Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

2,156 results found
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Denver criteria for blunt cerebrovascular injury

The Denver criteria are a set of screening criteria for blunt cerebrovascular injury (BCVI) in trauma used to reduce the need for CT angiography and its associated radiation exposure.  Screening criteria The screening protocol criteria 1,3 for BCVI are divided into signs and symptoms of BCVI a...
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Desmoplastic infantile astrocytoma and ganglioglioma

Desmoplastic infantile astrocytoma and gangliogliomas are a rare intracranial tumour, which despite their aggressive appearances tend to have a good prognosis and are considered WHO grade I tumours.  Terminology Previously considered separate entities, desmoplastic infantile astrocytoma and de...
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Developmental stages of the spheno-occipital synchondrosis

Developmental stages of the spheno-occipital synchondrosis take place in a number of predictable steps.  Fusion of the spheno-occipital synchondrosis was well underway by the age of 15 years and is complete by 17-18 years.  Fusion begins superiorly and progresses inferiorly. Persistence of a ...
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Developmental venous anomaly

Developmental venous anomaly (DVA), also known as cerebral venous angioma, is a congenital malformation of veins which drain normal brain. They were thought to be rare before cross-sectional imaging but are now recognised as being the most common cerebral vascular malformation, accounting for ~5...
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Dialysis disequilibrium syndrome

The dialysis disequilibrium syndrome (DDS) is a situation characterised by development of neurological symptoms caused by rapid removal of urea during hemodialysis. It develops primarily from an osmotic gradient that develops between the brain and the plasma as a result of rapid haemodialysis. I...
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Diaphragma sellae

The diaphragma sellae is one of the folds (or reflections) of the dura mater. It covers the sella turcica and forms the roof over the pituitary fossa 1. Gross anatomy The diaphragma sellae consists of two horizontal leaves of dura mater on the sphenoid bone. It extends from the tuberculum sell...
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Diastematomyelia

Diastematomyelia, also known as a split cord malformation, refers to a type of spinal dysraphism (spina bifida occulta) when there is a longitudinal split in the spinal cord.  Terminology Although traditionally it has been distinguished from diplomyelia (in which the cord is duplicated rather ...
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Diencephalon

The diencephalon is connected above and in front with the cerebral hemispheres; behind with the mid-brain. Its upper surface is concealed by the corpus callosum, and is covered by a fold of pia mater, named the tela chorioidea of the third ventricle; inferiorly it reaches to the base of the brai...
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Differential diagnoses for temporal lobe tumours

Most tumours of the CNS can potentially occur in the temporal lobe, but entities with a predilection for being diagnosed in this location include: pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma (PXA) ganglioneuroma ganglioglioma pilocytic astrocytoma dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumour (DNET) multinodu...
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Diffuse astrocytoma

Diffuse astrocytomas, also referred to as low-grade infiltrative astrocytomas, are designated as WHO II tumours of the brain. The term diffuse infiltrating means there is no identifiable border between the tumour and normal brain tissue, even though the borders may appear well-marginated on imag...
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Diffuse astrocytoma grading

Diffuse astrocytomas can be graded in according to a number of systems, the most popular being the WHO grading system. In general these grading systems focus on the presence or absence of a number of histological features 3: cellular atypia/anaplasia  mitotic activity microvascular proliferat...
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Diffuse axonal injury

Diffuse axonal injury (DAI), also known as traumatic axonal injury (TAI), is a severe form of traumatic brain injury due to shearing forces. It is a potentially difficult diagnosis to make on imaging alone, especially on CT as the finding can be subtle, however, it has the potential to result in...
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Diffuse axonal injury (grading)

Grading of diffuse axonal injury has been described histologically according to the anatomic distribution of injury, which correlated with outcome 1-3. The classification was first proposed by Adams in 1989 4 and divides diffuse axonal injury (DAI) into three grades: grade I: involves grey-whit...
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Diffuse brainstem gliomas

Diffuse brainstem gliomas, also known as diffuse intrinsic brainstem glioma (DIBG), is a term used to describe infiltrating astrocytomas, no longer recognised as a distinct entity in the 2016 update to the WHO classification of CNS tumours. It encompassed a variety of tumours, ranging from WHO g...
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Diffuse cerebellar atrophy

Diffuse atrophy of the cerebellum refers to degeneration/reduction from a previously normal cerebellar volume. Terminology Cerebellar atrophy slightly differs from cerebellar hypoplasia meaning the cerebellum was not well formed to start with. Pathology Aetiology Diffuse atrophy can result ...
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Diffuse cutaneous neurofibroma

Diffuse cutaneous neurofibromas are a rare neurofibroma variant, similar to plexiform neurofibromas which may be co-existent. Both neurofibromas and plexiform neurofibromas are discussed separately.  Terminology There are variable uses and some confusion about the distinction between plexiform...
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Diffuse dural calcification

Diffuse dural calcification can occur in a number of settings. These include parathyroid abnormalities hyperparathyroidism secondary hyperparathyroidism 2 tertiary hyperparathyroidism 3 renal failure ref nephrogenic systemic fibrosis 1 congenital syndromes basal cell naevus syndrome Dif...
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Diffuse glioma

Diffuse glioma is a term used to encompass a variety of tumours of the central nervous system, which histologically appear similar to glial cells, specifically astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas and oligoastrocytomas, ranging from WHO grade II to grade IV tumours 1. Importantly, it does not includ...
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Diffuse leptomeningeal glioneuronal tumour

Diffuse leptomeningeal glioneuronal tumour (also previously known as disseminated oligodendroglial-like leptomeningeal tumour of childhood) is a rare and only recently described tumour of the central nervous system included in the WHO classification of CNS tumours in the 2016 update 2,5. Morphol...
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Diffuse midline glioma H3 K27M–mutant

Diffuse midline glioma H3 K27M–mutant is a specific entity added to the 2016 update of the WHO classification of CNS tumours, that represents the majority of diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas, although identical tumours are also found elsewhere in the midline (e.g. brainstem, spinal cord and tha...
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Diffusion kurtosis imaging

Diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) is an advanced neuroimaging modality which is an extension of diffusion tensor imaging by estimating the kurtosis (skewed distribution) of water diffusion based on a probability distribution function. It provides a high order diffusion of water distribution and a...
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Diffusion-tensor MRI imaging and fiber tractography

Diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI) is an MRI technique that uses anisotropic diffusion to estimate the axonal (white matter) organisation of the brain. Fiber tractography (FT) is a 3D reconstruction technique to access neural tracts using data collected by DTI. Within cerebral white matter, water m...
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Diffusion weighted MRI in acute stroke

Diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) is a commonly performed MRI sequence for evaluation of acute ischaemic stroke, and is sensitive in the detection of small and early infarcts. Conventional MRI sequences (T1WI, T2WI) may not demonstrate an infarct for 6 hours, and small infarcts may be hard to app...
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Diplomyelia

Diplomyelia is a rare spinal cord malformation in which the cord is duplicated. It should be distinguished from diastematomyelia in which a single cord is split. Having said that it has been proposed that the term be abandoned in favour of split cord malformation, which encompasses both diastema...
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Disappearing basal ganglia sign

The disappearing basal ganglia sign is one of the early signs of a middle cerebral artery (MCA) infarction. It is defined as the loss of delineation of the basal ganglia, due to blurring of their grey-white matter interface and hypoattenuation, consequent to cytotoxic oedema at the time of an is...
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Distal dural ring

The distal dural ring is an anatomical landmark that separates the extradural from the intradural intracranial internal carotid artery (ICA). It is located at the junction of the cavernous, clinoid and ophthalmic segments of the ICA. Gross anatomy Anatomy of this region is complex and varied a...
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Dolichoectasia

The term dolichoectasia means dilated and elongated. It is used to characterise arteries that have shown a significant deterioration of their tunica intima (and occasionally the tunica media), weakening the vessel walls and causing the artery to elongate and distend. Epidemiology Dolichoectasi...
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Dopaminergic pathways

Dopaminergic pathways include: mesolimbic  mesocortical  striatonigral  tuberoinfundibular 
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Dorsal brainstem syndrome

Dorsal brainstem syndrome is a rare subset of hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy in neonates limited to the isolated involvement of the brainstem with sparing of the supratentorial brain. Due to its subtle imaging features it is often undiagnosed. Clinical presentation Injuries involving the teg...
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Dorsal columns

The dorsal columns, or posterior columns, are ascending pathways primarily concerned with sensory function. They are responsible for transmitting vibration, conscious proprioception, and fine (discriminative) touch 1,2. The dorsal columns are divided two tracts, which are discussed separately 2...
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Dorsal cyst of holoprosencephaly

The dorsal cyst of holoprosencephaly is a large cerebrospinal fluid cavity present in holoprosencephaly that occupies the area above the dorsocaudal aspect of the diencephalon. This communicates directly with the prosencephalic, telencephalic, or diencephalic ventricle. This cavity usually abuts...
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Dorsal dermal sinus

Dorsal dermal sinus (DDS) is an epithelium-lined tract from the skin to the spinal cord, cauda equina, or arachnoid. Pathology Dorsal dermal sinus is caused by incomplete separation of the superficial ectoderm from the neural ectoderm, resulting in a focal segmental adhesion. Later during emb...
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Dorsal horn

The dorsal horn of the spinal cord is one of the grey longitudinal columns found within the spinal cord. It primarily acts as the termination of primary afferent fibres via the dorsal roots of the spinal nerves. Gross Anatomy On transverse section of the spinal cord the spinal grey matter is d...
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Dorsal root ganglion

The dorsal root ganglia are an enlargement of the dorsal root of spinal nerves representing the cell bodies of the primary somatosensory neurons. Gross anatomy Each dorsal root ganglion is oval and proportional in size to its related root. They are usually found just distal to the intervertebr...
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Dorsal thoracic arachnoid web

Dorsal thoracic arachnoid web refers to a thickened band of arachnoid over the dorsal aspect of the cord. It usually causes a focal thoracic cord distortion with consequent neurological dysfunction.  On imaging, it is characterised by a focal dorsal indentation and anterior displacement of the ...
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Double density sign (berry aneurysm)

Double density sign of berry aneurysms refers to the angiographic appearance of a small intracranial aneurysm projecting in front or behind a vessel of similar calibre. As such, the border of the aneurysm cannot easily be seen, but the extra contrast within it can be seen as a rounded area of in...
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Double density sign (osteoid osteoma)

The double density sign, also sometimes clumsily referred to as the hotter spot within hot area sign, is a bone scan sign of an osteoid osteoma. It refers to a central focus of intense uptake (the nidus) within a surrounding lower, but nonetheless increased uptake, rim. See also double densit...
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Double inversion recovery sequence

Double inversion recovery (DIR) is a MRI pulse sequence which suppresses signal from the CSF as well as from the white matter and hence enhances any inflammatory lesion. To obtain such sequence in 3T MRI scanner, two inversion times are required. TI1 which is used for suppression of CSF and usu...
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Double panda sign

The double panda sign refers to the combination of the face of the giant panda and face of the miniature panda (cub of the giant panda) seen on T2 weighted images of midbrain and pons respectively in Wilson disease. The midbrain face of the giant panda sign consists of normal intensity of red n...
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Down syndrome

Down syndrome (or trisomy 21) is the most common trisomy and also the commonest chromosomal disorder. It is a major cause of intellectual disability, and also has numerous multi-system manifestations. Epidemiology According to the world health organisation (WHO), the approximate worldwide inci...
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Dravet syndrome

Dravet syndrome, previously known as severe myoclonic epilepsy of infancy (SMEI), is a rare form of epilepsy usually presenting in the first 1-2 years of life. Clinical presentation The typical presentation occurs during the first six months to one year of life as tonic-clonic seizures in a fe...
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Dual rim sign

The dual or double rim sign is seen on MRI in approximately 75% of cerebral abscesses and is helpful in distinguishing an abscess from a glioblastoma (GBM).  On both susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) and T2WI it consists of two concentric rims surrounding the abscess cavity, outer one of wh...
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Duane syndrome

Duane syndrome, also known as Duane retraction syndrome, is a rare congenital disease characterised by non-progressive strabismus. It is caused by a variable degree of abnormal development of one or both 6th cranial nerves (CN VI). Epidemiology It presents during childhood and it accounts for ...
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Dumbbell appearance of spinal tumours

The dumbbell appearance of spinal tumours refers to a tumour which has both a component within the canal and a component in the paravertebral space contiguous with each other via a thinner tumour component traversing the neural exit foramen. The appearance can be seen in: spinal nerve sheath t...
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Duplicated middle cerebral artery

The duplicated middle cerebral artery is an anatomical variant in which there are two middle cerebral arteries (MCA) originating from the distal end of the internal carotid artery (ICA). Supply The duplicated artery supplies the anterior temporal lobe. Differential diagnosis It should not be...
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Dural arteriovenous shunts

Dural arteriovenous shunts (DAVS) are rare congenital arteriovenous malformations (CAVMs). On the basis of clinical and anatomical features DAVS have three different types: dural sinus malformations (DSMs) infantile or juvenile DAVS (IDAVS) adult DAVS (ADAVS)
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Dural ectasia

Dural ectasia refers to ballooning or widening of the dural sac which can result in posterior vertebral scalloping and is associated with herniation of nerve root sleeves. Clinical presentation Patients with dural ectasia may present with low back pain or radicular pain in the buttocks or legs...
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Dural enhancement

Pachymeningeal enhancement, also known as dura-arachnoid enhancement 4, refers to a dural and outer layer of arachnoid pattern of enhancement seen following contrast administration and may occur in the conditions listed below: infection intracranial tumour metastases intracranial hypotension...
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Dural masses

Dural masses can be the result of a number of different tumours and conditions, although meningiomas are by far the most common. The differential of a dural mass includes: meningioma haemangiopericytoma primary dural lymphoma Rosai-Dorfman disease solitary fibrous tumour of the dura EBV-as...
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Dural metastases

Dural or pachymeningeal metastases are a relatively common cause of dural masses, although they are less common than brain metastases and meningiomas. They can occur both within the spine and intracranially - this article is focussed on intracranial dural masses.  Clinical presentation Patient...
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Dural osteoma

Dural osteomas are a cause of focal intracranial calcification (colloquially known as brain stones). They are difficult to differentiate from an ossified "burnt out" meningiomas and ossification of the falx. Some reports are actually contradictory 1,4, suggesting that at least some lesions have ...
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Dural sinus malformations

Dural sinus malformations (DSMs) are congenital vascular malformations characterized by massive dilatation of one or more dural venous sinuses. This condition is typically associated with arteriovenous shunts (DAVS). Sub types There are two types of DSMs DSM involving the confluence of sinuse...
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Dural sinus occlusive disease

Dural sinus occlusive disease (DSOD) is an infective form of dural sinus thrombosis (thrombophlebitis) commonly seen in the setting of acute otomastoiditis. It typically presents with: severe headaches high fevers sixth nerve palsy - due to involvement of Dorello's canal altered conscious st...
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Dural tail sign

The dural tail sign occurs as a result of thickening and enhancement of the dura and is most often seen adjacent to a meningioma. Initially, the sign was felt to be pathognomonic of meningiomas, however as experience grew, it has become increasingly noted to be present in many other conditions,...
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Dural venous sinuses

Dural venous sinuses are venous channels located intracranially between the two layers of dura mater (endosteal layer and meningeal layer). They can be conceptualised as trapped epidural veins. Unlike other veins in the body they run alone, not parallel to arteries. Furthermore, they are valvele...
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Dural venous sinus thrombosis

Dural venous sinus thrombosis is a subset of cerebral venous thrombosis, often coexisting with cortical or deep vein thrombosis, and presenting in similar fashions, depending mainly on which sinus is involved. As such, please refer to the cerebral venous thrombosis article for a general discuss...
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Dura mater

The dura mater, also known as the pachymeninx, is the tough outer layer of the meninges that surrounds the central nervous system and is pierced by the cranial nerves, the internal carotid arteries and the vertebral arteries.  Intracranially it is formed by two layers: outer endosteal layer, c...
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Duret haemorrhage

Duret haemorrhage is a small haemorrhage (or multiple haemorrhages) seen in the medulla or pons of patients who are rapidly herniating.  Pathology Raised supratentorial pressure causes the brainstem and mesial temporal lobes to be forced downwards through the tentorial hiatus. As a result of t...
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Dyke-Davidoff-Masson syndrome

Dyke-Davidoff-Masson syndrome (DDMS) is a condition chararacterised by hemi cerebral atrophy/hypoplasia secondary to brain insult usually in fetal or early childhood period and is accompanied by ipsilateral compensatory osseous hypertrophy and contralateral hemiparesis. It is characterised by: ...
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Dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE) MR perfusion

Dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MR perfusion, sometimes also referred to as permeability MRI, is one of the main MRI perfusion techniques which calculates perfusion parameters by evaluating T1 shortening induced by a gadolinium-based contrast bolus passing through tissue. The most commonly calcu...
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Dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) MR perfusion

Dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) MR perfusion is one of the most frequently used techniques for MRI perfusion, and relies on the susceptibility induced signal loss on T2* weighted sequences which results from a bolus of gadolinium-based contrast passing through a capillary bed.  The most co...
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Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumour

Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumours (DNET) are benign (WHO Grade I) slow growing glioneuronal tumours arising from either cortical or deep grey matter. The vast majority are centred in cortical grey matter, arise from secondary germinal layers, and are frequently associated with cortical dy...
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Dysgenesis of the corpus callosum

Dysgenesis of the corpus callosum may be complete (agenesis) or partial and represents an in utero developmental anomaly. It can be divided into: primary agenesis: the corpus callosum never forms secondary dysgenesis: the corpus callosum forms normally and is subsequently destroyed Epidemiolo...
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Dysgerminoma

A dysgerminoma refers to class of tumour with germ cell origin This can refer to CNS dysgerminoma ovarian dysgerminoma See also germ cell tumours
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Dysmyelinating disorders

Dysmyelinating disorders are a subset of white matter disorders characterised by abnormal myelination 1. They are also known by the term leukodystrophy and are composed of a group of inherited conditions that are characterised by a defective structure and function of the myelin sheath 2. They a...
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Early DWI reversal in ischaemic stroke

Early DWI reversal in ischaemic stroke (also referred to as diffusion lesion reversal) is encountered early in the course of ischaemic infarction, most frequently in the setting of reperfusion within 3 to 6 hours of onset 1. In the vast majority of cases it is transient and does not represent tr...
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Eastern equine encephalitis

Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) is one of many viral encephalitides and results from infection with the eastern equine encephalitis virus. Clinical presentation Most patients have non-specific viral prodromal symptoms for approximately one week, including fevers, headache, nausea and vomitin...
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EBV-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, NOS

EBV-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, NOS (not otherwise specified) is one of the immunodeficiency-associated CNS lymphomas, usually seen in elderly individuals. Unlike other EBV-associated CNS lymphomas, these individuals do not have a defined cause for immunosuppression. It is believed t...
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Eccentric target sign (cerebral toxoplasmosis)

The eccentric target sign is considered pathognomonic for cerebral toxoplasmosis. It is seen on postcontrast MRI/CT as a ring enhancing lesion with an eccentrically located enhancing mural nodule. It is believed that this mural nodule is an extension from the abscess wall itself with inflamed ve...
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Ecchordosis physaliphora

Ecchordosis physaliphora is a congenital benign hamartomatous lesion derived from notochord remnants, usually located in the retroclival prepontine region, but can be found anywhere from the skull base to the sacrum.  Terminology There has been some controversy as to whether intradural chordom...
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Ectopia lentis

Ectopia lentis refers to subluxation or dislocation of the lens of the eye secondary to dysfunction or disruption of zonular fibres.  Pathology Aetiology trauma systemic and syndromic disorders Marfan syndrome typically upwards and out most common spontaneous cause 2 homocystinuria -  ty...
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Ectopic posterior pituitary

An ectopic posterior pituitary reflects a disruption of normal embryogenesis of the posterior pituitary and is one of the more common causes of pituitary dwarfism. Although it can be an isolated abnormality, numerous other congenital central nervous system malformations have been identified. Ep...
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Edinburgh criteria for lobar intracerebral haemorrhage associated with cerebral amyloid angiopathy

The Edinburgh criteria were proposed in 2018 in order to diagnose lobar intracerebral haemorrhage associated with cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) 1. They can potentially be used to rule CAA-associated lobar haemorrhage either in or out, but require external validation in other patient populati...
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Efface

Efface is a term frequently used by radiologists, most often in the context of CSF-containing spaces in the brain (sulci and ventricles). Unfortunately, it is often used incorrectly.  The word efface, in general English usage, means to cause something to fade or disappear 1,2. In the context o...
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Elevated prolactin (differential)

Elevated prolactin can be due to a number of causes, including elevated production/secretion as well as reduced inhibition.  Prolactin is controlled by numerous homeostatic mechanisms, with tonic secretion of prolactin inhibitory hormone (dopamine) by the hypothalamus having a dominant effect 1...
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Eloquent cortex

Eloquent cortex is a term that refers to specific brain areas that directly controls function, thus damage to this areas generally produces major focal neurological deficits. Examples of eloquent cortex are:  primary motor cortex (precentral gyrus) primary somatosensory cortex (postcentral gyr...
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Embryonal tumours with multilayered rosettes (ETMR)

Embryonal tumours with multilayered rosettes (ETMR) are rare small round blue cell tumour of the central nervous system and are one of the most aggressive brain tumours usually encountered in children.  Terminology Previously embryonal tumours with multilayered rosettes (ETMR) where known as e...
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Emergency CT head (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic which is used to read an emergency head CT scan is: Blood Can Be Very Bad Mnemonic Using a systematic approach will help to ensure that significant neuropathology will not be missed. B: blood look for epidural hematoma, subdural hematoma, intraparenchymal hemorrhage, intra...
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Empty delta sign

The empty delta sign is a CT sign of dural venous sinus thrombosis of the superior sagittal sinus, where contrast outlines a triangular filling defect (thrombus). It is only described with CECT-scan or MRI, not with NECT nor non-contrast MRI. An equivalent appearance can be noted in the transve...
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Empty light bulb sign in brain death

In brain death, on HMPAO-Tc99m imaging there is absent or reduced flow in the internal carotid arteries and increased flow within the external carotid arteries. This leads to absent uptake in the brain with subsequent increased perfusion in the nasal region. This appearance has been called the e...
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Empty sella

An empty sella, also known as an empty pituitary fossa, is a relatively common incidental finding and posed more of a diagnostic problem before modern cross-sectional imaging. In addition to being incidental, a well-established association with benign intracranial hypertension is also recognised...
Article

Empty thecal sac sign

The empty thecal sac sign or empty sac sign is when the thecal sac appears empty on MRI of the lumbar spine, best seen on T2-weighted images. If the empty thecal sac sign is present, a diagnosis of adhesive arachnoiditis can be made.​ Radiographic features MRI There is usually no gadolinium c...
Article

Empyema

Empyemas are purulent inflammatory collections within a body cavity. They are similar to abscesses, which arise within parenchymal tissue rather than occupying a pre-existing anatomical space. Terminology Colloquially, the term empyema is used to refer to thoracic empyemas but there are variou...
Article

Encephalitis due to herpesvirus family

Although sporadic viral encephalitis is most commonly due to herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) the extended herpesvirus family consists of many other viruses many of which can also infect the central nervous system. Encephalitis due to herpesvirus family include 1:   herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1)...
Article

Encephalitis lethargica

Encephalitis lethargica, also known as von Economo encephalitis, is a rare disease of unknown aetiology that affects the midbrain and basal ganglia.  Clinical presentation Symptoms are initially that of pharyngitis followed by lethargy, extrapyramidal movements (parkinsonism and dyskinesias), ...
Article

Encephalocele

Encephalocele, also known as meningoencephalocele, is a form of neural tube defect and a type of cephalocele where brain tissue and overlying meninges herniate out through a defect in the cranium.  Terminology It should be distinguished from cranial meningocele in which the lesion contains onl...
Article

Encephalocraniocutaneous lipomatosis

Encephalocraniocutaneous lipomatosis (ECCL), also known as Haberland syndrome, is a rare congenital neurocutaneous syndrome characterised by unilateral lipomas of the cranium, face, and neck, ipsilateral lipodermoids of the eye, and ipsilateral brain anomalies. The clinical features of ECCL ove...
Article

Encephalomalacia

Encephalomalacia is term given to describe softening or loss of brain parenchyma with or without surrounding gliosis, as a late manifestation of injury.  Clinical presentation asymptomatic  serve as a focus of seizure Pathology Encephalomalacia is the end result of liquefactive necrosis of ...
Article

Endolymphatic sac tumour

Endolymphatic sac tumours are very rare, locally invasive tumours of endolymphatic sac. Early detection of these tumours is critical, because early surgical intervention may prevent further hearing loss. Endolymphatic sac tumours do not metastasize but are highly locally aggressive.  Epidemiolo...
Article

Enlarged sella turcica (differential)

Enlargement of sella turcica can be seen in situations including the following: empty sella syndrome slight globular enlargement of the sella with no erosion, destruction or posterior displacement of dorsum sellae intracranial hypertension enlargement with erosion of anterior cortex of dorsu...
Article

En plaque meningioma

En plaque meningiomas refer to a specific meningioma macroscopic appearance characterised by diffuse and extensive dural involvement, usually with extracranial extension into calvarium, orbit, and soft tissues. These tumours are thought to have a collar-like or sheet-like growth along the dura m...
Article

Enterovirus 71

Enterovirus 71 is one of the viruses that causes hand-foot-and-mouth disease in children. It is an enterovirus, one of the picornaviruses. Infection with enterovirus 71 predominantly results in a vesicular rash of the hands and feet that follows a prodrome of symptoms including fever, vomiting ...
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Enterovirus rhomboencephalitis

Enterovirus rhomboencephalitis is the most common neurological complication of enterovirus infection 1. Clinical presentation Enterovirus rhomboencephalitis causes acute and severe neurologic disorders such as ataxia, nystagmus, oculomotor palsies, or bulbar palsy. In some cases, neurologic af...

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