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Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

1,794 results found
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Congenital cardiovascular anomalies

Congenital cardiovascular anomalies are relatively common, with an incidence of up to 1% if small muscular ventricular septal defects (VSDs) are included. As a group, there is a much greater frequency in syndromic infants and in those that are stillborn.  Epidemiology In a large study in the U...
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Congenital cystic bronchiectasis

Congenital cystic bronchiectasis is a rare entity, and as the name suggests is characterized by cystic bronchiectasis found in infancy 1. The term appears to have fallen out of favor, due to variable use in older literature. In most instances of congenital cystic bronchiectasis has what is now r...
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Congenital heart disease chest x-ray (an approach)

With the advent of echocardiography, and cardiac CT and MRI, the role of chest x-rays in evaluating congenital heart disease has been largely been relegated to one of historical and academic interest, although they continue to crop up in radiology exams. In most instances a definite diagnosis ca...
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Congenital high airway obstruction syndrome

Congenital high airway obstruction syndrome or sequence (CHAOS) refers to a rare, often lethal, congenital laryngotracheal condition and is primarily characterized by obstruction to the fetal upper airway. Pathology CHAOS can be of three possible types 2: complete laryngeal atresia without an...
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Congenital lobar overinflation

Congenital lobar overinflation (CLO), previously called congenital lobar emphysema, is a congenital lung abnormality that results in progressive overinflation of one or more lobes of a neonate's lung.  On imaging, it classically presents on chest radiographs as a hyperlucent lung segment with o...
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Congenital pulmonary airway malformation

Congenital pulmonary airway malformations (CPAM) are multicystic masses of segmental lung tissue with abnormal bronchial proliferation. CPAMs are considered part of the spectrum of bronchopulmonary foregut malformations. Terminology Until recently they were described as congenital cystic adeno...
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Congenital pulmonary lymphangiectasia

Congenital pulmonary lymphangiectasia refers to congenital dilatation of the lymphatic system. It typically presents in infancy. It may be isolated to lung or may be part of a generalized lymphangiectasia. 
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Congenital pulmonary venolobar syndrome

Congenital pulmonary venolobar syndrome is a condition comprising a rare group of cardiac and pulmonary congenital abnormalities occurring variably in combination. The abnormalities include: anomalous pulmonary venous drainage particularly scimitar syndrome with hypogenetic right lung pulmona...
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Congenital tracheomalacia

Congenital tracheomalacia refers to a diverse group of conditions which result in a dilated trachea with increased compliance. Causes include: cystic fibrosis: seen in up to 69% of patients 4 Mounier-Kuhn syndrome: idiopathic or associated with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (in adults) cutis laxa (...
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Congenital tracheo-esophageal fistula

Congenital tracheo-esophageal fistula is a congenital pathological communication between the trachea and esophagus.   Epidemiology Tracheo-esophageal fistula and esophageal atresia have a combined incidence of approximately 1 in 3500 live births 1-3,5. There is only a minimal hereditary/geneti...
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Congestive cardiac failure

Congestive cardiac failure (CCF), also known as congestive heart failure (CHF) or simply heart failure, refers to the clinical syndrome caused by inherited or acquired abnormalities of heart structure and function, causing a constellation of symptoms and signs that lead to decreased quality and ...
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Constrictive pericarditis

Constrictive pericarditis (or perhaps better termed pericardial constriction) is a type of pericarditis which leads to diastolic dysfunction and potential symptoms of right heart failure.  Epidemiology No single demographic is affected as there are numerous causes of constrictive pericarditis....
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Continuous diaphragm sign

The continuous diaphragm sign is a chest radiograph sign of pneumomediastinum or pneumopericardium if lucency is above the diaphragm, or of pneumoperitoneum if lucency is below the diaphragm.  Normally the central portion of the diaphragm is not discretely visualized on chest radiographs as it ...
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Contrast enhanced CT during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation

Contrast-enhanced CT examinations of patients undergoing extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) presents unique technical and diagnostic challenges.   Technical considerations  There are a number of factors that need to be considered to ensure contrast-enhanced CT studies of ECMO patients ...
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COPD (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) is defined as a condition characterized by persistent air flow limitation that is usually progressive and associated with an enhanced chronic inflammatory response in the airways...
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Coracoclavicular joint

The coracoclavicular joint is a normal variant of the pectoral girdle, where the conoid tubercle of the clavicle appears enlarged or elongated, with a flattened inferior surface where it approximates the coracoid process of the scapula to form an articulation.  Epidemiology More common in Asia...
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Coronary Artery Calcium Data and Reporting System

Coronary Artery Calcium Data and Reporting System (CAC-DRS) is a structured reporting scheme for all non-contrast CT scans in the evaluation of coronary artery disease, which can help in communication between clinicians and radiologists. These guidelines have been recommended by the Society of C...
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Cor pulmonale

Cor pulmonale is defined as a failure of the structure and function of the right ventricle in the absence of left ventricular dysfunction. It is caused by an underlying primary disorder of the respiratory system. It has a generally chronic and slowly progressive course, although acute onset or w...
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Correct chest radiograph terminology

Correct chest radiograph terminology is very helpful when describing pathology. It is especially important when describing findings to colleagues (radiologist or not), who may not be able to see the image in front of them, e.g. over the phone, or when describing an image in a radiology exam. Te...
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Costal cartilage

The costal cartilages form part of the thoracic cage and anterior chest wall. There are ten costal cartilages bilaterally, one for each of the corresponding 1st to 10th ribs, and each of the first seven ribs forms one of the seven costochondral joints. Costal cartilages 1-7 articulate with the ...
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Costal cartilage fracture

Costal cartilage fractures are fractures of the cartilage connecting the ribs anteriorly to the sternum. Epidemiology There is little published data on costal cartilage fractures. Most reported cases are in males and resulted from blunt trauma or a fall 1,2. Clinical presentation In young ch...
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Costal hook sign (flail chest)

The costal hook sign is a chest x-ray feature seen in some cases of flail chest. It represents the rotation of a fractured rib along its long axis, something that is only possible if a second fracture is present along its length, even if the second fracture is not visible 1. 
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Costocervical trunk

The costocervical trunk is one of the branches of the second part of the subclavian artery. It arises from the posterior wall of the subclavian artery, posterior or medial to the anterior scalene muscle and courses posterosuperiorly across the suprapleural membrane where it divides into 2 branc...
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Costochondral joint

The costochondral joints are the joints between each rib and its costal cartilage.  They are primary cartilaginous joints.  These joints represent the demarcation of the unossified and ossified part of the rib 1.  The joint is held together by periosteum, with the lateral aspect of the costal ca...
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Costochondritis

Costochondritis (rare plural: costochondritides) is a common self-limiting painful inflammation of multiple costochondral junctions and/or the costosternal articulation. There is usually a distinct absence of swelling and chest wall palpation usually reproduces the pain.  It is important to not...
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Costoclavicular ligament

The costoclavicular ligament or rhomboid ligament (a.k.a. Halsted's ligament 2) is the major stabilizing factor of the sternoclavicular joint and is the axis of movement of the joint. Gross anatomy The costoclavicular ligament binds the inferior medial clavicle (via the rhomboid fossa) to the ...
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Costoclavicular space

The costoclavicular space is the anterior portion of the superior thoracic aperture, between the clavicle and first rib. The subclavian vessels and brachial plexus pass though the space related to the scalene muscles. Proximally, the plexus passes through the interscalene space, and distally thr...
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Costovertebral joint

The costovertebral joint is the articulations between the ribs and the vertebral column. Gross Anatomy The ribs articulate with the thoracic vertebrae via two distinctly different joints: costovertebral joint - articulation between the head of the rib and the vertebral body costotransverse j...
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Costoxiphoid ligament

The costoxiphoid ligaments, also known as the chondroxiphoid ligaments, are inconstant fibrous structures joining the anterior and posterior surfaces of the xiphoid to the respective surfaces of the adjacent seventh and, occasionally, sixth costal cartilages.
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COVID-19

For a quick reference guide, please see our COVID-19 summary article. COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019) is an infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), a strain of coronavirus. The first cases were seen in Wuhan, China, in December 2019 before ...
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COVID-19 (summary)

This summary article is intended to be used as a quick reference guide. Please see our complete COVID-19 article for more detail.  COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019) is a viral infectious disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 and is currently a World Health Organization (WHO) declared pandemic. As of J...
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Crack lung

Crack lung is a term used to describe an acute pulmonary injury related to smoked crack cocaine. On imaging, it is characterized by interstitial and alveolar lung opacities with a diffuse distribution and commonly involving the perihilar regions.  Clinical presentation Patients present with s...
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Crazy paving

Crazy paving refers to the appearance of ground-glass opacity with superimposed interlobular septal thickening and intralobular septal thickening, seen on chest HRCT. It is a non-specific finding that can be seen in a number of conditions.  Pathology Etiology Common causes: acute respiratory...
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Crescent sign - inverted crescent sign (hydatid disease)

The crescent sign is described in hydatid disease.  When the hydatid cyst erodes the adjacent bronchus or bronchiole, the trapped air between the pericyst and the laminated membrane of the endocyst give a crescent-shaped rim of air around the cyst, thus is termed the crescent sign 1, 2. It can b...
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Crossing the lung fissures

Only a small number of pulmonary diseases are known to directly cross the lung fissures such that the lung pathology extends from one lobe via the interlobar fissure into an adjacent lobe 1. The finding is most commonly due to primary malignancy, however, some infections are also known to do so....
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Croup

Croup, also known as acute laryngotracheobronchitis, is due to viral infection of the upper airway by parainfluenza virus or respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). Although imaging findings are not required for the diagnosis, classic findings of narrowing of the subglottic airway and dilatation of ...
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Crow feet sign (round atelectasis)

Crow feet sign is a characteristic, but uncommon, feature seen in round atelectasis. On CT, this is seen as linear bands radiating from a mass into adjacent lung tissue resembling the feet of a crow. This sign should not be confused with fibrotic changes occurring in the lung.
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Crus (disambiguation)

A crus (plural: crura) is an anatomical term used for a structure which resembles a leg. crus (auricle) crus (cerebrum) crus (clitoris) crus (diaphragm) crus (fornix) crus (heart) crus (incus) crus (internal capsule) crus (nose) crus (penis) crus (semicircular duct) crus (stapes) cr...
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Cryptococcoma

Cryptococcomas are a rare complication of infection by the Cryptococcus genus of invasive fungi, where a discrete, encapsulated lesion of immune infiltrates and pathogen forms. Cryptococcus gattii is most often isolated but Cryptococcus neoformans may also form cryptococcomas. Epidemiology In ...
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Cryptococcosis

Cryptococcosis is a fungal infection caused by Cryptococcus neoformans, a globally distributed fungus that is commonly found in soil, especially that containing pigeon and avian droppings. Infection is acquired by inhaling spores of fungus.  Epidemiology Occurs worldwide without any defined en...
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Cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis

Cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis (CFA) is a fibrosing lung disease that is characterized by inflammation and fibrosis of the alveoli and interstitium of the lungs, favoring the subpleural and basal regions. There is some overlap in definition with the term idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis 1. By d...
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Cryptogenic organizing pneumonia

Cryptogenic organizing pneumonia (COP) is a disease of unknown etiology characterized on imaging by multifocal ground glass opacifications and/or consolidation. A wide variety of infectious as well as noninfectious causes may result in a similar histologic pattern. Terminology Organizing pneum...
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CT angiogram sign (lungs)

The CT angiogram sign refers to vessels appearing prominent during a contrast enhanced CT as they traverse an airless low attenuation portion of consolidated lung. Although initially thought to be specific for bronchoalveolar carcinoma, it has now been recognized as a generic appearance provided...
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CT chest non contrast (technique)

The non-contrast CT chest is a commonly performed diagnostic examination. It is often performed to evaluate conditions impacting the lungs or preferenced over a contrast enhanced scan when iodinated contrast is contraindicated.  NB: This article is intended to outline some general principles of...
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CT chest (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Chest CT is a computed tomography examination of the thoracic cavity performed for a variety of reasons, from suspected cancer to penetrating chest trauma. A CT chest can be performed with or without IV contrast and when I...
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CT esophagography

CT esophagography is a CT study designed to primarily evaluate the esophagus, particularly in the situation of esophageal trauma and potential perforation. It has been developed partly as an alternative to fluoroscopic barium swallow evaluation in this situation. Indications potential esophage...
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CT guided thoracic biopsy

CT guided thoracic biopsy is usually performed for the diagnosis of suspicious lung, pleural, or mediastinal lesions. It can be performed as an outpatient procedure where patient monitoring and complications support are available.  A small percentage of lung and pleural biopsies may be performed...
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CT polytrauma (technique)

CT polytrauma/multitrauma, also called trauma CT, whole body CT (WBCT) or panscan, is an increasingly used investigation in patients with multiple injuries sustained after significant trauma. Clinical assessment and mechanism of injury may underestimate injury severity by 30% 8. There is some e...
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CT pulmonary angiogram (technique)

The computed tomography pulmonary angiogram (CTPA/CTPE) is a commonly performed diagnostic examination to exclude pulmonary emboli. Each radiology department will have a slightly different method for achieving the same outcome, i.e. adequate enhancement of the pulmonary trunk and its branches.  ...
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Currarino-Silverman syndrome

Currarino-Silverman syndrome, also known as pectus carinatum type 2 deformity, is a rare disorder. Clinical presentation Patients present with a high carinate chest deformity due to a premature fusion of the manubriosternal joint and sternal ossification centers. Congenital heart diseases have...
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CVC position on chest x-ray (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Chest x-ray CVC (central venous catheter) position should be assessed following initial placement and on subsequent radiographs. Reference article This is a summary article; for a more in-depth reference article see centr...
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Cyanotic congenital heart disease

A number of entities can present as cyanotic congenital heart disease. These can be divided into those with increased (pulmonary plethora) or decreased pulmonary vascularity : increased pulmonary vascularity total anomalous pulmonary venous return (TAPVR) (types I and II) transposition of the...
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Cylindrical bronchiectasis

Cylindrical bronchiectasis, also known as tubular bronchiectasis, is the most commonly identified morphologic type of bronchiectasis where there is smooth uniform enlargement of bronchi with loss of the normal distal tapering of the airways but without focal outpouchings or tortuosity. For a ge...
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Cyriax syndrome

Cyriax syndrome, also known as slipping rib syndrome, occurs when hypermobility of the rib cartilage of the lower ribs slips and moves, leading to pain in lower chest or upper abdomen 1. Epidemiology This condition may occur at any age, but is reportedly more common in middle-aged adults, and ...
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Cyst

A cyst is an abnormal fluid-filled structure which is lined by epithelium; with one exception: lung cysts may contain gas or fluid. By contradistinction, a pseudocyst lacks an epithelial lining and instead has a vascular and fibrotic capsule. Cysts are extremely common and found in most organs....
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Cystic bronchiectasis

Cystic bronchiectasis is one of the less common morphological forms of bronchiectasis. It may be present on its own or may occur in combination with other forms of bronchiectasis. For a general discussion, please refer to the article on bronchiectasis. Radiographic features It is characterize...
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Cystic fibrosis

Cystic fibrosis (CF), also called mucoviscidosis, is an autosomal recessive genetic disease that affects the exocrine function of the lungs, liver, pancreas, small bowel, sweat glands, and the male genital system 11. resulting in progressive disability and multisystem failure. This article is a ...
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Cystic fibrosis (head and neck manifestations)

The head and neck manifestations of cystic fibrosis are common compared to the well-known respiratory manifestations.  For general discussion of cystic fibrosis, and a discussion of its other manifestations, please refer to: cystic fibrosis (parent article) pulmonary manifestations of cystic ...
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Cystic fibrosis (pulmonary manifestations)

Pulmonary manifestations of cystic fibrosis are some of the best known in cystic fibrosis (CF). This is partly because the lungs are often severely affected and the cause of significant morbidity and mortality.  For general discussion of cystic fibrosis, and a discussion of its other manifestat...
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Cystic hygroma

Cystic hygroma, also known as cystic or nuchal lymphangioma, refers to the congenital macrocystic lymphatic malformations that most commonly occur in the cervicofacial regions, particularly at the posterior cervical triangle in infants. Terminology While these lesions are commonly known as cys...
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Cystic lung disease

Cystic lung disease is an umbrella term used to group the conditions coursing with multiple lung cysts.  Clinical presentation The clinical presentation is an important clue to the differential diagnosis of cystic lung diseases 12. Diseases that present with insidious dyspnea or spontaneous p...
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Cystic lung lesions (pediatric)

Cystic lesions in pediatric patients are usually congenital lesions and, as such, can be seen antenatally and following delivery. Pathology Etiology Congenital These congenital lesions are predominantly covered by the overarching diagnosis of bronchopulmonary foregut malformation. This is a ...
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Cystic mediastinal masses

The differential diagnosis for cystic masses of the mediastinum include: bronchogenic cyst esophageal duplication cyst neuroenteric cyst pericardial cyst meningocele lymphangioma thymic cyst cystic teratoma of mediastinum cystic degeneration of an intrathoracic tumor mediastinal thorac...
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Cystic (necrotic) lymph nodes

Cystic or necrotic appearing lymph nodes can be caused by a number of infectious, inflammatory or malignant conditions: Systemic squamous cell carcinoma metastases treated lymphoma leukemia plasmacytoid T-cell leukemia acute myeloid leukemia viral lymphadenitis herpes simplex lymphadenit...
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Cystic pulmonary metastases

Cystic pulmonary metastases are atypical morphological form on pulmonary metastases where lesions manifest as distinct cystic lesions. It is slightly different from the term cavitating pulmonary metastases in that the lesions are extremely thin walled. Pathology It has been reported with many ...
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Cystic retroperitoneal lesions

Cystic retroperitoneal lesions can carry a relatively broad differential, which includes: retroperitoneal lymphatic malformation retroperitoneal mucinous cystadenoma retroperitoneal cystic teratoma retroperitoenal cystic mesothelioma pseudomyxoma retroperitonei with cystic change perianal ...
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Cytomegalovirus pulmonary infection

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) pneumonia is a type of viral pneumonitis and occurs due to infection with cytomegalovirus (CMV), which is a member of the Herpetoviridae family. Epidemiology CMV infection is particularly important in those who are immunocompromised (e.g. those with AIDS / allogenic bone ...
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Dark bronchus sign

The dark bronchus sign is the appearance of a relatively darker bronchus as compared to adjacent ground glass opacity. Normally, the density of lung parenchyma and the bronchiolar lumen is similar. In cases of ground glass opacity, the bronchiolar lumen within the affected lung parenchyma appear...
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DeBakey classification

The DeBakey classification, along with the Stanford classification, is used to separate aortic dissections into those that need surgical repair, and those that usually require only medical management. Classification The DeBakey classification divides dissections into 1-5: type I: involves asc...
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DeBakey classification (mnemonic)

A mnemonic used to remember the DeBakey classification 1 is: BAD Mnemonic B: both ascending and descending aorta (type I) A: ascending aorta (type II) D: descending aorta (type III) See also Stanford classification of aortic dissection DeBakey classification
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Decompression illness

Decompression illness (DCI) results from a reduction in the pressure surrounding a body. It can occur in divers, compressed air workers, aviators and astronauts. Diving-related decompression illness is classified into two main categories: arterial gas embolism (AGE) secondary to pulmonary deco...
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Deep sulcus sign (chest)

The deep sulcus sign on a supine chest radiograph raises suspicion of a pneumothorax. On a supine plain chest film (common in intensive care units or as part of a trauma radiograph series), it may be the only suggestion of a pneumothorax because air collects anteriorly and basally, within the n...
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Deep sulcus sign (disambiguation)

The deep sulcus sign can refer to two different radiographic signs but is best known in the chest: deep sulcus sign (chest): of pneumothorax on supine CXR: deep sulcus sign (knee): better known as the lateral femoral notch sign of ACL injury
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Dehiscence

Dehiscence is a general term referring to 'splitting open' and is used in a variety of contexts in medicine generally and radiology more specifically.  The two most common usages are: splitting open of a wound (e.g. sternal dehiscence) loss of bone separating one structure from another (e.g. ...
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Dendriform pulmonary ossification

Dendriform (or dendritic) pulmonary ossification is a rare morphological subtype of pulmonary ossification whereby the thin branching calcified lines on CT resemble a dendrite (however a dendritic pattern may not always be present on CT). They may also be seen as small nodules in the peripheral...
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Dense hilum sign

The dense hilum sign suggests a pathological process at the hilum or in the lung anterior or posterior to the hilum. Malignancy, especially lung cancer, should be suspected. Radiographic features On a well-centered chest posteroanterior (PA) radiograph the density of the hilum is comparable on...
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Dependent viscera sign

The dependent viscera sign is one of the signs of diaphragmatic rupture on axial CT or MR images, where herniated viscera lie against the posterior thoracic wall in a dependent position, as they are no longer supported by the diaphragm. See also  collar sign (or hourglass sign)
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Descending necrotizing mediastinitis

Descending necrotizing mediastinitis is a severe form of mediastinitis and refers to an acute, polymicrobial infection of the mediastinum that usually spreads downwards from oropharyngeal, cervical, and odontogenic infection. Epidemiology Associations diabetes: more than one-third of patients...
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Desquamative interstitial pneumonia

Desquamative interstitial pneumonia (DIP) is an interstitial pneumonia closely related to and thought to represent the end stage of respiratory bronchiolitis interstitial lung disease (RB-ILD). It is associated with heavy smoking. Epidemiology It is considered one of the rarest of idiopathic i...
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Dextrocardia

Dextrocardia is a congenital cardiac malposition in which the heart is situated on the right side of the body (dextroversion) with the cardiac apex pointing to the right. Terminology Dextrocardia merely refers to the laterality of the heart, it says nothing about the orientation of the patient...
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Diagnostic HRCT criteria for usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) pattern - ATS/ERS/JRS/ALAT (2018)

As a part of international evidence-based guidelines adopted by a collaborative effort of the American Thoracic Society (ATS), the European Respiratory Society (ERS), the Japanese Respiratory Society (JRS), and the Latin American Thoracic Association (ALAT), specific diagnostic HRCT criteria for...
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Diagnostic HRCT criteria for usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) pattern - Fleischner society guideline (2018)

In 2018, the Fleischner Society provided updated diagnostic HRCT criteria for usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) pattern based on literature review and the expert opinion of members. As a part of this white paper, diagnostic HRCT criteria for usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) pattern were updat...
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Diaphragm

The diaphragm is the dome-shaped muscle that separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity, enclosing the inferior thoracic aperture. Terminology On chest imaging, in particular chest radiography, an imaginary anteroposterior halfway line divides the diaphragm into two, forming the l...
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Diaphragmatic apertures

The diaphragmatic apertures are a series of apertures that permit the passage of structures between the thoracic and abdominal cavities. There are three main apertures: aortic hiatus (T12) (not a true aperture) esophageal hiatus (T10) vena caval foramen (T8) The vertebral levels of these ape...
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Diaphragmatic apertures (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic to remember the thoracic spinal levels at which the three major structures pass through the diaphragmatic apertures is: I 8 10 eggs at 12  - where 8 is a homophone for 'ate' and the 'e' in eggs is for the US spelling of esophagus Mnemonic I 8: inferior vena cava at T8 10 eg...
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Diaphragmatic dysfunction

Diaphragmatic dysfunction is a rather broad descriptive term which can include diaphragmatic paralysis (can range from complete to partial) diaphragmatic palsy Other conditions which which can be variably associated with dysfunction include diaphragmatic elevation / hemidiaphragmatic elevati...
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Diaphragmatic eventration

Diaphragmatic eventration refers to an abnormal contour of the diaphragmatic dome with no disruption to the diaphragmatic continuity. It typically affects only a segment of the hemidiaphragm, compared to paralysis/weakness where the entire hemidiaphragm is typically affected.  Epidemiology Ass...
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Diaphragmatic hernia

Diaphragmatic hernias (alternative plural: herniae) are defined as either congenital or acquired defects in the diaphragm. Demographics and etiology Congenital There are two main types of congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH)s which are uncommon yet distinct entities that usually occur on the...
Article

Diaphragmatic mesothelial cyst

Diaphragmatic mesothelial cysts are rare benign congenital lesions involving the diaphragm. They are thought to derive from from celomic remnants.  Epidemiology They typically present in the pediatric population. Radiographic features CT Typically right sided and seen as a cystic mass betwe...
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Diaphragmatic paralysis

Diaphragmatic paralysis (also considered very similar to the term diaphragmatic palsy) can be unilateral or bilateral. Clinical presentation Clinical features are highly variable according to underlying etiological factor: unilateral paralysis: asymptomatic in most of the patients as the othe...
Article

Diaphragmatic rupture

Diaphragmatic rupture often results from blunt abdominal trauma. The mechanism of injury is typically a motor-vehicle collision. Epidemiology Given that the most common mechanism is motor vehicle collisions, it is perhaps unsurprising that young men are most frequently affected. The estimated ...
Article

Differential diagnosis for a small cardiothoracic ratio

A small cardiothoracic ratio (CTR) is defined as <42%/0.42 when assessed on a PA chest radiograph, and is often called small heart syndrome. A pathologically-small heart is also known as microcardia.It can be due to/associated with a number of entities: adrenal insufficiency, e.g. Addison disea...
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Differential for an anterosuperior mediastinal mass

An anterosuperior mediastinal mass can be caused by neoplastic and non-neoplastic pathology. As their name suggests, they are confined to the anterior mediastinum, that portion of the mediastinum anterior to the pericardium and below the level of the clavicles.  The differential diagnosis for a...

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