Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

1,708 results found
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Cheerio sign (pulmonary nodule)

Cheerio sign in thoracic imaging relates to pulmonary nodules with a central lucent cavity supplied by a patent bronchus as seen on CT 3. It is due to proliferation of (malignant or non-malignant) cells around an airway. They are so named because of their resemblance to the breakfast cereal, Che...
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Chemical shift ratio

Calculating the chemical shift ratio (CSR) is one way of differentiating benign thymic tissue from thymic neoplasms 1: CSR = (tSIopp / mSIopp) / (tSIin / mSIin) in = in phase, m = muscle, opp = opposed phase, SI = signal intensity, and t = thymus Using a cut-off if 0.849, CSR is 100% specific...
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Chen sign

Chen sign on chest radiography is the prominence of left basal pulmonary vasculature compared the right base seen in valvular pulmonary stenosis. It is due to the asymmetric increase in pulmonary blood flow to the left lung due to preferential blood flow into the left pulmonary artery after pass...
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Chest (AP erect view)

The erect anteroposterior chest view is performed with the x-ray tube anteriorly, firing photons through the patient to form the image on a detector positioned behind the patient. A detector can be positioned behind a relatively immobile patient. It is therefore an alternative to the PA view whe...
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Chest (AP lordotic view)

The AP lordotic chest radiograph (or AP axial chest radiograph) demonstrates areas of the lung apices that appear obscured on the PA/AP chest radiographic views. It is often used to evaluate suspicious areas within the lung apices that appeared obscured by overlying soft tissue, upper ribs or th...
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Chest curriculum

The chest curriculum is one of our curriculum articles and aims to be a collection of articles that represent the core chest knowledge. Definition Topics pertaining to the lungs, mediastinum, pleura, but excluding the skeletal structures (see musculoskeletal curriculum), heart (see cardiac cur...
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Chest (expiratory view)

An expiratory chest radiograph can be taken in either a PA or AP projection, and can also be taken with a mobile/portable unit. They are used to help detect small pneumothoraces (although sensitivity is not increased over inspiratory chest radiographs 1), and to assess for inhaled foreign bodies...
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Chest (lateral decubitus view)

The lateral decubitus view of the chest is a specialized projection utilized to demonstrate small pleural effusions, or for the investigation of pneumothorax and air trapping due to inhaled foreign bodies. Patient position the patient is laying either left lateral or right lateral on a trolley...
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Chest (lateral view)

The lateral chest view may be performed as an adjunct to a frontal chest radiograph in cases where there is diagnostic uncertainty. The lateral chest view examines the lungs, bony thoracic cavity, mediastinum, and great vessels. Lateral radiographs can be particularly useful in assessing the ret...
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Chest (PA view)

Posteroanterior (PA) chest view is the most common radiological investigation in the emergency department 1. The PA view examines the lungs, bony thoracic cavity, mediastinum and great vessels. The chest X-ray is frequently used to aid diagnosis of acute and chronic conditions.   Patient positi...
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Chest photofluorography

Chest photofluorography, also known as mass miniature radiography, is a form of diagnostic imaging known as fluorography, applied to the thorax. Historically it was used for mass screening for pulmonary tuberculosis. The imaging technique consists of recording a miniature photograph of the scre...
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Chest radiograph

The chest radiograph (also known as the chest x-ray or CXR) is anecdotally thought to be the most frequently-performed radiological investigation globally although no published data is known to corroborate this. UK government statistical data from the NHS in England and Wales shows that the ches...
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Chest radiograph assessment using ABCDEFGHI

ABCDEFGHI can be used to guide a systematic interpretation of chest x-rays. Assessment of quality / Airway The quality of the image can be assessed using the mnemonic PIER: position: is this a supine AP file? PA? Lateral? inspiration: count the posterior ribs. You should see 10 to 11 ribs wi...
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Chest radiograph in the exam setting

A chest radiograph in the exam setting is something that is almost certainly going to play a large part in a radiology registrars training. It is worth thinking of chest radiographs broken down by patient age: adult chest radiograph in the exam setting pediatric chest radiograph in the exam s...
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Chest radiograph preinterpretation (mnemonic)

A helpful mnemonic for chest radiograph preinterpretation is: POPIRAM Mnemonic P: projection, PA (Posterior-Anterior) or AP (Anterior-Posterior)? left lateral or right lateral? O: orientation, determine left and right of the chest x-ray P: penetration (of the x-ray), under- or over-penetrat...
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Chest radiograph zones

The chest radiograph zones are useful when describing the location of pathology on a frontal chest radiograph. The chest radiograph is a 2D representation of a 3D structure. Since the interfaces between the lobes are oriented obliquely, it is often not possible to determine which lobe pathology...
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Chest radiology for students (curriculum)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Chest radiology for students curriculum represents a core set of common pathology seen on the wards, usually during medical, or elderly care blocks. In chest radiology, the most important imaging tests to know about are: ...
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Chest (supine view)

The supine anteroposterior chest view is the alternative to the PA view and the AP erect view when the patient is generally too unwell to tolerate standing leaving the bed, or sitting 1. The supine view examines the lungs, bony thoracic cavity mediastinum and great vessels. This particular ches...
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Chest wall lipoma

Chest wall lipomas are benign fat containing thoracic lesion.  Epidemiology While they can occur at any age, they typically occur in older patients who are 50-70 years of age, and they are most frequent in those with increased an increased body mass index. Pathology They are well-circumscrib...
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Chest x-ray: ABCDE (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Chest x-ray review is a key competency for medical students, junior doctors and other allied health professionals. Using A, B, C, D, E is a helpful and systematic method for chest x-ray review: A: airways B: breathing (th...
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Chest x-ray airway (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Chest x-ray review is a key competency for medical students, junior doctors and other allied health professionals. Using A, B, C, D, E is a helpful and systematic method for chest x-ray review where A refers to the assessme...
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Chest x-ray - an approach (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Chest x-ray review is a key competency for medical students, junior doctors and other allied health professionals. Chest radiographs are frequently performed and a fantastic tool for making diagnoses of acute and chronic co...
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Chest x-ray: breathing (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Chest x-ray review is a key competency for medical students, junior doctors and other allied health professionals. Using A, B, C, D, E is a helpful and systematic method for chest x-ray review where B refers to breathing an...
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Chest x-ray: circulation (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Chest x-ray review is a key competency for medical students, junior doctors and other allied health professionals. Using A, B, C, D, E is a helpful and systematic method for chest x-ray review where C refers to circulation ...
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Chest x-ray: disability (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Chest x-ray review is a key competency for medical students, junior doctors and other allied health professionals. Using A, B, C, D, E is a helpful and systematic method for chest x-ray review where D refers to disability a...
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Chest x-ray: ET tube position (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Chest x-ray ET (endotracheal) tube position should be assessed following initial placement and on subsequent radiographs. Reference article This is a summary article; we have a more in-depth reference article, see ETT. S...
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Chest x-ray: everything else (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Chest x-ray review is a key competency for medical students, junior doctors and other allied health professionals. Using A, B, C, D, E is a helpful and systematic method for chest x-ray review where E refers to "everything ...
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Chest x-ray: initial review (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Chest x-ray review is a key competency for medical students, junior doctors and other allied health professionals. The A, B, C, D, E method is helpful for approaching a chest x-ray in a systematic manner. However, before ju...
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Chest x-ray lines and stripes

Chest x-ray lines and stripes are important to recognize on chest radiographs.  Lines are usually less than 1 mm in width and are comprised of tissue outlined on either side by air and typically represent pleural-covered structures within the middle and superior mediastinum 1,2: anterior junct...
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Chest x-ray: lines and tubes (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Chest x-ray lines and tubes can be easily assessed and should be the first thing that you look at when reviewing a chest x-ray. Assessment of their position is important, but they also give you an idea about how sick the pa...
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Chest x-ray: PICC position (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Chest x-ray PICC (peripherally inserted central catheter) position should be assessed following initial placement and on subsequent radiographs. Reference article This is a summary article; we do have a more in-depth refe...
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Chest x-ray (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Chest x-rays are performed frequently in the assessment of a vast number of sick (and potentially very sick) patients.  A chest x-ray can be performed in the radiology department (usually with the patient standing up) or b...
Article

Chlamydia pneumonia

Chlamydia pneumonia is a form of atypical pneumonia.  Pathology It is caused be the organism Chlamydophila pneumoniae (a species of Chlamydophila) which is  an obligate intracellular bacterium that infects humans. Radiographic features CT chest Non specific with overlap of features with pne...
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Chrispin-Norman scoring system for cystic fibrosis

The Chrispin-Norman score is used to provide a summative assessment of structural lung changes in patients with cystic fibrosis on plain chest radiographs. It is useful to monitor disease progression or treatment response and can be used to compare between different patients in research studies...
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Christmas inspired signs

There are many signs in radiology that are related to Christmas: snowcap sign in avascular necrosis snowman sign in total anomalous pulmonary venous return in pituitary macroadenomas snowstorm appearance in complete hydatidiform and testicular microlithiasis holly leaf sign in calcified pl...
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Chronic aspiration pneumonia

Chronic aspiration pneumonia is a form of aspiration pneumonia according time of onset. This can include changes caused by microaspiration or macroaspiration of oro-gastric content through time. Pathology This results from repeated passage of food material, gastro-esophageal reflux content and...
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Chronic beryllium lung disease

Chronic beryllium lung disease (CBD) or sometimes just simply known as berylliosis refers to lung changes that can be seen with prolonged exposure to beryllium which is an alkaline earth metal that is used in many different industrial applications. Epidemiology It is reported to occur in 2-5% ...
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Chronic bilateral airspace opacification (differential)

Chronic bilateral airspace opacification is a subset of the differential diagnosis for airspace opacification. An exhaustive list of all possible causes of chronic bilateral airspace opacities is long, but a useful framework is as follows: inflammatory sarcoidosis granulomatosis with polyangi...
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Chronic bronchitis

Chronic bronchitis (CB) is most commonly defined as the presence of productive cough for three months in two successive years in a patient in whom other causes of chronic cough, such as tuberculosis, lung cancer and heart failure, have been excluded. It can be an important pathological component...
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Chronic cavitary pulmonary aspergillosis

Chronic cavitary pulmonary aspergillosis (CCPA) is considered the most common form of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis. In untreated cases, this may progress to chronic fibrosing pulmonary aspergillosis.​
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Chronic eosinophilic pneumonia

Chronic eosinophilic pneumonia (CEP) is an idiopathic condition characterized by the alveoli filling with an inflammatory, eosinophil-rich infiltrate. Classically on imaging, it appears as chronic consolidation with upper zone and peripheral predominance. Epidemiology Most patients are middle ...
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Chronic exogenous lipoid pneumonia

Chronic exogenous lipoid pneumonia is a sub type of exogenous lipoid pneumonia.  Epidemiology Typically occurs in older patients but also has been reported in children as well as infants with usage of mineral oil as a lubricant to facilitate feeding. Can occur in patients without a predisposin...
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Chronic granulomatous disease

Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) refers to heterogeneous group of inherited immune deficiency disorders characterized by the inability to destroy phagocyted catalase-positive bacteria due to lack of NADPH oxidase which results in formation of granulomas in different tissues. Epidemiology It...
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Chronic granulomatous disease (pulmonary manifestations)

Pulmonary manifestations of chronic granulomatous disease can be seen approximately 80% of cases of chronic granulomatous disease, which is a disease characterized by multiple bacterial and fungal infections occurring as a result of a defect in the gene that encodes NADPH oxidase. The most comm...
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Chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis

Chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis (CHP) refers to hypersensitivity pneumonitis where there is radiological evidence of fibrosis and represents the end-stage of repeated or persistent pneumonitis 7. Pathology It is considered an immunopathological disorder occurring in susceptible individual...
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Chronic interstitial pneumonitis

Chronic interstitial pneumonitis is a broad descriptive term where an interstitial pneumonia has a prolonged course. It can arise of a range of etiologies. The term does not usually imply a specific radiographic pattern and includes UIP, NSIP or other pattern. As a general rule there is little o...
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Chronic lung allograft dysfunction

Chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD) is one of the late-stage post lung transplant complications. It is a clinical spirometric diagnosis characterized by an irreversible decline in the FEV1 of 20% or more relative to the highest post-transplant baseline representing one of the significant l...
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Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) represents a spectrum of obstructive airway diseases. It includes two key components which are chronic bronchitis-small airways disease and emphysema.  Epidemiology The most common cause has historically been, and unfortunately continues to be, smok...
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Chronic pulmonary aspergillosis

Chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA) is a group of chronic aspergillosis found in non-immunocompromised patients with prior or current lung disease (e.g. chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, mycobacteriosis or conditions such as diabetes). It can manifest as several forms 1. chronic cavitar...
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Chronic pulmonary embolism

Chronic pulmonary emboli are mainly a consequence of incomplete resolution of pulmonary thromboembolism. Radiographic features CTPA vascular CT signs include direct pulmonary artery signs complete obstruction partial obstruction eccentric thrombus calcified thrombus - calcific pulmonary ...
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Chronic suppurative lung disease

Chronic suppurative lung disease (CSLD) refers to a group of conditions which includes: cystic fibrosis  bronchiectasis primary ciliary dyskinesia This term is usually used in the context of pediatric patients.
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Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension

Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is a distinct subgroup of pulmonary hypertension that most frequently develops following massive or repeated pulmonary embolism. Terminology The term CTEPH should be used for patients with chronic thromboembolic disease and pulmonary hypert...
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Chronic unilateral airspace opacification (differential)

Chronic unilateral airspace opacification is a subset of the differential diagnoses for airspace opacification. An exhaustive list of all possible causes of chronic unilateral airspace opacities is long, but a useful framework is as follows: neoplastic post obstructive lymphoma lymphocytic ...
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Chylothorax

A chylothorax (plural: chylothoraces) refers to the presence of chylous fluid in the pleural space often as a result of obstruction or disruption to the thoracic duct. It may be congenital or acquired. Pathology Chylothoraces may present with variable pleural fluid appearance and biochemical c...
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Cicatrisation atelectasis

Cicatrisation atelectasis is a form of lung atelectasis which occurs as a result of scarring or fibrosis that reduces lung expansion. Cicatrisation atelectasis is classic in tuberculosis. The term is closely related to cicatrisation collapse when an entire lobe is collapsed from the same process...
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Circumflex aorta

Circumflex aorta is a rare aortic arch anomaly caused by retroesophageal crossing of the aorta to the contralateral side. A vascular ring is formed when a ductus or ligamentum arteriosum contralateral to the aortic arch connects the descending aorta to the pulmonary artery. Clinical presentatio...
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Clagett thoracotomy

A Clagett thoracotomy is a three stage procedure performed for treatment severe empyema and involves the resection of a posterolateral lower rib and the formation of an open window in the lateral aspect of the chest to allow continuous drainage and irrigation of the cavity with antibiotic soluti...
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Clear cell tumor of the lung

Clear cell tumors of the lung are rare benign pulmonary neoplasms that contain an abundant amount of glycogen. It is often classified under the spectrum of perivascular epithelioid cell tumors (PEComas). Radiographic features Usually seen as a rounded, smooth-walled, and peripheral parenchymal...
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Clothing artifact

Clothing artifacts, like jewelry artifacts, are a regular feature on imaging examinations, especially plain radiographs, but in general are recognized for what they are, either at the time the image is taken by the radiographer, or later by the reporting radiologist. The radiographer will often ...
Article

Cluster of black pearls sign

The "cluster of black pearls" sign refers to a finding on contrast-enhanced CT useful in differentiating sarcoidosis from other causes of lymphadenopathy such as tuberculosis, lymphoma and metastatic adenocarcinoma. The sign is depicted by the presence of multiple tiny round nodules (1-2 mm) di...
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Coal workers' pneumoconiosis

Coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP) is an occupational disease (type of pneumoconiosis) caused by exposure to coal dust free of silica (washed coal). Histologically, CWP is classified according to disease severity into simple (presence of coal macules) and complicated (with progressive massive fi...
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Coarctation of the aorta

Coarctation of the aorta (CoA) refers to a narrowing of the aortic lumen. Epidemiology Coarctations account for between 5-8% of all congenital heart defects. They are more frequent in males, M:F ratio of ~2-3:1. Clinical presentation Varies accordingly to the degree of stenosis and the assoc...
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Coccidioidomycosis

Coccidioidomycosis refers to an infection caused by the dimorphic fungus Coccidioides spp, usually localized to the lungs. This disease is not to be confused with the similarly named paracoccidioidomycosis. Epidemiology The most common forms of Coccidioides spp are Coccidioides immitis and Coc...
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Coin lesion (lung)

A coin lesion refers to a round or oval, well-circumscribed solitary pulmonary lesion. It is usually 1-5 cm in diameter and calcification may or may not be present 1,3. Typically but not always the patient is asymptomatic 1.  Differential diagnosis The differential diagnosis for such lesions i...
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Collar sign in diaphragmatic rupture

The collar sign, also called the hourglass sign, is a helpful sign for diagnosis of diaphragmatic rupture on coronal or sagittal CT/ MR images and barium studies. It refers to a waist-like or collar-like appearance of herniated organs at the level of the diaphragm. See also dependent viscera s...
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Colloid adenocarcinoma of the lung

Colloid adenocarcinoma of the lung is an extremely rare (i.e. only accounting for ~0.2% of all lung cancers) variant of invasive lung adenocarcinoma. Pathology It is histologically characterized by the presence of abundant mucus in the tumor with neoplastic cells seen floating in large pools o...
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Combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema

Combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE) is a possible new addition to a growing list of smoking-related lung disease characterized by the coexistence of usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) or nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP) with emphysema in smokers. Epidemiology It typically...
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Comet tail sign (chest)

The comet tail sign is a finding that can be seen on CT scans of the chest. It consists of a curvilinear opacity that extends from a subpleural "mass" toward the ipsilateral hilum. The comet tail sign is produced by the distortion of vessels and bronchi that lead to an adjacent area of round ate...
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Common causes of bronchiectasis (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember the common causes of bronchiectasis is: CAPT Kangaroo has Mounier-Kuhn Mnemonic C: cystic fibrosis or congenital cystic bronchiectasis (Williams-Campbell syndrome) A: allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) P: post-infectious (most common) T: tuberculosis (gra...
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Common variable immunodeficiency

Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is a condition that is associated with an impaired immune system. It is considered the most common symptomatic primary immunodeficiency, and is characterized by recurrent respiratory tract infections. Clinical presentation The commonest presentation is t...
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Common variable immunodeficiency (pulmonary manifestations)

Pulmonary manifestations of common variable immunodeficiency can be variable. The respiratory system is one of the most commenly affected systems in common variable immunodeficiency.  Radiographic disease spectrum CT chest bronchiectasis with interstitial lung disease (e.g. granulomatous-lymp...
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Community-acquired pneumonia

Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) refers to a pneumonia caused by an infectious agent that is contracted in the general population, and not whilst in a medical facility, or from contact with the healthcare system. A diagnosis of CAP may still be reached up to 48 hours post-admission to hospital...
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Complete tracheal rings

Complete tracheal rings are a rare, isolated tracheal or tracheobronchial anomaly resulting from abnormal cartilage growth, forming a complete ring and often causing airway stenosis. Clinical presentation Clinically, it manifests as respiratory distress in infants or mild symptomatic airway co...
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Complications of pulmonary interstitial emphysema (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic to remember the complications of pulmonary interstitial emphysema is that the most common ones begin with: pneum- Mnemonic pneumatocele pneumothorax pneumomediastinum pneumoperitoneum
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Compressive atelectasis

Compressive atelectasis refers to a form of lung atelectasis due to compression by a space-occupying process. Some authors describe it as a subtype of compressive (relaxation) atelectasis where the reduction in lung volume is greater than its normal relaxed state 1. Whereas others describe it a...
Article

Computed tomography of the chest

Computed tomography (CT) of the chest is a cross-sectional evaluation of the heart, airways, lungs, mediastinum, and associated bones and soft tissues. Two key methods of image acquisition include: standard CT with 5 mm slice thickness for mediastinum and gross evaluation of lungs high-resolu...
Article

Conditions with lower lobe predominance (mnemonic)

Mnemonics for conditions with a lower lobe predominance in chest radiology include: CIA BAD AS RASCO Mnemonics CIA C: collagen vascular diseases I: idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis A: asbestosis BAD AS B: bronchiectasis A: aspiration pneumonia D: drugs; desquamative interstitial pneumon...
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Conditions with upper lobe predominance (mnemonic)

Useful mnemonics to remember conditions with upper lobe predominance in chest radiology are: STEP BREASTS Mnemonics STEP S: sarcoidosis, silicosis T: tuberculosis E: eosinophilic pneumonia P: pneumoconiosis BREASTS B: berylliosis R: radiation fibrosis E: extrinsic allergic alveolitis...
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Congenital cardiovascular anomalies

Congenital cardiovascular anomalies are relatively common, with an incidence of up to 1% if small muscular VSDs are included. As a group, there is a much greater frequency in syndromic infants and in those that are stillborn.  Clinical presentation Broadly, congenital cardiovascular anomalies ...
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Congenital cystic bronchiectasis

Congenital cystic bronchiectasis is a rare entity, and as the name suggests is characterized by cystic bronchiectasis found in infancy 1. The term appears to have fallen out of favor, due to variable use in older literature. In most instances of congenital cystic bronchiectasis has what is now r...
Article

Congenital heart disease chest x-ray (an approach)

With the advent of echocardiography, and cardiac CT and MRI, the role of chest x-rays in evaluating congenital heart disease has been largely been relegated to one of historical and academic interest, although they continue to crop up in radiology exams. In most instances a definite diagnosis ca...
Article

Congenital high airway obstruction syndrome

Congenital high airway obstruction syndrome or sequence (CHAOS) refers to a rare, often lethal, congenital laryngotracheal condition and is primarily characterized by obstruction to the fetal upper airway. Pathology CHAOS can be of three possible types 2: complete laryngeal atresia without an...
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Congenital lobar overinflation

Congenital lobar overinflation (CLO), previously called congenital lobar emphysema, is a congenital lung abnormality that results in progressive overinflation of one or more lobes of a neonate's lung.  On imaging, it classically presents on chest radiographs as a hyperlucent lung segment with o...
Article

Congenital pulmonary airway malformation

Congenital pulmonary airway malformations (CPAM) are multicystic masses of segmental lung tissue with abnormal bronchial proliferation. CPAMs are considered part of the spectrum of bronchopulmonary foregut malformations. Terminology Until recently they were described as congenital cystic adeno...
Article

Congenital pulmonary lymphangiectasia

Congenital pulmonary lymphangiectasia refers to congenital dilatation of the lymphatic system. It typically presents in infancy. It may be isolated to lung or may be part of a generalized lymphangiectasia. 
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Congenital pulmonary venolobar syndrome

Congenital pulmonary venolobar syndrome is a condition comprising a rare group of cardiac and pulmonary congenital abnormalities occurring variably in combination. The abnormalities include: anomalous pulmonary venous drainage particularly scimitar syndrome with hypogenetic right lung pulmona...
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Congenital tracheomalacia

Congenital tracheomalacia refers to a diverse group of conditions which result in a dilated trachea with increased compliance. Causes include: cystic fibrosis: seen in up to 69% of patients 4 Mounier-Kuhn syndrome: idiopathic or associated with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (in adults) cutis laxa (...
Article

Congenital tracheo-esophageal fistula

Congenital tracheo-esophageal fistula is a congenital pathological communication between the trachea and esophagus.   Epidemiology Tracheo-esophageal fistula and esophageal atresia have a combined incidence of approximately 1 in 3500 live births 1-3,5. There is only a minimal hereditary/geneti...
Article

Congestive cardiac failure

Congestive cardiac failure (CCF), also known as congestive heart failure (CHF) or simply heart failure, refers to the clinical syndrome caused by inherited or acquired abnormalities of heart structure and function, causing a constellation of symptoms and signs that lead to decreased quality and ...
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Constrictive pericarditis

Constrictive pericarditis (or perhaps better termed pericardial constriction) is a type of pericarditis which leads to diastolic dysfunction and potentially symptoms of right heart failure.  Epidemiology No single demographic is affected as there are numerous causes of constrictive pericarditi...
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Continuous diaphragm sign

The continuous diaphragm sign is a chest radiograph sign of pneumomediastinum or pneumopericardium if lucency is above the diaphragm, or of pneumoperitoneum if lucency is below the diaphragm.  Normally the central portion of the diaphragm is not discretely visualized on chest radiographs as it ...
Article

COPD (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) is defined as a condition characterized by persistent air flow limitation that is usually progressive and associated with an enhanced chronic inflammatory response in the airways...
Article

Coracoclavicular joint

The coracoclavicular joint is a normal variant of the pectoral girdle, where the conoid tubercle of the clavicle appears enlarged or elongated, with a flattened inferior surface where it approximates the coracoid process of the scapula to form an articulation.  Epidemiology More common in Asia...

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