Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

1,794 results found
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Hepatisation of the lung

Pulmonary hepatisation refers to the pathologic alteration of lung tissue such that it resembles liver tissue. The term originates as a classic descriptor in surgical pathology, used to describe intermediate stages of lobar pneumonic consolidation. In imaging, the term is similarly used to desc...
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Hepatopulmonary syndrome

Hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS) is a clinical syndrome defined by the presence of the following: liver disease dilation of pulmonary vasculature may involve pulmonary capillaries, pulmonary arteriovenous malformations, or pleural AVMs abnormalities in oxygenation elevation in the alveolar-ar...
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HER-2 mutations in lung cancer

Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2) mutations may be detected in approximately 3% of lung adenocarcinomas 1. Radiographic features CT Early studies have suggested HER2-mutant tumors exhibit more aggressive features in general and tend to: exhibit a locally-invasive behavior comp...
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Herder risk model

British Thoracic Society (BTS) guidelines for pulmonary nodules1 recommend the application of the Herder risk model in predicting malignancy in pulmonary nodules. The Herder model 2 predicts the risk of malignancy in solid pulmonary nodules using patient characteristics, nodules characteristics...
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Hereditary connective tissue disease

Hereditary connective tissue diseases are an enlarging group of connective tissue diseases that have a degree of inheritance risk. They include:  Marfan syndrome: genetic disease causing abnormal fibrillin Ehlers-Danlos syndrome: progressive deterioration of collagen and affects joints, heart ...
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Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia

Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT), also known as Osler-Weber-Rendu syndrome, is a rare inherited disorder characterized by abnormal blood vessel formation in the skin, mucous membranes, and organs including the lungs, liver, and central nervous system. Epidemiology Worldwide prevalen...
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Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome

Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome (HPS) is a rare syndrome which consists of: oculocutaneous hypopigmentation (albinism) platelet dysfunction  abnormal storage of autofluorescent pigment (ceroid or lipofuscin)  typically occurs within lysosomal organelles of the cells of multiple organs and the reti...
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Hernia (general)

Hernias (or herniae) are a common pathological entity, in which an anatomical structure passes into an abnormal location via an opening. The opening may be a normal physiological aperture (e.g. hiatus hernia: stomach passes through the diaphragmatic esophageal hiatus) or pathological. Iatrogeni...
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Heroin-induced pulmonary edema

Heroin-induced pulmonary edema is an etiological subtype of non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema. It may be prevalent in up to 40% of patients admitted with a heroin overdose 2. Clinical presentation It is defined by some authors as a syndrome in which a patient develops significant hypoxia (oxygen...
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Hiatus hernia

Hiatus hernias (alternative plural: herniae) occur when there is herniation of abdominal contents through the esophageal hiatus of the diaphragm into the thoracic cavity. Epidemiology The prevalence of hiatus hernia increases with age, with a slight female predilection. Clinical presentation ...
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High altitude pulmonary edema

High altitude pulmonary edema is a subtype of pulmonary edema and is caused by prolonged exposure to an environment with a lower partial oxygen atmospheric pressure. Epidemiology It occurs most frequently in young males and ~24-48 hours after they have made a rapid ascent to heights greater th...
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High attenuation lymphadenopathy

High attenuation lymphadenopathy (or adenopathy) variably refers to abnormal lymph nodes with attenuation on CT usually higher compared to muscle, either on a noncontrast exam or following contrast administration (i.e., hyperenhancement) 5. High attenuation nodes may be due to calcifications or...
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High attenuation mucus

High-attenuation mucus (HAM) is a form of mucoid impaction which is often considered a characterisitic and an "almost pathognomonic" feature of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) (close to 100% specificity) 1. Epidemiology It may be present in up to 28 % of patients with allergic ...
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Hilar point

The hilar point on chest radiographs is formed by the outer margins of the superior pulmonary vein and the descending pulmonary artery as they cross past each other. 
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Hilum convergence sign

The hilum convergence sign is a useful chest radiograph sign to distinguish the cause of a bulky hilum as due to pulmonary artery dilatation or to a juxtahilar mass, including nodal enlargement.  If pulmonary vessels appear to converge centrally towards the lateral margin of the abnormal 'bump'...
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Hilum overlay sign

The hilum overlay sign is useful in differentiating whether an opacity on a frontal chest radiograph in the region of the lung hilum is located within the hilum versus anterior or posterior to it. The sign refers to preserved visualization of the hilar vessels, excluding abnormalities that local...
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Histoplasmoma

Histoplasmoma is the name for a specific kind of nodule secondary to granulomatous reaction to histoplasmosis infection often described as having a pathognomic target lesion appearance. Histoplasmomas can appear in the lungs or central nervous system. Although classically conceived as a solitar...
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Histoplasmosis

Histoplasmosis is an endemic mycosis caused by Histoplasma capsulatum.  Pulmonary histoplasmosis is the most common manifestation of this infectious disease. Disseminated/extrapulmonary (pericardial, articular) histoplasmosis is often seen in immunosuppressed patients. As such, these are includ...
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HIV/AIDS

The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is an immunosuppressed state, caused by infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). It is characterized by opportunistic infections, neoplasms, and neurological manifestations. Epidemiology According to the United Nations programme on HI...
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HIV/AIDS (pulmonary and thoracic manifestations)

Pulmonary and thoracic manifestations of HIV/AIDS are a major contributor to morbidity and mortality related to the disease. The differential in an HIV patient with a chest complaint is broad. Infectious causes are the most common, however, neoplasms, lymphoma and interstitial pneumonia also pla...
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HIV associated follicular bronchiolitis

HIV associated follicular bronchiolitis is a form of bronchiolitis that occurs in those with HIV. Epidemiology It has been described in both HIV-positive children and adults. Pathology It is manifested by bronchial-associated lymphoid tissue hyperplasia thought to be due to repetitive antige...
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HIV associated neoplasms

HIV-associated neoplasms are numerous and can be broadly divided into two groups: AIDS-defining malignancies associated but not AIDS defining malignancies AIDS-defining malignancies The development of these malignancies in HIV affected individuals generally implies progression to AIDS 4: Ka...
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HIV associated pulmonary arterial hypertension

HIV associated pulmonary arterial hypertension (HIV-PAH) is a specific form of pulmonary arterial hypertension associated with HIV. Epidemiology It is thought that approximately 0.5% of patients with HIV infection can develop moderate to severe pulmonary arterial hypertension. This is consider...
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Hodgkin lymphoma (pulmonary manifestations)

Pulmonary manifestations of Hodgkin lymphoma are relatively rare, present in  5-12% of patients at the time of diagnosis. It is relatively more common with the nodular sclerosing subtype. Pulmonary involvement usually indicates stage IV disease.  Radiographic features Bilateral involvement is ...
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Hoffman-Rigler sign (heart)

The Hoffman-Rigler sign is a sign of left ventricular enlargement inferred from the distance between the inferior vena cava (IVC) and left ventricle (LV).​ Radiographic features On a lateral chest radiograph, if the distance between the left ventricular border and the posterior border of IVC e...
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Holly leaf sign

The holly leaf sign refers to the appearance of pleural plaques on chest radiographs. Their irregular thickened nodular edges are likened to the appearance of a holly leaf.
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Holt-Oram syndrome

Holt-Oram syndrome (HOS) is an autosomal dominant syndrome that results in congenital heart defects and upper limb anomalies:  congenital heart defects  atrial septal defect (ASD) (commonest cardiac defect 4) ventricular septal defect (VSD) aortic coarctation upper limb abnormalities radia...
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Honeycombing (lungs)

Honeycombing is a CT imaging descriptor referring to clustered cystic air spaces (between 3-10 mm in diameter, but occasionally as large as 2.5 cm) that are usually subpleural, peripheral and basal in distribution. They can be subdivided into: microcystic honeycombing macrocystic honeycombing ...
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Horizontal fissure

The horizontal fissure (also called the minor fissure) is a unilateral structure in the right lung that separates the right middle lobe from the right upper lobe. Gross anatomy The horizontal fissure arises from the right oblique fissure and follows the 4th intercostal space from the sternum u...
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Horseshoe lung

Horseshoe lung is one of the rare congenital anomalies of the lung. A band of pulmonary parenchyma is formed extending between the right and left lungs. The pulmonary tissue can be seen either anterior to the aorta or posterior to the pericardium at its caudal aspect. Epidemiology Associations...
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Horseshoe-shaped (disambiguation)

Several normal anatomical structures and rare organ variants have been described as being horseshoe-shaped. Organ anomalies horseshoe kidney horseshoe lung horseshoe adrenal horseshoe appendix horseshoe pancreas 1 Horseshoe-shaped organs hyoid bone limbic lobe supramarginal gyrus tymp...
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Hospital-acquired pneumonia

Hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP), also known as nosocomial pneumonia, is defined by the American Thoracic Society guidelines as pneumonias that occur more than 48 hours after hospital administration but were not present at the time of admission. Epidemiology It may be a common cause of pneumo...
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Hot tub lung

Hot tub lung refers to pulmonary disease in otherwise healthy patients that can occur by secondary exposure to aerosolized non-tuberculous mycobacteria in contaminated hot water-steam (classically described in hot tubs, hence the name).  Clinical presentation It can present as an acute pulmona...
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HRCT chest

High-resolution CT (HRCT) of the chest, also referred to as HRCT chest or HRCT of the lungs, refers to a CT technique in which thin-slice chest images are obtained and post-processed in a high-spatial-frequency reconstruction algorithm. This technique obtains images with exquisite lung detail, w...
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HRCT chest: expiration (technique)

Expiratory high-resolution CT (HRCT) imaging corresponds to an additional CT acquisition performed as part of the HRCT chest protocol. It represents a scan performed with the patient on supine and images obtained at the end-expiration.  It is a useful method for detecting small airways obstruct...
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HRCT chest: prone images

Prone high-resolution CT (HRCT) chest corresponds to an additional CT acquisition performed as part of an HRCT chest protocol. It represents a scan performed with the patient in a prone position and images obtained in full inspiration.  This additional imaging is particularly useful for detecti...
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Human coronavirus

The human coronaviruses (hCoVs), members of the family Coronaviridae, are enveloped RNA viruses that affect humans, mammals and birds, causing both acute and chronic illnesses. Four of the seven known human coronaviruses usually cause a mild coryzal illness only, these are HKU1, NL63, OC43, and...
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Hybrid lesion (pediatric chest)

A hybrid lesion in pediatric chest radiology refers to a combination of a congenital pulmonary airways malformation (CPAM) and a pulmonary sequestration (most commonly extralobar). It falls under a type of bronchopulmonary foregut malformation. Due to more sophisticated imaging, they are increas...
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Hydatid cyst signs

There are numerous named imaging signs of hydatid cysts in echinococcal infection. There is considerable variability in the naming and definition of many of the signs in the literature. In general, the signs demonstrate the presence of laminated cyst membranes in various morphologies within a la...
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Hydatid disease

Hydatid cysts result from infection by the Echinococcus tapeworm species and can result in cyst formation anywhere in the body. Epidemiology Cystic echinococcosis has a worldwide geographical distribution. The Mediterranean basin is an important endemic area 6,7. Pathology There are two main...
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Hydropneumothorax

A hydropneumothorax (plural: hydropneumothoraces) (or less commonly pneumohydrothorax (plural: pneumohydrothoraces)) is the term given to the concurrent presence of a pneumothorax and pleural effusion (i.e. hydrothorax) (i.e. gas and fluid) in the pleural space. Pathology It may arise in vario...
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Hyparterial bronchus

A hyparterial bronchus is any bronchus originating inferior to the level of the pulmonary artery. Conversely, the right superior lobar bronchus can be referred to by its anatomical relationship to the pulmonary arteries as being eparterial. The term may be encountered in the classification of ...
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Hyperacute lung transplant rejection

Hyperacute lung transplant rejection is a rare, rapid and often fatal form of early post lung transplant complications. Epidemiology Hyperacute rejection occurs in the first few hours after reperfusion of the allograft lungs.  Pathology Following recommencement of blood flow into the allogra...
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Hyperattenuating pulmonary abnormalities

Hyperattenuating pulmonary abnormalities refer to lung parenchymal opacities/lesions that are generally higher attenuation on CT than most soft tissues. An exact definition is usually not provided 1-3, while some authors focus on abnormalities that are as subjectively opaque as bony structures 4...
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Hyperattenuating pulmonary consolidation

Hyperattenuating pulmonary consolidation refers to a region of lung parenchyma with air space opacification that has higher attenuation on CT than muscle or than expected with typical causes of consolidation such as pneumonia (fluid attenuation) or cancer (soft tissue attenuation). The differen...
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Hyperattenuating pulmonary mass lesion

There are only a few causes of a hyperattenuating pulmonary mass which can be often due to internal calcification. They include:  granuloma: most common pulmonary hamartoma bronchogenic carcinoma carcinoid tumors pulmonary metastases mucoid calcification of mucinous adenocarcinoma breast ...
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Hypercontracting (nutcracker) esophagus

Hypercontracting (nutcracker) esophagus is a motility disorder of the esophagus. This condition is primarily diagnosed with manometry with high intra-esophageal pressure and normal peristalsis. Most patients will have a normal barium swallow.  Hypercontracting esophagus ("nutcracker esophagus")...
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Hyperdense pulmonary nodules

Hyperdense pulmonary nodules are a subset of pulmonary nodules that have relatively increased attenuation, usually caused by calcification within the nodule. Here, we broadly refer to a nodule as a pulmonary opacity <30 mm. Differential diagnosis calcified pulmonary nodules are a specific grou...
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Hyperimmunoglobulin IgE syndrome

Hyperimmunoglobulin E (hyper IgE) syndrome (HIES), also known as Job syndrome, consists of a heterogeneous group of complex hereditary combined B- and T-cell immune deficiency diseases characterized by recurrent Staphylococcus aureus chest infections, characteristic coarse facial appearance and ...
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Hypersensitivity pneumonitis

Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP), also known as extrinsic allergic alveolitis (EAA), represents a group of pulmonary disorders mediated by an inflammatory reaction to inhalation of an allergen that can lead to lung fibrosis.  Its diagnosis relies on a constellation of findings: exposure to an ...
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Hypertension

Hypertension refers to an increase in blood pressure above the 'normal' for the age, sex, and ethnicity of the patient. This can be specified according to the vascular system involved. Although generally when it is not specified it is assumed to refer to the systemic type. systemic hypertension...
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Hypogammaglobulinaemia

Hypogammaglobulinaemia is an immune disorder characterized by a reduction in all types of gammaglobulins.  Terminology While hypogammaglobulinaemia means some of loss of gammaglobulins, a total loss is termed agammaglobulinaemia which can occur in as an x linked form - X-linked agammaglobuline...
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Hypomyopathic dermatomyositis

Hypomyopathic dermatomyositis is a rare systemic autoimmune disorder of the skin with little to no muscle involvement. It makes up <5% of all dermatomyositis diagnoses.  Epidemiology The incidence is 2 in 1,000,000 ref and it typically affects women more than man at a 2:1 1. Clinical presenta...
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Ichikado CT scoring of acute respiratory distress syndrome

CT scoring systems have been proposed in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) to predict clinical outcomes. This scoring system was established by Ichikado et al. in 2006 2 and at the time of writing (July 2016), this is the most widely used CT scoring system. Classification...
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Idiopathic dilatation of the pulmonary trunk

Idiopathic dilatation of the pulmonary trunk is a rare congenital anomaly comprising pulmonary trunk enlargement with or without dilatation of the right and left pulmonary arteries. For this diagnosis, exclusion of pulmonary and cardiac diseases (mainly pulmonary valve stenosis) and confirmatio...
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Idiopathic giant bullous emphysema

Idiopathic giant bullous emphysema, also known as vanishing lung syndrome (VLS), is characterized by giant emphysematous bullae, which commonly develop in the upper lobes and occupy at least one-third of a hemithorax. It is a progressive condition that is also associated with several forms of em...
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Idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (mnemonic)

Idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIPs) are diffuse interstitial lung diseases of unknown cause. A useful mnemonic for the American Thoracic Society-European Respiratory Society (ATS-ERS) classification of IIPs is: All Idiopathic Chronic Lung Disease aRe Nonspecifically Patterned The mnemoni...
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Idiopathic interstitial pneumonias

The idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIPs) are diffuse interstitial lung diseases of unknown cause. They are characterized by cellular infiltration of the interstitial compartment of the lung with varying degrees of inflammation and fibrosis. Classification Over the years many attempts have...
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Idiopathic interstitial pneumonias: HRCT chest approach

The approach to HRCT chest in patients with suspected idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (IIP) is with the aim to: make sure an appropriate study requested i.e. HRCT chest with optimal individually adjusted protocol and ensure adequacy of the HRCT chest quality (see imaging protocol below) meti...
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Idiopathic pauci immune pulmonary capillaritis

Idiopathic pauci immune pulmonary capillaritis (IPIPC) is considered a rare type of pulmonary vasculitis. Some authors consider this due be an organ specific subset of microscopic polyangiitis 3. It can result in diffuse alveolar hemorrhage. Pathology It is an isolated small vessel vasculitis ...
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Idiopathic pneumonia syndrome

Idiopathic pneumonia syndrome (IPS) refers to diffuse lung injury which can occur following haematopeotic stem cell transplantation where neither an infectious nor non-infectious etiology can be found. Epidemiology The incidence of IPS is thought to be around 12% following haematopoetic stem c...
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Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a clinical syndrome and considered the most common and the most lethal form of pulmonary fibrosis corresponding to the histologic and imaging pattern of usual interstitial pneumonia. It is more common in elderly men and diagnosed by:  histological or imagi...
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Idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis

Idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis (IPH) is an uncommon form of pulmonary hemosiderosis. It is characterized by the triad of hemoptysis iron deficiency anemia diffuse pulmonary infiltrates, usually represented by diffuse pulmonary hemorrhage The diagnosis is usually made by exclusion 1. Epi...
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IgG4-related disease

IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a systemic disease that is characterized by fibroinflammatory infiltration of various organs, including by plasma cells that express IgG4 (immunoglobulin G subclass 4). Terminology This condition has been known by many other names in the past, such as IgG4-rel...
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IgG4-related lung disease

IgG4-related lung disease is a recently described condition. It may occur with or without systemic involvement. It is considered part of the spectrum of IgG4-related disease. Radiographic features CT On HRCT of the chest, it may be categorized into four major subtypes 5: solid nodular subtyp...
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Immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy related pneumonitis

Immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy-related pneumonitis is one of the complications that can occur in the setting of immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy. Radiographic features CT Variable and several distinct radiographic patterns of pneumonitis have been described which include 1:  organizi...
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Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome

Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) is paradoxical deterioration of a pre-existing illness following abrupt improvement in an individual's immune function. It is classically seen in HIV/AIDS patients following initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Increasingl...
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Incidental lung nodules

Incidental lung nodules are encountered commonly in normal clinical practice on CT. The risk of developing cancer in very small nodules (<5 mm) is very low. However, clear-cut recommendations are still not in place with high variation in practice amongst reporting radiologists 1. As a result, it...
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Incomplete border sign (chest)

The incomplete border sign is useful to depict an extrapulmonary mass on chest radiograph. An extrapulmonary mass will often have an inner well-defined border and an ill-defined outer margin 1-3. This can be attributed to the inner margin being tangential to the x-ray beam and has good inherent...
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Incomplete double aortic arch

Incomplete double aortic arch is a rare vascular ring anomaly wherein a segment of the minor aortic arch, usually the left, is atretic.  Clinical presentation As in the case of other vascular rings, this anomaly can cause 1: stridor wheezing dysphagia Some patients may reach adulthood with...
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Increased cardiothoracic ratio (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Increased cardiothoracic ratio describes widening of the cardiac silhouette on a chest radiograph. This is only of use when making an assessment of a PA chest x-ray since the AP chest x-ray causes the artefactual magnificat...
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Increased retrosternal airspace

Increased retrosternal airspace is an indicator of hyperinflation of the lungs and is usually due to emphysema. The thickness of the space between the ascending aorta and the posterior margin of the sternum (3 cm inferior to the sternomanubrial joint) and is normally no more than 2.5 cm 1 altho...
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Infantile fibrosarcoma of the lung

Infantile fibrosarcoma of the lung, also known as primary bronchopulmonary fibrosarcoma, is a very rare spindle-cell tumor. Epidemiology More than 80% of cases are reported to occur within the 1st year of life. There is a slight predominance in male infants 1,2. Clinical presentation Patient...
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Infectious bronchiolitis

Infectious bronchiolitis refers to subtype of bronchiolitis where there is an definite infective precipitant. It falls under the subgroup in inflammatory bronchiolitides and by some authors is considered a type of cellular bronchiolitis 3. It tends to be more clinically severe in children than a...
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Inferior accessory fissure of the lung

The inferior accessory fissure of the lung, also known as Twining's line, divides the medial basal bronchopulmonary segment from the rest of the lower lobe. Epidemiology This accessory fissure is present in around 12% of people when examined with CT and is visible on 5-8% of frontal chest x-ra...
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Inferior cavoatrial junction

The inferior cavoatrial junction (ICAJ) is the term given to the point at which the inferior vena cava (IVC) enters the right atrium. It is less commonly used/seen, in contradistinction to the superior cavoatrial junction.  Accurate localization of the inferior cavoatrial junction is of practic...
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Inferior mediastinum

The inferior mediastinum is the box-shaped space in the mediastinum below the transthoracic plane of Ludwig between the wedge-shaped superior mediastinum above and the diaphragm and inferior thoracic aperture below. There are no physical structures that divide the superior and inferior mediastin...
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Inferior pulmonary ligament

The inferior pulmonary ligament (or just the pulmonary ligament) is a normal anatomical structure that is often seen on chest x-ray and CT chest.  Gross anatomy The inferior pulmonary ligament is a fused triangular-shaped sheet of parietal and visceral pleura that extends from the hilum to the...
Article

Inferior thoracic aperture

The inferior thoracic aperture connects the thorax with the abdomen. Gross anatomy The inferior thoracic aperture is irregular in shape and is more oblique and much larger than the superior thoracic aperture. The diaphragm occupies and closes the inferior thoracic aperture, thereby separating ...
Article

Inflammatory bowel disease (thoracic manifestations)

Thoracic manifestations of both ulcerative colitis and Crohn disease can be variable and cannot be used to differentiate between these entities. They can develop at any time with respect to the clinical onset of the underlying disease. Actually, they can also predate the colonic disease or deve...
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Inflammatory bronchiolitis

While the term bronchiolitis in itself implies "inflammation" of the bronchioles by definition, some authors group the term inflammatory bronchiolitis as a specific group in terms of imaging as distinct from the more fibrotic - constrictive type 1. Conditions that are described under this inclu...
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Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor

Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors (IMT), also known as plasma cell granulomas, are rare neoplasms that have a diverse spectrum of biological behavior.  Terminology These tumors were previously referred to as inflammatory pseudotumor.   Epidemiology They can occur at any age and there is cu...
Article

Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor of the lung

Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors of the lungs are a location-specific type of inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors. Epidemiology They are very rare with their incidence reported at approximately 0.04-1% of all the pulmonary neoplasms 1. While it can affect any age group, around 25% of cases ...
Article

Infusothorax

Infusothorax (plural: infusothoraces), also known as a chemothorax, is a complication of central venous catheter malposition where the catheter tip is located in the pleural space and the infusion of the fluid collects inadvertently in the pleural space in the form of a pleural effusion. Longer ...
Article

Innermost intercostal muscles

The innermost intercostal muscles are muscles of respiration. They are the deepest intercostal muscles located in the intercostal spaces, and contract along with the internal intercostal muscles to reduce the transverse dimension of the thoracic cavity during expiration. Gross anatomy The inne...
Article

Innominate artery compression syndrome

Innominate artery compression syndrome, also known as brachiocephalic artery compression syndrome, is a rare cause of tracheal stenosis that occurs in the pediatric population. Radiographic features The brachiocephalic artery usually takes its origin to the left of the trachea. The artery subs...
Article

Inorganic dust

Inorganic dust types are derived from mineral rather than biological elements (organic compounds). Inhalation of these dusts may result in lung disease (pneumoconiosis), often after years of cumulative exposure. The commonest inhaled dusts that cause disease are asbestos, silica and coal dust. ...
Article

Interchondral joints

The interchondral joints are small articulations between the apposed costal cartilages of the ribs 7-10. On each side are three diminutive synovial joints between the surfaces of the 6th and 7th costal cartilages, 7th and 8th costal cartilages and 8th and 9th costal cartilages. The 9th and 10th...
Article

Intercostal catheter

The intercostal catheter (ICC or chest tube) is a tube inserted into the pleural space to drain gas or fluid. It is mainly inserted to treat pneumothorax. Indication The indications are wide and can include 1: pneumothorax chest trauma pleural effusion hemothorax chylothorax bronchopleur...
Article

Intercostal lung hernia

Intercostal lung hernias are defined as a protrusion of the lung beyond the confines of the thoracic cage. They are uncommon, mostly seen post trauma or thoracotomies.  Clinical presentation Hernias which are symptomatic may cause dyspnea, chest wall pain or a visible or palpable chest bulge (...
Article

Intercostal muscles

The intercostal muscles are an important group of muscles in the intercostal spaces (between the ribs) that contract during respiration. Three muscles are classically described, from superficial to deep: external intercostal muscles internal intercostal muscles innermost intercostal muscles ...
Article

Intercostal nerve

The intercostal nerves are the somatic nerves that arise from the anterior divisions of the thoracic spinal nerves from T1 to T11. These nerves in addition to supplying the thoracic wall also supply the pleura and peritoneum. Gross anatomy Intercostal nerves can be divided into atypical and ty...
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Intercostal nerve neurilemmoma

Intercostal nerve neurilemmomas, also known as intercostal nerve schwannoma or neurinoma, are nerve sheath encapsulated tumors affecting intercostal nerves.   Please refer to the article on schwannomas for a broad discussion about these tumors.  Epidemiology They account for <10% of primary n...

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