Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

1,709 results found
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Squamous cell carcinoma in situ of the lung

Squamous cell carcinoma in situ (CIS) of the lung is considered a preinvasive type of non-small cell lung cancer.  In some situations, this histology can also be found around the bronchial stump margin after resection of bronchial cancer, when there is presence of CIS on histology in a bronchia...
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Squamous cell carcinoma of the lung

Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is one of the non-small cell carcinomas of the lung, second only to adenocarcinoma of the lung as the most commonly encountered lung cancer.  Epidemiology Squamous cell carcinoma accounts for ~30-35% of all lung cancers and in most instances are due to heavy smoki...
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Squamous dysplasia of lung

Squamous dysplasia (SD) of the lung is a type of preinvasive lung lesion and is considered a precursor to bronchogenic squamous cell carcinoma. It is sometimes considered a low end of the spectrum of carcinoma in situ (CIS) of lung 2.
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Srb anomaly

The Srb anomaly describes an anatomic variant of the ribs, in which there is partial to complete bony ankylosis of the first and second ribs.
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Stab wound (overview)

Stab wounds are a form of penetrating trauma that may be self-inflicted or inflicted by another person either accidentally or intentionally. They may be caused from a variety of objects and may occur anywhere in the body. Terminology Although commonly caused by a knife as well, slash injuries ...
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Stag's antler sign (lungs)

The stag's antler sign refers to upper lobe pulmonary venous diversion (cephalisation) in pulmonary venous hypertension or pulmonary edema as seen on frontal chest radiograph. The prominence of upper lobe pulmonary veins resemble a stag's antlers. It is the earliest sign of pulmonary venous hyp...
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Standard uptake value

The standard uptake value (SUV), also known as standardized uptake value, is a simple way of determining activity in PET imaging, most commonly used in fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) imaging. It is also known as the dose uptake ratio (DUR). As the name suggests it is a mathematically derived ratio of ...
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Stanford classification of aortic dissection

Along with the DeBakey classification, the Stanford classification is used to separate aortic dissections into those that need surgical repair, and those that usually require only medical management. The Stanford classification divides dissections by the most proximal involvement: type A: A aff...
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Steeple sign (trachea)

The steeple sign, also called the wine bottle sign, refers to the tapering of the upper trachea on a frontal chest radiograph reminiscent of a church steeple. The appearance is suggestive of croup, which should be obvious clinically. A corresponding lateral x-ray would show narrowing of the subg...
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Sternal body

The sternal body or gladiolus is the middle and largest of the three parts of the sternum.  It is formed by the fusion of four sternebrae which finish ossifying after puberty. Gross anatomy The sternal body is the longest of the three parts of the sternum and is widest near its lower end. It i...
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Sternal foramen

Sternal foramen (or perforated sternum) is a developmental variant of the sternum and results from incomplete fusion of the sternal ossification centers. They are common, occurring in approximately 5% of the population (range 4.3-6.7%). They are most commonly found in the inferior aspect of the ...
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Sternal fracture

Sternal fractures occur in ~5% of blunt chest trauma with the manubrium being the most commonly injured part. Clinical presentation Acute, severe sternal pain that is worse with respiration with localized tenderness. Pathology Mechanism of injury Fractures of the sternum can result from bot...
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Sternalis muscle

The sternalis muscle is an uncommon anatomic variant of the chest wall musculature and is of uncertain etiology and function. Its importance lies in that it should not be mistaken for a pathological lesion.  Epidemiology Cadaveric studies have shown that the muscle is present in ~5% (range 1-8...
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Sternal nonunion

Sternal nonunion is one of the post-sternotomy complications that can occur as a result of cardiothoracic intervention or trauma and be a morbid condition with serious sequelae. Patients often report pain with breathing, coughing, and/or movement. It can be infectious or non-infectious and may o...
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Sternoclavicular joint (anterior oblique views)

The anterior oblique projections of the sternoclavicular joints are complimentary to the front on PA view in the sternoclavicular joint series. The oblique positioning maneuvers the join of interest away from central structures to produce a clearer view of articulation. The side of obliquity pe...
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Sternoclavicular joint (PA view)

The sternoclavicular PA view is part of the plain radiographic series assessing the sternoclavicular joint. The projection produces a bilateral view of the sternoclavicular joints in the posteroanterior plane. Patient position the patient is preferably laid prone with arms resting above the he...
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Sternoclavicular joint (serendipity view)

The serendipity view is a specialized radiographic projection utilized in the setting of suspect dislocations of the sternoclavicular joint. The projection is seldom used in departments with functioning computed tomography, but still utilized in postoperative imaging. Patient position supine o...
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Sternum

The sternum (plural: sterna or sternums) completes the anterior chest wall as the ventral breastplate. Gross anatomy The sternum is composed of a manubrium, a body and the inferior xiphisternum (a.k.a. xiphoid process). They articulate via secondary cartilaginous joints via hyaline cartilage w...
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Sternum (lateral view)

The lateral sternum view a radiographic investigation of the entire length of the sternum in profile. The view is used to query fractures or infection 1. Patient position patient is erect with the left or right side of the thorax adjacent to the image receptor patient's hands are behind their...
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Sternum (oblique view)

The oblique sternum view a radiographic investigation of the entire sternum often complimenting the lateral sternum projection. The view is used to query fractures or infection 1. Patient position the patient is RAO facing the upright detector; the projection is performed RAO to project the st...
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Stove-in chest

A stove-in chest is a rare and complex type of flail chest injury where the flail segment collapses into the chest. It is usually due to severe blunt trauma to the chest wall and is rarely encountered in imaging or emergency medicine due to the high mortality at the scene. It may evolve over day...
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Straight back syndrome

Straight back syndrome refers to decreased thoracic kyphosis ("flattening") and decreased anteroposterior thoracic diameter, such that there is compression of cardiovascular or bronchial structures.  It should not be confused with flat back syndrome, which refers to decreased lumbar lordosis, o...
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Stridor

Stridor is a term to describe an abnormal, high-pitched breath sound produced by abnormal, turbulent air flow with respiration 1. It usually represents narrowing of the large, extrathoracic airways 2. Pathology Etiology Stridor can be caused by numerous conditions, but its presence may indica...
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Subacute hypersensitivity pneumonitis

Subacute hypersensitivity pneumonitis (a.k.a. subacute extrinsic allergic alveolitis) develops when hypersensitivity pneumonitis continues beyond the acute phase (i.e. continues for weeks to months) and still has the potential to resolve with treatment. While some publications suggest the diseas...
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Subacute invasive pulmonary aspergillosis

Subacute invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (previously known as chronic necrotizing aspergillosis (CNA) or semi-invasive aspergillosis is subacute to chronic localized and indolent form of invasive aspergillosis. It is also sometimes grouped under the term chronic pulmonary aspergillosis. Epidem...
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Subcarinal air cyst

Subcarinal air cysts refer to small air cysts that can be detected on a CT scan. They are thought to represent small main bronchial diverticula although the former term is preferred 2. They may be associated with chronic airflow limitation. Clinical presentation Patients are asymptomatic and t...
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Subclavian artery

The subclavian arteries are asymmetric paired arteries that supply blood to the posterior cerebral circulation, cerebellum, posterior neck, upper limbs and the superior and anterior chest wall. Gross anatomy Origin Right and left subclavian arteries classically have different origins: right ...
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Subclavian vein

The subclavian vein is the major venous channel that drains the upper limb. Gross anatomy Origin and course The subclavian vein starts at the crossing of the lateral border of the 1st rib. It then arches cephalad, posterior to the medial clavicle before curving caudally and receiving its only...
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Subcostal muscle

The subcostal muscle has variable anatomy and forms part of the intercostal muscle group. It lies on the deep surface of the innermost intercostal muscle in the posterior chest, near the angles of the ribs, usually running over 2-3 intercostal spaces. It is most common in the upper (1-4) and low...
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Subcostal nerve

The subcostal nerve can also be considered as the twelfth intercostal nerve. Some authors describe it as the first branch of the lumbar plexus. Gross anatomy The anterior division of the twelfth thoracic nerve, called the subcostal nerve, is larger than the other intercostal nerves. It runs al...
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Subcutaneous emphysema

Subcutaneous emphysema (or less correctly surgical emphysema), strictly speaking, refers to gas in the subcutaneous tissues. But the term is generally used to describe any soft tissue emphysema of the body wall or limbs since the gas often dissects into the deeper soft tissues and musculature al...
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Submassive pulmonary embolism

A submassive pulmonary embolism refers to an acute pulmonary embolism with evidence of myocardial necrosis or right ventricular dysfunction in the absence of systemic hypotension. An elevation in troponin I or T provides evidence of myocardial necrosis. Right ventricular dysfunction is defined b...
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Subpleural line

Subpleural line refers to a thin curvilinear opacity, 1-3 mm in thickness, lying less than 1 cm from and parallel to the pleural surface. Etiology dependent atelectasis of normal lung if seen in the dependent posteroinferior portion of lung of a patient in the supine position (disappears if pr...
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Subpleural pulmonary bullae

Subpleural pulmonary bullae are a location-specific descriptive term to describe pulmonary bullae occurring in subpleural locations. Many are considered to represent regions of paraseptal emphysema where the emphysematous spaces are greater than 1 cm in diameter 1. They may or may not contain se...
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Subpleural reticulation

Subpleural reticulation is a type of reticular interstitial pattern where the changes are typically in a peripheral subpleural distribution (i.e. adjacent to costal pleural surfaces, located ≤1 cm from the pleura according to some publications 4). Pathology It can arise in a number of patholog...
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Subpleural sparing

Subpleural sparing in thoracic radiology is a imaging descriptor usually used on cross sectional imaging (mainly CT) where the pathology that affects the lungs spares the extreme peripheral lung margin abutting the pleura - chest wall. It can be seen in a number of situations non specific inte...
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Subpulmonic effusion

Subpulmonic effusions are a pleural effusion that can be seen only on an erect projection. Rather than layering laterally and blunting the costophrenic angle, the pleural fluid lies almost exclusively between the lung base and the diaphragm. Radiographic features Plain radiograph The fluid ca...
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Subsegmental atelectasis

Subsegmental atelectasis is a descriptive term for a minor peripheral form of lung atelectasis. Terminology Some authors also term it discoid atelectasis or plate-like atelectasis due to its appearance. Pathology It is usually due to a lack of adequate inspiration, and not due to any underly...
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Substernal goiter

Substernal goiter (or retrosternal goiter) is an enlarged thyroid gland with intrathoracic extension. Terminology It remains unclear which goitres are to be termed substernal, but a recently proposed definition is a goiter that requires mediastinal exploration and dissection for complete remov...
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Sulfasalazine lung toxicity

Sulfasalazine lung toxicity is a rare and poorly understood entity, usually taking the form of eosinophilic pneumonia, for which only a handful of case reports can be found in the literature. Epidemiology Unknown but probably very rare. Occurred twice in a series of 774 patients treated with s...
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Superficial endobronchial carcinoma

A superficial endobronchial lung cancer may be defined as a bronchogenic tumor of any size with its invasive component limited to the bronchial wall. It may extend into the proximal bronchus and is often classified as T1 at TNM staging. It is one of the causes of more focal bronchial wall thicke...
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Superior accessory fissure

The superior accessory fissure is present in around 5% of individuals examined with CT 4.  Gross anatomy The superior accessory fissure of the right lower lobe is located in the same plane and posterior to the right minor fissure. It separates the right lower lobe into superior and basal segme...
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Superior cavoatrial junction

The superior cavoatrial junction (SCAJ), generally referred to as simply the cavoatrial junction (CAJ), is the junction of the right lateral border of the superior vena cava (SVC) and the superior border of the right atrium. It is an important landmark to recognize because it marks an optimum s...
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Superior mediastinum

Superior mediastinum is an artificially divided wedge-shaped compartment of the mediastinum located between the thoracic plane inferiorly and the thoracic inlet superiorly. The inferior mediastinum, comprising of the anterior, middle and posterior parts, lies inferiorly. Gross anatomy Boundari...
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Superior pulmonary sulcus

The superior pulmonary sulcus (or just the superior sulcus) has been variously and inconsistently used in the past to refer to various structures in the pulmonary apex, both extrapulmonary and also a groove in the lung surface itself. It is now the majority opinion that no such structure exists;...
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Superior thoracic aperture

The superior thoracic aperture, also known as the thoracic inlet or outlet, connects the root of the neck with the thorax.  Gross anatomy The superior thoracic aperture is kidney-shaped and lies in an oblique transverse plane, tilted anteroinferiorly to posterosuperiorly. It is roughly 10 cm i...
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Superior vena cava

The superior vena cava (SVC) is a large valveless venous channel formed by the union of the brachiocephalic veins. It receives blood from the upper half of the body (except the heart) and returns it to the right atrium. Gross anatomy The superior vena cava begins behind the lower border of the...
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Superior vena caval duplication

Superior vena caval (SVC) duplication is the most common form of a left-sided SVC, where the normal right-sided SVC remains. The right SVC, however, can be smaller in approximately two-thirds of such cases 3. Pathology Results from failure of the embryonic left anterior cardiac vein to regress...
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Superior vena cava obstruction

Superior vena cava (SVC) obstruction can occur from extrinsic compression, intrinsic stenosis, or thrombosis. Malignancies are the main cause and are considered an oncologic emergency. Superior vena cava syndrome (SVCS) refers to the clinical syndrome with symptoms that results from this obstruc...
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Suprapleural membrane

The suprapleural membrane, also known as Sibson fascia, is a dense fascial layer that is attached to the inner border of the first rib and costal cartilage anteriorly, C7 transverse process posteriorly and to the mediastinal pleura medially. It is flat and lies in the oblique plane of the thora...
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Suprascapular artery

The suprascapular artery is 1 of the 4 branches of the thyrocervical trunk (off the first part of the subclavian artery). It traverses inferiorly and laterally in the lower anterior neck superficial to the anterior scalene muscle and phrenic nerve before crossing the third part of the subclavia...
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Supreme intercostal arteries

The supreme intercostal arteries, or superior intercostal arteries, are formed as a direct result of the embryological development of the intersegmental arteries. These arteries are paired structures of the upper thorax which normally form to provide blood flow to the first and second intercosta...
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Surgical emphysema (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Surgical emphysema (or subcutaneous emphysema) occurs when air/gas is located in the subcutaneous tissues (the layer under the skin). This usually occurs in the chest, face or neck. Reference article This is a summary art...
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Swiss cheese sign (lungs)

The Swiss cheese sign has been used for the appearance on CT of fluid-containing pneumatoceles, that typically occur following pulmonary lacerations 1. They have also been described on CT appearances where there is pulmonary infection superimposed on emphysema 2. The pneumatocoeles appear as 'h...
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Swyer-James syndrome

Swyer-James syndrome (SJS), also known as Swyer-James-MacLeod syndrome and Bret syndrome, is a rare lung condition that manifests as unilateral hemithorax lucency as a result of postinfectious obliterative bronchiolitis.  Epidemiology The condition typically follows a viral respiratory infecti...
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Symptomatic pneumothorax (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Pneumothoraces (singular: pneumothorax) are collections of gas within the pleural space. If the pneumothorax is under pressure, it is called a tension pneumothorax. Reference article This is a summary article; read more i...
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Synchronous primary lung carcinoma

Synchronous primary lung carcinoma (SPLC) is a term given to the occurrence of two or more primary lung carcinomas within different portions of the lung in the same time period. They are thought to the carry the same pathophysiological mechanism as metachronous lung carcinoma (i.e. two or more ...
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Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion

The syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH or SIAD) (also known as Schwartz-Bartter syndrome) was initially described in patients with lung cancer who developed hyponatremia associated with continued urinary sodium loss. The result is often dilutional hyponatremia in whi...
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Systematic chest radiograph assessment (approach)

One approach to a systematic chest radiograph assessment is as follows: projection assessment of the technical adequacy tubes and lines cardiomediastinal contours hila airways, lungs and pleura bones and soft tissue review areas Following a systematic approach on every chest radiograph ...
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Systemic lupus erythematosus

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a complex autoimmune disease with multisystem involvement. Although abnormalities in almost every aspect of the immune system have been found, the key defect is thought to result from a loss of self-tolerance to auto-antigens. Epidemiology There is a stron...
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Systemic lupus erythematosus (thoracic manifestations)

Thoracic manifestations of systemic lupus erythematosus can be variable.  For a general discussion, and for links to other system specific manifestations, please refer to the article on systemic lupus erythematosus.  Pathology Pleuropulmonary manifestations pleuritis: considered one of the c...
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Takayasu arteritis

Takayasu arteritis (TA), also known as idiopathic medial aortopathy or pulseless disease, is a granulomatous large vessel vasculitis that predominantly affects the aorta and its major branches. It may also affect the pulmonary arteries. The exact cause is not well known but the pathology is thou...
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Takeuchi procedure

The Takeuchi procedure refers to a direct anastomosis of the anomalous left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery directly to the aorta was described in the 1970s and currently remains the procedure of choice. An intrapulmonary aortocoronary tunnel or baffle was performed by Takeuchi prior ...
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Talc-induced lung disease

Talc-induced lung disease comprises of a group of pathologies that can occur related to exposure to the mineral talc (hydrated magnesium silicate). Four types of pulmonary disease secondary to talc exposure have been defined, these are: talcosilicosis - associated with occupational exposure t...
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Talcosis

Talcosis is a type of pneumoconiosis and can be prevalent in intravenous drug users. It is one of the four recognized types of talc-induced lung disease. Pathology Talc (magnesium silicate) is used in the preparation of tablets intended for oral use, where it acts as a 'filler' and lubricant. ...
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Talc pleurodesis

Talc pleurodesis is one of the chemical methods of pleurodesis which is a procedure performed to prevent recurrence of a pneumothorax or recurrent pleural effusion in benign or malignant conditions. It involves achieving an area of adhesion between the parietal and visceral layers of the pleura....
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Talc pulmonary embolism

Talc (magnesium trisilicate) pulmonary embolism is a rare cause of non thrombotic pulmonary embolism. It tends to be more prevalent in patients with narcotic abuse. Clinical presentation Most patients are asymptomatic although dyspnea and persistent cough occur with severe talc exposure. Clini...
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Tc-99m DTPA (aerosol)

Tc-99m DTPA (diethylenetriamine-pentaacetic acid) (aerosol) is one of the technetium agents and is used in VQ imaging. Characteristics photon energy: 140 KeV physical half life: 6 hours biological half life: 1 hour normal distribution: lungs pharmacokinetics: aerosol deposited in bronhoal...
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Tc-99m MAA

Tc-99m MAA (macroaggregated albumin) is one of the technetium radiopharmaceuticals used in lung perfusion imaging. Characteristics photon energy: 140 KeV physical half life: 6 hours biological half life: 2-3 hours normal distribution: lungs, liver, spleen, kidneys pharmacokinetics: >90% p...
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Technetium agents

Technetium agents based on the technetium-99m (Tc-99m) radioisotope are frequently used agents in medical imaging. A radiopharmaceutical labeled with 99mTc constitutes a coordination complex in which ligands bond to a central atom of 99mTc by coordinate covalent bonds 4 . The radioactive techne...
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Tension gastrothorax

Tension gastrothorax describes a rare life-threatening condition caused by mediastinal shift due to a distended stomach herniating into the thorax through a diaphragmatic defect.  Clinical presentation Presentation is generally with acute and severe respiratory failure, with clinical features ...
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Tension hemothorax

A tension hemothorax refers to hemothorax that exert considerable mass effect. It often results from massive intrathoracic hemorrhage and often causing ipsilateral lung compression and mediastinal displacement.
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Tension pneumothorax

Tension pneumothoraces occur when intrapleural air accumulates progressively in such a way as to exert positive pressure on mediastinal and intrathoracic structures. It is a life-threatening occurrence requiring both rapid recognition and prompt treatment to avoid a cardiorespiratory arrest. A ...
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Tension pneumothorax (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Tension pneumothoraces are pneumothoraces under pressure. If the pressure gets high enough, the pneumothorax can compress the heart and great vessels, and even cause cardiac arrest. Clinical presentation Presentation is u...
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Terminal bronchiole

The terminal bronchioles are a continuation of the bronchi and are the last divisions of the conducting airways.   Gross Anatomy Terminal bronchioles are confusingly named, as they are not the final branches but rather the distal bronchioles that do not bear alveoli.  The first 19 divisions fr...
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Thalassemia

Thalassemia is an autosomal recessive hemoglobinopathy that originated in the Mediterranean region. The genetic defect causes a reduction in the rate of globin chain synthesis which causes the formation of abnormal hemoglobin molecules. The resultant microcytic anemia is the characteristic prese...
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Thalidomide induced interstitial pneumonitis

Thalidomide-induced pneumonitis is a rare from of drug-induced lung disease. It could be suspected in patients who develop dyspnea, cough, and fever after taking thalidomide, without a definite cause, with chest radiographs +/- CT shows supportive findings. Many publications suggest this is reve...
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Thickening of bronchovascular bundles

Thickening of bronchovascular bundles is a chest CT imaging feature that can be observed in a number of entities.  Pathology Causes Conditions that can result in bronchovascular bundle thickening include: sarcoidosis - see pulmonary manifestations of sarcoidosis 1 classical condition to giv...
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Third mogul sign

The third mogul sign can be seen on frontal chest radiograph in the presence of left atrial enlargement. It refers to an extra mogul or bump along the upper left cardiac silhouette just below the left main bronchus. The third mogul sign commonly represents the enlarged left atrial appendage, pa...
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Thoracentesis

Thoracentesis, commonly known as a pleural tap or chest tap, is a procedure where excess pleural fluid is drained from the pleural space for diagnostic and/or therapeutic reasons. Ultrasound-guided thoracentesis performed by radiologists has been shown to have fewer complications than blind thor...
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Thoracic actinomycosis infection

Thoracic actinomycosis refers to an uncommon indolent infection caused principally by the genus Actinomyces (higher prokaryotic bacteria belonging to the family Actinomyceataceae). Epidemiology While it is rare in general, the thoracic form actinomycosis constitutes ∼15% of the total burden of...
Article

Thoracic air leak syndrome

Thoracic air leak syndrome (TALS) is an uncommon late complication in haematopoetic stem cell transplant recipients with chronic graft verses host disease. These patient led to develop features of thoracic air-leakage (i.e. spontaneous pneumomediastinum, spontaneous pneumothorax, pneumopericardi...
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Thoracic amyloidosis

Thoracic amyloidosis can have different manifestations depending on the specific anatomic site: pulmonary amyloidosis nodular parenchymal amyloidosis  diffuse parenchymal amyloidosis  tracheobronchial amyloidosis pleural amyloidosis cardiac amyloidosis See also amyloidosis
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Thoracic anatomy

Thoracic anatomy encompasses the anatomy of all structures of the thorax. This anatomy section promotes the use of the Terminologia Anatomica, the international standard of anatomical nomenclature. 
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Thoracic aortic aneurysm

Thoracic aortic aneurysms are relatively uncommon compared to abdominal aortic aneurysms. There is a wide range of causes, and the ascending aorta is most commonly affected. CTA and MRA are the modalities of choice to image this condition. Terminology The normal aortic diameter varies based on...
Article

Thoracic aortic dilatation (differential)

There are a number of causes and mimics of thoracic aortic dilatation. Differential diagnosis senile ectasia hypertension post-stenotic dilatation, e.g. bicuspid aortic valve thoracic aortic aneurysm atherosclerosis (usually descending thoracic aorta) collagen disorders Marfan syndrome ...
Article

Thoracic aortic injury

Thoracic aortic injury is the most common type of traumatic aortic injury and is a critical life-threatening, and often life ending event.  Clinical presentation Approximately 80% of patients with thoracic aortic injury die at the scene of the trauma. In those who make it to hospital, clinical...
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Thoracic aortic stenosis (differential)

The differential for thoracic aortic stenosis includes: atherosclerosis aortitis (especially Takayasu arteritis) radiation coarctation pseudocoarctation Williams syndrome: supravalvular aortic stenosis congenital rubella syndrome: supravalvular aortic stenosis
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Thoracic cage

The thoracic cage refers to the skeleton of the thorax: thoracic vertebral column 12 pairs of ribs costal cartilages sternum
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Thoracic duct

The thoracic duct is the main lymphatic vessel for the return of chyle/lymph to the systemic venous system. It drains lymph from both lower limbs, abdomen (except the convex area of the liver), left hemithorax, left upper limb and left face and neck. Gross anatomy The thoracic duct is the supe...
Article

Thoracic duct embolization

Thoracic duct embolization (TDE) is a safe, efficacious treatment for chylothorax 1. Chylothoraces with a low drain output (<1L/day) are traditionally managed conservatively with dietary change, while high output (>1L/d) are managed with surgical thoracic duct (TD) ligation 2.Thoracic duct embo...
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Thoracic empyema

Pleural-thoracic empyema (commonly referred simply as an empyema) or pyothorax refers to an infected purulent and often loculated pleural effusion, and is a cause of a large unilateral pleural collection. It is a potentially life-threatening condition requiring prompt diagnosis and treatment. E...
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Thoracic endometriosis

Thoracic endometriosis is an uncommon location for endometriosis and the main cause of catamenial pneumothorax.  Epidemiology Most often occurs in the third and fourth decades of life 3. Clinical presentation Symptoms may include: catamenial pleuritic chest pain catamenial hemoptysis: when...

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