rhinorrhoea refers to a symptom of CSF leakage extracranially into paranasal sinuses. It can occur whenever there is an osseous or dural defect of the skull base. Pathology Aetiology acquired chronic elevated ICP (pseudotumour cerebri) with medial sphenoid meningocoele formation traumat...
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CT angiographic spot sign

The CT angiographic (CTA) spot sign is defined as unifocal or multifocal contrast enhancement within an acute primary intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) visible on CTA source images and discontinuous from adjacent normal or abnormal blood vessels 1. It should not be present on pre-contrast images. ...
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CT cerebral venography

CT cerebral venography is a rapid technique which provides an accurate detailed depiction of the cerebral venous system. Indications Rapid diagnosis of cerebral venous thrombosis. Contraindications general CT contraindications such as pregnancy, claustrophobia, etc. iodinated contrast contr...
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CT cisternography

Computed tomography (CT) cisternography is an imaging technique used to diagnose CSF rhinorrhea or CSF otorrhea (CSF leaks), as CT allows the assessment of the bones of the base-of-skull.  Procedure pre-contrast CT is performed with thin slices 3-10 mL of an iodinated nonionic low-osmolar con...
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CT comma sign

The CT comma sign is a characteristic sign seen in head trauma. It is the presence of concurrent epidural and subdural haematomas, which gives the characteristic appearance of this sign as a "comma" shape.
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CT head

CT head tends to refer to a non-contrast study of the brain and surrounding structures. This page will contain information about CT head - when it is used and what it is useful for. If you feel like you want to add something, please do... it's just a login away. See also CT venogram CTA ci...
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CT head (an approach)

CT head review will likely be performed differently by the majority of radiologists. So, this is just a proposition of one way to read a CT head.  What it does do is make use of windowing to maximise pickup rate. With PACS, windowing appropriately is simple, and there is no excuse for not windo...
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CT head - an approach (summary)

CT head is a non-contrast CT and is performed for a variety of reasons. There are a number of ways to read and look at these scans, and these pages should give some help for what to look for. There is a lot to take in, with scans including thousands of slices. In all cases, there are a few impo...
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CT head (standard report)

A CT head standard report may not be applicable in all situations, but gives an idea of some of the areas to cover when reporting a CT head. Standardised reports are controversial and should be used with caution. Report Clinical details Headache with photophobia. Technique CT head without ...
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CT head (subdural window)

The subdural (blood) window can be used when reviewing a CT brain as it makes intracranial haemorrhage more conspicuous, and may help in the detection of thin acute subdural haematomas that are against the calvarium. It is a wider setting than the standard non-contrast window, and there are a nu...
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CT head (summary)

CT head is a standard test performed in the assessment of a heterogeneous group of patients who present with a wide variety of symptoms. CT is particularly useful because it is widely available and relatively easy to perform. It allows rapid assessment and diagnosis of a wide gamut of conditions...
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CT head (technique)

CT head technique describes how a CT head is performed. Technique The technique for performing a CT of the head depends on the scanner available and fall into two broad camps:  step-and-shoot volumetric acquisition (most common) Step-and-shoot Step-and-shoot scanning was the first describe...
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CT perfusion in ischaemic stroke

CT perfusion in ischaemic stroke has become established in most centres with stroke services as an important adjunct, along with CT angiography (CTA), to conventional unenhanced CT brain imaging.  It enables differentiation of salvageable ischaemic brain tissue (the penumbra) from irrevocably d...
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Cuneus

The cuneus is a wedge-shaped region on the medial surface of the occipital lobe. Gross anatomy Relations Anterosuperiorly the parieto-occipital sulcus separates the cuneus from the precuneus of the parietal lobe. Posteroinferiorly the cuneus abuts the calcarine sulcus which separates it from...
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Cushing response

The Cushing response/reflux occurs in the setting of raised intracranial pressure and is the triad of: hypertension bradycardia apnoea/irregular breathing
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Cyclopia

Cyclopia refers to a rare fetal malformation characterised by a single palpebral fissure and a single midline orbit. This orbit may contain either a single globe or two separate globe. Epidemiology The condition is thought to affect approximately 1 in 40,000 to 95,000 births (inclusive of stil...
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Cystic glioblastoma

Cystic glioblastoma is a descriptive term for one form of glioblastoma that contains a large cystic component, rather than being a pathological subtype.  Please refer to the main article on glioblastoma for a broad discussion on this tumour.  Radiographic features The main challenge in discri...
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Cystic meningioma

The term cystic meningioma is applied to both meningiomas with intratumoral degenerative cyst formation as well as those with peritumoral arachnoid cysts or reactive intraparenchymal cysts.  They should not be confused with microcystic meningiomas, a distinct variant, in which the cysts are mic...
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Cystic spinal lesions

A cystic spinal lesion can result from a number of disease entities. They include: Primary Chiari malformations Dandy walker malformation diastematomyelia spinal dysraphism certain skeletal dysplasias 2 achondroplasia tricho-rhino-phalangeal syndrome type I Acquired due to a tumour as...
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Cyst of the medullary conus

Cyst of the medullary conus is a rare benign ependymal cyst of the conus medullaris which probably relates to abnormal persistence and cystic dilatation of the ventriculus terminalis or "5th ventricle". This entity can be symptomatic and present in adulthood with bladder or bowel sphincter distu...
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Cyst with dot sign (neurocysticercosis)

The cyst with dot sign is seen in neurocysticercosis and represents the parasitic cyst with, usually eccentric, scolex. It can be seen on both MRI and CT at: the vesicular stage (CSF density / intensity cyst - denser / hyperintense scolex) and colloidal vesicular stage (enhancement of wall an...
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Cytomegalovirus encephalitis

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) encephalitis is a CNS infection that almost always develops in the context of profound immunosuppression.  This article focus on adult infection, CMV is also one of the most frequent prenatal infections. Please, refer on congenital CMV infection for further discussion on t...
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Cytotoxic cerebral oedema

Cytotoxic cerebral oedema refers to a type of cerebral oedema, most commonly seen in cerebral ischaemia, in which extracellular water passes into cells, resulting in their swelling.  The term is frequently used in clinical practice to denote the combination of both true cytotoxic (cellular) oed...
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Dandy-Walker continuum

Dandy-Walker continuum, also referred as Dandy-Walker spectrum or Dandy-Walker complex, corresponds to a group of disorders believed to represent a continuum spectrum of posterior fossa malformations, characterised by a combined posterior fossa cyst communicating with the fourth ventricle as wel...
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Dandy-Walker variant

Dandy-Walker variant (DWv) is a less severe posterior fossa anomaly than the classic Dandy-Walker malformation (DWM) and is considered being on the lesser end of the disease spectrum in the Dandy-Walker continuum. Terminology This term was created to include those malformations that do not mee...
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Dawson fingers

Dawson fingers are a radiographic feature depicting demyelinating plaques through the corpus callosum, arranged at right angles along medullary veins (callososeptal location). They are a relatively specific sign for multiple sclerosis (MS), which presents as T2 hyperintensities. History and ety...
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Deep brain stimulation

Deep brain stimulation is used in a variety of clinical settings, predominantly in patients with poorly controlled movement disorders. Although effective, its exact mode of function continues to be poorly understood 2.   Careful patient selection and target selection are essential if the proced...
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Deep cerebral vein thrombosis

Deep cerebral vein thrombosis is a subset of cerebral venous thrombosis involving the internal cerebral veins, often coexisting with cortical vein thrombosis or dural venous sinus thrombosis, and with different clinical presentations relying on which segment is involved. As such please refer to...
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Dehiscent jugular bulb

Dehiscent jugular bulbs are present when the sigmoid plate between a high riding jugular bulb and the middle ear is absent, allowing the wall of the jugular bulb to bulge into the middle ear cavity. Epidemiology The estimated incidence may be around 3.5-7 % of the symptomatic population (e.g. ...
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Dejerine Sottas disease

Dejerine-Sottas disease (also sometimes known as hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy type III or hypertrophic interstitial polyneuritis) is a rare hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy (HMSN). Clinical presentation The disease is characterised by an early-onset demyelinating neuropathy, ...
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Delta resistive index

The delta resistive index (delta RI or Δ RI) is a measurement that can be made when performing Doppler ultrasound. In preterm babies who have hydrocephalus secondary to intraventricular haemorrhage, the delta RI can be used to determine whether decompression of the ventricular system with a...
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Dementia with Lewy bodies

Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), also known as Lewy body disease, is a neurodegenerative disease (a synucleinopathy to be specific) related to Parkinson disease (PD). It is reported as the second most common form of dementia following Alzheimer disease (AD), accounting for 15-20% of cases at aut...
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Demyelinating disorders

Demyelinating disorders are a subgroup of white matter disorders characterized by the destruction or damage of normally myelinated structures. These disorders may be inflammatory, infective, ischaemic or toxic in origin and include 1-7: autoimmune demyelination multiple sclerosis (MS) Marburg...
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Demyelination

Demyelination is incorrectly often equated to multiple sclerosis, whereas in reality it is a generic pathological term simply describing, as the word suggests, the loss of normal myelin around axons in the central nervous system. This should be distinguished from dysmyelination where the formati...
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Demyelination protocol (MRI)

MRI protocol for demyelinating diseases is a group of MRI sequences put together to best approach these white matter disorders characterized by the destruction or damage of normally myelinated structures. These disorders may be inflammatory, infective, ischaemic or toxic in origin.  Note: This ...
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Denervation changes in muscles

Denervation changes in muscles can be observed in a number of settings. Radiographic features MRI in the very early stage, muscle signal may be normal earliest change is increased T2 signal (best seen on a fat saturated T2WI such as STIR) chronic changes are marked by muscle atrophy and fat...
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Dentate gyrus

The dentate gyrus is located in the mesial temporal lobe and forms part of the hippocampal formation, along with the hippocampus proper and subiculum.  The dentate gyrus receives fibres from the entorhinal cortex via the perforant path and projects fibres to the CA3 portion of the hippocampus. ...
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Dentate nucleus

The dentate nucleus is the largest and most lateral of the cerebellar nuclei, located medially within each cerebellar hemisphere, just posterolateral to the fourth ventricle 1.  It is part of the triangle of Guillain and Mollaret, connected to the contralateral red nucleus via the superior cere...
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Denticulate ligaments

The denticulate ligaments are bilateral triangular extensions of pia mater that anchor the spinal cord to the dura mater. They are formed by pia mater of the spinal cord coursing in-between the dorsal and ventral nerve roots bilaterally. They function to provide stability to the spinal cord wit...
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Denver criteria for blunt cerebrovascular injury

The Denver criteria are a set of screening criteria for blunt cerebrovascular injury (BCVI) in trauma used to reduce the need for CT angiography and its associated radiation exposure.  Screening criteria The screening protocol criteria 1,3 for BCVI are divided into signs and symptoms of BCVI a...
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Desmoplastic infantile astrocytoma and ganglioglioma

Desmoplastic infantile astrocytoma and gangliogliomas are a rare intracranial tumour, which despite their aggressive appearances tend to have a good prognosis and are considered WHO grade I tumours.  Terminology Previously considered separate entities, desmoplastic infantile astrocytoma and de...
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Developmental stages of the spheno-occipital synchondrosis

Developmental stages of the spheno-occipital synchondrosis take place in a number of predictable steps.  Fusion of the spheno-occipital synchondrosis was well underway by the age of 15 years and is complete by 17-18 years.  Fusion begins superiorly and progresses inferiorly. Persistence of a ...
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Developmental venous anomaly

Developmental venous anomaly (DVA), also known as cerebral venous angioma, is a congenital malformation of veins which drain normal brain. They were thought to be rare before cross-sectional imaging but are now recognised as being the most common cerebral vascular malformation, accounting for ~5...
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Dialysis disequilibrium syndrome

The dialysis disequilibrium syndrome (DDS) is a situation characterised by development of neurological symptoms caused by rapid removal of urea during hemodialysis. It develops primarily from an osmotic gradient that develops between the brain and the plasma as a result of rapid haemodialysis. I...
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Diaphragma sellae

The diaphragma sellae is one of the folds (or reflections) of the dura mater. It covers the sella turcica and forms the roof over the pituitary fossa 1. Gross anatomy The diaphragma sellae consists of two horizontal leaves of dura mater on the sphenoid bone. It extends from the tuberculum sell...
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Diastematomyelia

Diastematomyelia, also known as a split cord malformation, refers to a type of spinal dysraphism (spina bifida occulta) when there is a longitudinal split in the spinal cord.  Terminology Although traditionally it has been distinguished from diplomyelia (in which the cord is duplicated rather ...
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Diencephalon

The diencephalon is connected above and in front with the cerebral hemispheres; behind with the mid-brain. Its upper surface is concealed by the corpus callosum, and is covered by a fold of pia mater, named the tela chorioidea of the third ventricle; inferiorly it reaches to the base of the brai...
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Differential diagnoses for temporal lobe tumours

Most tumours of the CNS can potentially occur in the temporal lobe, but entities with a predilection for being diagnosed in this location include: pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma (PXA) ganglioneuroma ganglioglioma pilocytic astrocytoma dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumour (DNET) multinodu...
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Diffuse astrocytoma

Diffuse astrocytomas, also referred to as low-grade infiltrative astrocytomas, are designated as WHO II tumours of the brain. The term diffuse infiltrating means there is no identifiable border between the tumour and normal brain tissue, even though the borders may appear well-marginated on imag...
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Diffuse astrocytoma grading

Diffuse astrocytomas can be graded in according to a number of systems, the most popular being the WHO grading system. In general these grading systems focus on the presence or absence of a number of histological features 3: cellular atypia/anaplasia  mitotic activity microvascular proliferat...
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Diffuse axonal injury

Diffuse axonal injury (DAI) is a severe form of traumatic brain injury due to shearing forces. It is a potentially difficult diagnosis to make on imaging alone, especially on CT as the finding can be subtle, however, it has the potential to result in severe neurological impairment.  The diagnos...
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Diffuse axonal injury (grading)

Grading of diffuse axonal injury has been described histologically according to the anatomic distribution of injury, which correlated with outcome 1-3. The classification was first proposed by Adams in 1989 4 and divides diffuse axonal injury (DAI) into three grades: grade I: involves grey-whit...
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Diffuse brainstem gliomas

Diffuse brainstem gliomas, also known as diffuse intrinsic brainstem glioma (DIBG), is a term used to describe infiltrating astrocytomas, no longer recognised as a distinct entity in the 2016 update to the WHO classification of CNS tumours. It encompassed a variety of tumours, ranging from WHO g...
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Diffuse cerebellar atrophy

Diffuse atrophy of the cerebellum refers to degeneration/reduction from a previously normal cerebellar volume. Terminology Cerebellar atrophy slightly differs from cerebellar hypoplasia meaning the cerebellum was not well formed to start with. Pathology Aetiology Diffuse atrophy can result ...
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Diffuse cutaneous neurofibroma

Diffuse cutaneous neurofibromas are a rare neurofibroma variant, similar to plexiform neurofibromas which may be co-existent. Both neurofibromas and plexiform neurofibromas are discussed separately.  Terminology There are variable uses and some confusion about the distinction between plexiform...
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Diffuse dural calcification

Diffuse dural calcification can occur in a number of settings. These include parathyroid abnormalities hyperparathyroidism secondary hyperparathyroidism 2 tertiary hyperparathyroidism 3 renal failure ref nephrogenic systemic fibrosis 1 congenital syndromes basal cell naevus syndrome Dif...
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Diffuse glioma

Diffuse glioma is a term used to encompass a variety of tumours of the central nervous system, which histologically appear similar to glial cells, specifically astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas and oligoastrocytomas, ranging from WHO grade II to grade IV tumours 1. Importantly, it does not includ...
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Diffuse leptomeningeal glioneuronal tumour

Diffuse leptomeningeal glioneuronal tumour (also previously known as disseminated oligodendroglial-like leptomeningeal tumour of childhood) is a rare and only recently described tumour of the central nervous system included in the WHO classification of CNS tumours in the 2016 update 2,5. Morphol...
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Diffuse midline glioma H3 K27M–mutant

Diffuse midline glioma H3 K27M–mutant is a specific entity added to the 2016 update of the WHO classification of CNS tumours, that represents the majority of diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas, although identical tumours are also found elsewhere in the midline (e.g. brainstem, spinal cord and tha...
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Diffusion kurtosis imaging

Diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) is an advanced neuroimaging modality which is an extension of diffusion tensor imaging by estimating the kurtosis (skewed distribution) of water diffusion based on a probability distribution function. It provides a high order diffusion of water distribution and a...
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Diffusion-tensor MRI imaging and fiber tractography

Diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI) is an MRI technique that uses anisotropic diffusion to estimate the axonal (white matter) organisation of the brain. Fiber tractography (FT) is a 3D reconstruction technique to access neural tracts using data collected by DTI. Within cerebral white matter, water m...
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Diffusion weighted MRI in acute stroke

Diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) is a commonly performed MRI sequence for evaluation of acute ischaemic stroke, and is sensitive in the detection of small and early infarcts. Conventional MRI sequences (T1WI, T2WI) may not demonstrate an infarct for 6 hours, and small infarcts may be hard to app...
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Diplomyelia

Diplomyelia is a rare spinal cord malformation in which the cord is duplicated. It should be distinguished from diastematomyelia in which a single cord is split. Having said that it has been proposed that the term be abandoned in favour of split cord malformation, which encompasses both diastema...
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Disappearing basal ganglia sign

The disappearing basal ganglia sign is one of the early signs of a middle cerebral artery (MCA) infarction. It is defined as the loss of delineation of the basal ganglia, due to blurring of their grey-white matter interface and hypoattenuation, consequent to cytotoxic oedema at the time of an is...
Article

Dolichoectasia

The term dolichoectasia means dilated and elongated. It is used to characterise arteries that have shown a significant deterioration of their tunica intima (and occasionally the tunica media), weakening the vessel walls and causing the artery to elongate and distend. Epidemiology Dolichoectasi...
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Dopaminergic pathways

Dopaminergic pathways include: mesolimbic  mesocortical  striatonigral  tuberoinfundibular 
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Dorsal brainstem syndrome

Dorsal brainstem syndrome is a rare subset of hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy in neonates limited to the isolated involvement of the brainstem with sparing of the supratentorial brain. Due to its subtle imaging features it is often undiagnosed. Clinical presentation Injuries involving the teg...
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Dorsal columns

The dorsal columns, or posterior columns, are ascending pathways primarily concerned with sensory function. They are responsible for transmitting vibration, conscious proprioception, and fine (discriminative) touch 1,2. The dorsal columns are divided two tracts, which are discussed separately 2...
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Dorsal cyst of holoprosencephaly

The dorsal cyst of holoprosencephaly is a large cerebrospinal fluid cavity present in holoprosencephaly that occupies the area above the dorsocaudal aspect of the diencephalon. This communicates directly with the prosencephalic, telencephalic, or diencephalic ventricle. This cavity usually abuts...
Article

Dorsal dermal sinus

Dorsal dermal sinus (DDS) is an epithelium-lined tract from the skin to the spinal cord, cauda equina, or arachnoid. Pathology Dorsal dermal sinus is caused by incomplete separation of the superficial ectoderm from the neural ectoderm, resulting in a focal segmental adhesion. Later during emb...
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Dorsal horn

The dorsal horn of the spinal cord is one of the grey longitudinal columns found within the spinal cord. It primarily acts as the termination of primary afferent fibres via the dorsal roots of the spinal nerves. Gross Anatomy On transverse section of the spinal cord the spinal grey matter is d...
Article

Dorsal thoracic arachnoid web

Dorsal thoracic arachnoid web is a cause of focal thoracic cord distortion with resulting neurological dysfunction.  Clinical presentation Due to the limited number of reported cases the incidence of this condition may well be under-recognised. The cases reported have a variety of signs and sy...
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Double density sign (berry aneurysm)

Double density sign of berry aneurysms refers to the angiographic appearance of a small intracranial aneurysm projecting in front or behind a vessel of similar calibre. As such, the border of the aneurysm cannot easily be seen, but the extra contrast within it can be seen as a rounded area of in...

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