Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

1,794 results found
Article

Central tendon of diaphragm

The muscle fibers of the diaphragm converge and attach to the central tendon of the diaphragm.  It is a thin but strong layer of aponeurosis which forms an intergral part of respiration. Gross Anatomy The central tendon of the diaphragm is located near the center of the diaphragmatic muscle bu...
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Centrilobular lung nodules

Centrilobular lung nodules refer to an HRCT chest imaging descriptor for small 5-10 mm lung nodules which are anatomically located centrally within secondary pulmonary lobules. The term is applied on the basis of location of the nodule and not its morphology that is they may be well defined or p...
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Centrilobular micronodules

Centrilobular micronodules are an image descripter which refer to centrilobular nodules when the nodules are very small and present in a centrilobular distribution in the lungs. They are usually seen with a bronchiolitis and can blend into tree-in-bud opacities.  Image interpretation Postproce...
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Centrilobular pulmonary emphysema

Centrilobular pulmonary emphysema is the most common morphological subtype of pulmonary emphysema. Epidemiology It may be found in up to one-half of adult smokers at autopsy 1. Risk factors cigarette smoking Pathology The pathological process of centrilobular emphysema typically begins nea...
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Centrilobular region

The centrilobular region, in context of the lungs and HRCT, refers to the central portion of the secondary pulmonary lobule, around the central pulmonary artery and bronchiole.  See also HRCT terminology
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Cerebral hypoventilation syndrome

Cerebral hypoventilation syndrome refers to a congenital condition characterized by hypoventilation during sleep with no other abnormalities of the cardiorespiratory system. There is a decrease in the depth of breathing. It is also known as central sleep apnea, congenital central hypoventilatio...
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Cervical aortic arch

Cervical aortic arches are a rare aortic arch anomaly characterized by an elongated, high-lying aortic arch extending at or above the level of the medial ends of the clavicles. Clinical presentation Patients with cervical aortic arch are usually asymptomatic. Symptomatic patients may present w...
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Cervical rib

Cervical ribs are supernumerary or accessory ribs arising from the seventh cervical vertebra. They occur in ~0.5% of the population, are usually bilateral, but often asymmetric 2, and are more common in females. Related pathology Although cervical ribs are usually asymptomatic, they are the mo...
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Cervicothoracic sign

The cervicothoracic sign is a variation of the silhouette sign on frontal chest radiography used to determine whether a superior (para)mediastinal soft tissue mass is anterior or posterior to the trachea. A positive cervicothoracic sign occurs when a thoracic lesion contacts the neck or extends...
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Chang sign (pulmonary embolism)

The Chang sign refers to the dilatation and abrupt change in caliber of the main pulmonary artery due to pulmonary embolism 1. It is one of several described signs of pulmonary embolus on chest radiographs. History and etymology It is named after C H Joseph Chang, (July 7 1929 - November 15 20...
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Charcot-Leyden crystals

Charcot-Leyden crystals consist of collections of bipyramidal crystalloid made up of eosinophilic membrane proteins, which occur in:  asthma other eosinophilic lung disease 2 certain cases of sinusitis (e.g. allergic fungal sinusitis) They may be detected in the sputum or sinus secretions wi...
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Cheerio sign (disambiguation)

The Cheerio sign has been described in two different scenarios: Cheerio sign (pulmonary nodule) Cheerio sign (shoulder)
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Cheerio sign (pulmonary nodule)

Cheerio sign in thoracic imaging relates to pulmonary nodules with a central lucent cavity supplied by a patent bronchus as seen on CT 3. It is due to proliferation of (malignant or non-malignant) cells around an airway. They are so named because of their resemblance to the breakfast cereal, Che...
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Cheese workers' lung

Cheese workers' lung is a rare hypersensitivity pneumonitis due to the exposure of certain Penicillium species seen in people who work with mouldy cheese. Clinical presentation It can present as an acute pulmonary illness with fever and dyspnea. Clinical features are consistent with other form...
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Chemical shift ratio

Calculating the chemical shift ratio (CSR) is one way of differentiating benign thymic tissue from thymic neoplasms 1: CSR = (tSIopp / mSIopp) / (tSIin / mSIin) in = in phase, m = muscle, opp = opposed phase, SI = signal intensity, and t = thymus Using a cut-off if 0.849, CSR is 100% specific...
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Chen sign

Chen sign on chest radiography is the prominence of the left basal pulmonary vasculature, compared to the right, seen in valvular pulmonary stenosis. It is due to the asymmetric increase in pulmonary blood flow to the left lung due to preferential blood flow into the left pulmonary artery after ...
Article

Chest (AP erect view)

The erect anteroposterior chest view is performed with the x-ray tube anteriorly, firing photons through the patient to form the image on a detector positioned behind the patient. A detector can be positioned behind a relatively immobile patient.  Indications The erect anteroposterior chest vi...
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Chest (AP lordotic view)

The AP lordotic chest radiograph (or AP axial chest radiograph) demonstrates areas of the lung apices that appear obscured on the PA/AP chest radiographic views. Indication The AP lordotic projection is often used to evaluate suspicious areas within the lung apices that appeared obscured by ov...
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Chest curriculum

The chest curriculum is one of our curriculum articles and aims to be a collection of articles that represent the core chest knowledge. Definition Topics pertaining to the lungs, mediastinum, pleura, but excluding the skeletal structures (see musculoskeletal curriculum), heart (see cardiac cur...
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Chest (expiratory view)

An expiratory chest radiograph can be taken in either a PA or AP projection, and can also be taken with a mobile/portable unit.  Chest radiographs may inadvertently be acquired in expiration (instead of inspiration), and this will affect interpretation with the cardiac silhouette appearing enla...
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Chest (lateral decubitus view)

The lateral decubitus view of the chest is a specialized projection rarely utilized with the commonality of CT.  It is chiefly used in the pediatric population. Indication Undertaken to demonstrate small pleural effusions, or for the investigation of pneumothorax and air trapping due to inhale...
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Chest (lateral view)

The lateral chest view examines the lungs, bony thoracic cavity, mediastinum, and great vessels. Indications This orthogonal view to a frontal chest radiograph may be performed as an adjunct in cases where there is diagnostic uncertainty. The lateral chest view can be particularly useful in as...
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Chest (PA view)

The posteroanterior (PA) chest view examines the lungs, bony thoracic cavity, mediastinum and great vessels. Indications The chest x-ray is the most common radiological investigation in the emergency department 1. The PA view is frequently used to aid in diagnosing a range of acute and chronic...
Article

Chest photofluorography

Chest photofluorography, also known as mass miniature radiography, is a form of diagnostic imaging known as fluorography, applied to the thorax. Historically it was used for mass screening for pulmonary tuberculosis. The imaging technique consists of recording a miniature photograph of the scre...
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Chest radiograph

The chest radiograph (also known as the chest x-ray or CXR) is anecdotally thought to be the most frequently-performed radiological investigation globally although no published data is known to corroborate this. UK government statistical data from the NHS in England and Wales shows that the ches...
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Chest radiograph assessment using ABCDEFGHI

ABCDEFGHI can be used to guide a systematic interpretation of chest x-rays. Assessment of quality / Airway The quality of the image can be assessed using the mnemonic PIER: position: is this a supine AP file? PA? Lateral? inspiration: count the posterior ribs. You should see 10 to 11 ribs wi...
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Chest radiograph in the exam setting

A chest radiograph in the exam setting is something that is almost certainly going to play a large part in a radiology registrars training. It is worth thinking of chest radiographs broken down by patient age: adult chest radiograph in the exam setting pediatric chest radiograph in the exam s...
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Chest radiograph preinterpretation (mnemonic)

A helpful mnemonic for chest radiograph preinterpretation is: POPIRAM Mnemonic P: projection, PA (Posterior-Anterior) or AP (Anterior-Posterior)? left lateral or right lateral? O: orientation, determine left and right of the chest x-ray P: penetration (of the x-ray), under- or over-penetrat...
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Chest radiograph zones

The chest radiograph zones are useful when describing the location of pathology on a frontal chest radiograph. The chest radiograph is a 2D representation of a 3D structure. Since the interfaces between the lobes are oriented obliquely, it is often not possible to determine which lobe pathology...
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Chest radiology for students (curriculum)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Chest radiology for students curriculum represents a core set of common pathology seen on the wards, usually during medical, or elderly care blocks. In chest radiology, the most important imaging tests to know about are: ...
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Chest (supine view)

The supine anteroposterior chest view is the alternative to the PA view and the AP erect view when the patient is generally too unwell to tolerate standing, leaving the bed, or sitting 1. The supine view is of lesser quality than both the AP erect and the PA view for many reasons, yet sometimes ...
Article

Chest wall lipoma

Chest wall lipomas are benign fat containing thoracic lesion.  Epidemiology While they can occur at any age, they typically occur in older patients who are 50-70 years of age, and they are most frequent in those with increased an increased body mass index. Pathology They are well-circumscrib...
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Chest x-ray: ABCDE (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Chest x-ray review is a key competency for medical students, junior doctors and other allied health professionals. Using A, B, C, D, E is a helpful and systematic method for chest x-ray review: A: airways B: breathing (th...
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Chest x-ray airway (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Chest x-ray review is a key competency for medical students, junior doctors and other allied health professionals. Using A, B, C, D, E is a helpful and systematic method for chest x-ray review where A refers to the assessme...
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Chest x-ray - an approach (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Chest x-ray review is a key competency for medical students, junior doctors and other allied health professionals. Chest radiographs are frequently performed and a fantastic tool for making diagnoses of acute and chronic co...
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Chest x-ray: breathing (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Chest x-ray review is a key competency for medical students, junior doctors and other allied health professionals. Using A, B, C, D, E is a helpful and systematic method for chest x-ray review where B refers to breathing an...
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Chest x-ray: circulation (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Chest x-ray review is a key competency for medical students, junior doctors and other allied health professionals. Using A, B, C, D, E is a helpful and systematic method for chest x-ray review where C refers to circulation ...
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Chest x-ray: disability (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Chest x-ray review is a key competency for medical students, junior doctors and other allied health professionals. Using A, B, C, D, E is a helpful and systematic method for chest x-ray review where D refers to disability a...
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Chest x-ray: ET tube position (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Chest x-ray ET (endotracheal) tube position should be assessed following initial placement and on subsequent radiographs. Reference article This is a summary article; we have a more in-depth reference article, see ETT. S...
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Chest x-ray: everything else (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Chest x-ray review is a key competency for medical students, junior doctors and other allied health professionals. Using A, B, C, D, E is a helpful and systematic method for chest x-ray review where E refers to "everything ...
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Chest x-ray: initial review (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Chest x-ray review is a key competency for medical students, junior doctors and other allied health professionals. The A, B, C, D, E method is helpful for approaching a chest x-ray in a systematic manner. However, before ju...
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Chest x-ray lines and stripes

Chest x-ray lines and stripes are important to recognize on chest radiographs.  Lines are usually less than 1 mm in width and are comprised of tissue outlined on either side by air and typically represent pleural-covered structures within the middle and superior mediastinum 1,2: anterior junct...
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Chest x-ray: lines and tubes (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Chest x-ray lines and tubes can be easily assessed and should be the first thing that you look at when reviewing a chest x-ray. Assessment of their position is important, but they also give you an idea about how sick the pa...
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Chest x-ray: PICC position (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Chest x-ray PICC (peripherally inserted central catheter) position should be assessed following initial placement and on subsequent radiographs. Reference article This is a summary article; we do have a more in-depth refe...
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Chest x-ray (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Chest x-rays are performed frequently in the assessment of a vast number of sick (and potentially very sick) patients.  A chest x-ray can be performed in the radiology department (usually with the patient standing up) or b...
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Chlamydia pneumonia

Chlamydia pneumonia is a form of atypical pneumonia.  Pathology It is caused be the organism Chlamydophila pneumoniae (a species of Chlamydophila) which is  an obligate intracellular bacterium that infects humans. Radiographic features CT chest Non specific with overlap of features with pne...
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Chrispin-Norman scoring system for cystic fibrosis

The Chrispin-Norman score is used to provide a summative assessment of structural lung changes in patients with cystic fibrosis on plain chest radiographs. It is useful to monitor disease progression or treatment response and can be used to compare between different patients in research studies...
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Christmas inspired signs

There are many signs in radiology that are related to Christmas: snowcap sign in avascular necrosis snowman sign in total anomalous pulmonary venous return in pituitary macroadenomas snowstorm appearance in complete hydatidiform and testicular microlithiasis holly leaf sign in calcified pl...
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Chronic aspiration pneumonia

Chronic aspiration pneumonia occurs when recurrent episodes of aspirated particles lead to chronic granulomatous inflammation of the airways and lungs.  This article will focus on the chronic form of aspiration (c.f. acute aspiration pneumonia), for a broader discussion, please, refer to the pa...
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Chronic beryllium lung disease

Chronic beryllium lung disease (CBD) or sometimes just simply known as berylliosis refers to lung changes that can be seen with prolonged exposure to beryllium which is an alkaline earth metal that is used in many different industrial applications. Epidemiology It is reported to occur in 2-5% ...
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Chronic bilateral airspace opacification (differential)

Chronic bilateral airspace opacification is a subset of the differential diagnosis for airspace opacification. An exhaustive list of all possible causes of chronic bilateral airspace opacities is long, but a useful framework is as follows: inflammatory sarcoidosis granulomatosis with polyangi...
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Chronic bronchitis

Chronic bronchitis is most commonly defined as the presence of productive cough for three months in two successive years in a patient in whom other causes of chronic cough, such as tuberculosis, lung cancer and heart failure, have been excluded. It can be an important pathological component of c...
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Chronic cavitary pulmonary aspergillosis

Chronic cavitary pulmonary aspergillosis (CCPA) is considered the most common form of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis. In untreated cases, this may progress to chronic fibrosing pulmonary aspergillosis.​
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Chronic eosinophilic pneumonia

Chronic eosinophilic pneumonia (CEP) is an idiopathic condition characterized by the alveoli filling with an inflammatory, eosinophil-rich infiltrate. Classically on imaging, it appears as chronic consolidation with upper zone and peripheral predominance. Epidemiology Most patients are middle ...
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Chronic exogenous lipoid pneumonia

Chronic exogenous lipoid pneumonia is a sub type of exogenous lipoid pneumonia.  Epidemiology Typically occurs in older patients but also has been reported in children as well as infants with usage of mineral oil as a lubricant to facilitate feeding. Can occur in patients without a predisposin...
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Chronic granulomatous disease

Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) refers to a heterogeneous group of inherited immune deficiency disorders characterized by the inability to destroy phagocytosed catalase-positive bacteria due to a lack of NADPH oxidase which results in formation of granulomas in different tissues. Epidemiolo...
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Chronic granulomatous disease (pulmonary manifestations)

Pulmonary manifestations of chronic granulomatous disease can be seen in approximately 80% of cases of chronic granulomatous disease, which is a disease characterized by multiple bacterial and fungal infections occurring as a result of a defect in the gene that encodes NADPH oxidase. The most c...
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Chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis

Chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis (CHP) refers to hypersensitivity pneumonitis where there is radiological evidence of fibrosis and represents the end-stage of repeated or persistent pneumonitis 7. Pathology It is considered an immunopathological disorder occurring in susceptible individual...
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Chronic interstitial pneumonitis

Chronic interstitial pneumonitis is a broad descriptive term where an interstitial pneumonia has a prolonged course. It can arise of a range of etiologies. The term does not usually imply a specific radiographic pattern and includes UIP, NSIP or other pattern. As a general rule there is little o...
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Chronic lung allograft dysfunction

Chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD) is one of the late-stage post lung transplant complications. It is a clinical spirometric diagnosis characterized by an irreversible decline in the FEV1 of 20% or more relative to the highest post-transplant baseline representing one of the significant l...
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Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) represents a spectrum of obstructive airway diseases. It includes two key components which are chronic bronchitis-small airways disease and emphysema.  Epidemiology The most common cause has historically been, and unfortunately continues to be, smok...
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Chronic pulmonary aspergillosis

Chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA) is a group of chronic aspergillosis found in non-immunocompromised patients with prior or current lung disease (e.g. chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, mycobacteriosis or conditions such as diabetes). It can manifest as several forms 1. chronic cavitar...
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Chronic pulmonary embolism

Chronic pulmonary emboli are mainly a consequence of incomplete resolution of pulmonary thromboembolism. Radiographic features CTPA vascular CT signs include direct pulmonary artery signs complete obstruction partial obstruction eccentric thrombus calcified thrombus - calcific pulmonary ...
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Chronic suppurative lung disease

Chronic suppurative lung disease (CSLD) refers to a group of conditions which includes: cystic fibrosis  bronchiectasis primary ciliary dyskinesia This term is usually used in the context of pediatric patients.
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Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension

Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is a distinct subgroup of pulmonary hypertension that most frequently develops following massive or repeated pulmonary embolism. Terminology The term CTEPH should be used for patients with chronic thromboembolic disease and pulmonary hypert...
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Chronic unilateral airspace opacification (differential)

Chronic unilateral airspace opacification is a subset of the differential diagnoses for airspace opacification. An exhaustive list of all possible causes of chronic unilateral airspace opacities is long, but a useful framework is as follows: neoplastic post obstructive lymphoma lymphocytic ...
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Chylothorax

A chylothorax (plural: chylothoraces) refers to the presence of chylous fluid in the pleural space often as a result of obstruction or disruption to the thoracic duct. It may be congenital or acquired. Pathology Chylothoraces may present with variable pleural fluid appearance and biochemical c...
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Cicatrisation atelectasis

Cicatrisation atelectasis is a form of lung atelectasis which occurs as a result of scarring or fibrosis that reduces lung expansion. Cicatrisation atelectasis is classic in tuberculosis. The term is closely related to cicatrisation collapse when an entire lobe is collapsed from the same process...
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Circumflex aorta

Circumflex aorta is a rare aortic arch anomaly caused by retroesophageal crossing of the aorta to the contralateral side. A vascular ring is formed when a ductus or ligamentum arteriosum contralateral to the aortic arch connects the descending aorta to the pulmonary artery. Clinical presentatio...
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Cirrhosis (pulmonary manifestations)

There are several pulmonary complications that can arise in the setting of cirrhosis: hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS): considered the commonest portopulmonary hypertension (POPH) hepatic hydrothorax (HH) intrathoracic portosystemic collateral vessel formation The development of portal hypert...
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Clagett thoracotomy

A Clagett thoracotomy is a three stage procedure performed for treatment severe empyema and involves the resection of a posterolateral lower rib and the formation of an open window in the lateral aspect of the chest to allow continuous drainage and irrigation of the cavity with antibiotic soluti...
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Clear cell tumor of the lung

Clear cell tumors of the lung are rare benign pulmonary neoplasms that contain an abundant amount of glycogen. It is often classified under the spectrum of perivascular epithelioid cell tumors (PEComas). Radiographic features Usually seen as a rounded, smooth-walled, and peripheral parenchymal...
Article

Clothing artifact

Clothing artifacts, like jewelry artifacts, are a regular feature on imaging examinations, especially plain radiographs, but in general are recognized for what they are, either at the time the image is taken by the radiographer, or later by the reporting radiologist. The radiographer will often ...
Article

Cluster of black pearls sign

The "cluster of black pearls" sign refers to a finding on contrast-enhanced CT useful in differentiating sarcoidosis from other causes of lymphadenopathy such as tuberculosis, lymphoma and metastatic adenocarcinoma. The sign is depicted by the presence of multiple tiny round nodules (1-2 mm) di...
Article

Coal mine dust lung disease

Coal mine dust lung disease encompasses a number of occupational lung diseases 1,2: coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP) mixed dust pneumoconiosis silicosis dust-related diffuse fibrosis chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
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Coal workers' pneumoconiosis

Coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP) is an occupational disease (type of pneumoconiosis) caused by exposure to coal dust free of silica (washed coal). Histologically, CWP is classified according to disease severity into simple (presence of coal macules) and complicated (with progressive massive fi...
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Coarctation of the aorta

Coarctation of the aorta (CoA) refers to a narrowing of the aortic lumen. Epidemiology Coarctations account for between 5-8% of all congenital heart defects. They are more frequent in males, M:F ratio of ~2-3:1. Clinical presentation Varies accordingly to the degree of stenosis and the assoc...
Article

Coccidioidomycosis

Coccidioidomycosis refers to an infection caused by the dimorphic fungus Coccidioides spp, usually localized to the lungs. This disease is not to be confused with the similarly named paracoccidioidomycosis. Epidemiology The most common forms of Coccidioides spp are Coccidioides immitis and Coc...
Article

Coin lesion (lung)

A coin lesion refers to a round or oval, well-circumscribed solitary pulmonary lesion. It is usually 1-5 cm in diameter and calcification may or may not be present 1,3. Typically but not always the patient is asymptomatic 1.  Differential diagnosis The differential diagnosis for such lesions i...
Article

Collar sign in diaphragmatic rupture

The collar sign, also called the hourglass sign, is a helpful sign for diagnosis of diaphragmatic rupture on coronal or sagittal CT/ MR images and barium studies. It refers to a waist-like or collar-like appearance of herniated organs at the level of the diaphragm. Small tear on the right side ...
Article

Colloid adenocarcinoma of the lung

Colloid adenocarcinoma of the lung is an extremely rare (i.e. only accounting for ~0.2% of all lung cancers) variant of invasive lung adenocarcinoma. Pathology It is histologically characterized by the presence of abundant mucus in the tumor with neoplastic cells seen floating in large pools o...
Article

Combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema

Combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE) is a possible new addition to a growing list of smoking-related lung disease characterized by the coexistence of usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) or nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP) with emphysema in smokers. Epidemiology It typically...
Article

Comet tail sign (chest)

The comet tail sign is a finding that can be seen on CT scans of the chest. It consists of a curvilinear opacity that extends from a subpleural "mass" toward the ipsilateral hilum. The comet tail sign is produced by the distortion of vessels and bronchi that lead to an adjacent area of round ate...
Article

Common causes of bronchiectasis (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember the common causes of bronchiectasis is: CAPT Kangaroo has Mounier-Kuhn Mnemonic C: cystic fibrosis or congenital cystic bronchiectasis (Williams-Campbell syndrome) A: allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) P: post-infectious (most common) T: tuberculosis (gra...
Article

Common variable immunodeficiency

Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is a condition that is associated with an impaired immune system. It is considered the most common symptomatic primary immunodeficiency and is characterized by recurrent respiratory tract infections. Clinical presentation The commonest presentation is th...
Article

Common variable immunodeficiency (pulmonary manifestations)

Pulmonary manifestations of common variable immunodeficiency can be variable. The respiratory system is one of the most commonly affected systems in common variable immunodeficiency (CVID).  Radiographic features CT The spectrum of findings seen in the chest include:  bronchiectasis with int...
Article

Community-acquired pneumonia

Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) refers to pneumonia caused by an infectious agent that is contracted in the general population, and not whilst in a medical facility, or from contact with the healthcare system. A diagnosis of CAP may still be reached up to 48 hours post-admission to hospital 2...
Article

Complete tracheal rings

Complete tracheal rings are a rare, isolated tracheal or tracheobronchial anomaly resulting from abnormal cartilage growth, forming a complete ring and often causing airway stenosis. Clinical presentation Clinically, it manifests as respiratory distress in infants or mild symptomatic airway co...
Article

Complications of pulmonary interstitial emphysema (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic to remember the complications of pulmonary interstitial emphysema is that the most common ones begin with: pneum- Mnemonic pneumatocele pneumothorax pneumomediastinum pneumoperitoneum
Article

Compressive atelectasis

Compressive atelectasis refers to a form of lung atelectasis due to compression by a space-occupying process. Some authors describe it as a subtype of passive (relaxation) atelectasis where the reduction in lung volume is greater than its normal relaxed state 1. Whereas others describe it as th...
Article

Computed tomography of the chest

Computed tomography (CT) of the chest is a cross-sectional evaluation of the heart, airways, lungs, mediastinum, and associated bones and soft tissues. Two key methods of image acquisition include: standard CT with 5 mm slice thickness for mediastinum and gross evaluation of lungs high-resolu...
Article

Conditions with lower lobe predominance (mnemonic)

Mnemonics for conditions with a lower lobe predominance in chest radiology include: CIA BAD AS RASCO Mnemonics CIA C: collagen vascular diseases I: idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis A: asbestosis BAD AS B: bronchiectasis A: aspiration pneumonia D: drugs; desquamative interstitial pneumon...
Article

Conditions with upper lobe predominance (mnemonic)

Useful mnemonics to remember conditions with upper lobe predominance in chest radiology are: STEP BREASTS Mnemonics STEP S: sarcoidosis, silicosis T: tuberculosis E: eosinophilic pneumonia P: pneumoconiosis BREASTS B: berylliosis R: radiation fibrosis E: extrinsic allergic alveolitis...

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