Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

1,708 results found
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Labeled imaging anatomy cases

This article lists a series of labeled imaging anatomy cases by system and modality. Brain CT head: non-contrast axial CT head: non-contrast coronal CT head: non-contrast sagittal CT head: angiogram axial CT head: angiogram coronal CT head: angiogram sagittal CT head: venogram axial CT ...
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Lactate dehydrogenase

Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH or LD) is a key enzyme in most cells, catalyzing the reversible conversion of pyruvate to L-lactate. Its contemporaneous main clinical uses are limited primarily to the investigation of hemolysis, serous collections and as a tumor marker. Physiology L-lactate dehydro...
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Lady Windermere syndrome

Lady Windermere syndrome refers to a pattern of pulmonary Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection seen typically in elderly white women who chronically suppress the normal cough reflex. A fastidious nature and a reticence to expectorate are believed to predispose such persons to infections w...
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Lambda sign (disambiguation)

There are a number of lambda signs: lambda sign of twin pregnancy lambda sign of sarcoidosis
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Lambda sign (sarcoidosis)

The lambda sign is seen on gallium-67 scans in the setting of thoracic sarcoidosis. Bilateral hilar and right paratracheal lymph nodes are typically involved which can resemble the Greek letter lambda (λ). See also lambda sign of twin pregnancy
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Lane-Hamilton syndrome

Lane-Hamilton syndrome (LHS) refers to the rare concurrent association of idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis and celiac disease 1. Epidemiology It is typically seen in children under the age of 15 but can occasionally be seen in adults. History and etymology It was originally described by D ...
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Langerhans cell

Langerhans cells are dendritic cells of monocyte-macrophage lineage, containing large granules called Birbeck granules. They are normally found in epithelial surfaces, lymph nodes and other organs, and can also be found elsewhere, particularly in association with Langerhans cell histiocytosis. ...
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Langerhans cell histiocytosis

Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare multisystem disease with a wide and heterogeneous clinical spectrum and variable extent of involvement.  Terminology Langerhans cell histiocytosis was previously known as histiocytosis X. The newer term is preferred as it's more descriptive of its ...
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Large-cell lung cancer

Large-cell lung cancer is one of the histological types of non-small-cell carcinomas of the lung. Epidemiology It is thought to account for approximately 10% of bronchogenic carcinoma 1. Clinical presentation Patients present with dyspnea, chronic cough and hemoptysis. Pathology Microscopi...
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Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the lung

Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) of the lung is classified as a subtype of large cell carcinoma of the lung. It is also classified as a pulmonary neuroendocrine tumor. Epidemiology The incidence peaks around the 6th decade 6. There is an increased male predilection 7. They are rare ...
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Large unilateral pleural effusion

When a pleural effusion is large and unilateral, concern for an underlying abnormality should be raised. Causes include: tumor bronchogenic carcinoma mesothelioma pleural metastases lymphoma pleural lymphoma primary effusion lymphoma infection parapneumonic effusion empyema extension ...
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Late-onset asthma

Late-onset asthma (LOA) is a form of asthma that precipitates in the adult or the elderly.  Epidemiology The estimated age- and sex-adjusted incidence of newly diagnosed asthma in people older than 65 years at around 0.1% per year 1. There may be a greater female predilection. Pathology From...
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Lateral intercostal artery perforator (LICAP) reconstruction

Lateral intercostal artery perforator (LICAP) flap is a technique performed in breast reconstruction. It is considered suitable for some patients who have breast cancer in the outer part of the breast. It aims to replace lost breast tissue, fat and occasionally skin that is removed at the time o...
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Leadless cardiac pacemaker

Leadless cardiac pacemakers are a recently introduced type of cardiac conduction device. These pacemakers are self-contained right ventricular single-chamber pacemakers that are implanted percutaneously via a femoral approach 1-3. There are currently two leadless cardiac pacemakers on the market...
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Leaky lung syndrome

Leaky lung syndrome refers to a form of non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema. Pathology Pulmonary edema due to increased capillary permeability.   Radiographic features Leaky lung syndrome is considered a mild form of a part of the spectrum of acute lung injury with ARDS at the other end of the s...
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Leflunomide induced acute interstitial pneumonia

Leflunomide induced acute interstitial pneumonia is a form of drug induced interstitial lung disease. The precipitation of radiological evidence of pulmonary infiltrates, clinical acute respiratory illness in the context of a good temporal relationship with commencement of the agent and no clear...
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Left atrial appendage closure devices

Left atrial appendage (LAA) closure devices are implantable cardiac devices which are placed in the left atrial appendage for stroke prevention in patients with atrial fibrillation who have contraindications to pharmacological anticoagulation. Depending on the device they may be inserted percuta...
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Left atrial enlargement

Left atrial enlargement (LAE) may result from many conditions, either congenital or acquired. It has some characteristic findings on a frontal chest radiograph. CT or MRI may also be used for diagnosis. Clinical presentation An enlarged left atrium can have many clinical implications, such as:...
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Left atrium

The left atrium (LA) (plural: atria) is one of the four chambers of the heart. It receives oxygenated blood from the pulmonary circulation that is then delivered to the left ventricle (LV) and then into the systemic circulation. Gross anatomy The left atrium is grossly cuboidal, and like the r...
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Left heart failure

Left heart failure (LHF) or left ventricular failure (LVF) is a type of heart failure when the left ventricle is unable to pump blood effectively out of the heart. It is often used synonymously with left ventricular failure. It is one of the commonest causes of cardiogenic pulmonary edema. Left...
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Left horizontal fissure

The left horizontal (or minor) fissure is an accessory fissure found in around 8% of individuals examined with CT 3. In a prospective study of 2,000 consecutive normal chest X-rays (AP and lateral), a definite left horizontal fissure was identified in 1.6% of the subjects 1. Gross anatomy The ...
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Left lower lobe

The left lower lobe (LLL) is one of two lobes in the left lung. It is separated from the left upper lobe by the left oblique fissure and subdivided into four bronchopulmonary segments. Gross anatomy Location and structure The LLL lies in the posterior and lower aspect of the left hemithorax a...
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Left lower lobe anteromedial segment

The left lower lobe anteromedial segment (or cardiac segment) is one of the bronchopulmonary segments of the left lower lobe. It is the most anteromedial of the segments within the base of the left upper lobe. It is the equivalent segment merger of the anterior and medial segments of the right ...
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Left lower lobe bronchus

The left main bronchus divides into the left lower lobe bronchus and the left upper lobe bronchus. It is one of the secondary lobar bronchi. Gross anatomy The left lower lobe bronchus is very short and divides immediately into the segmental bronchi.  There are usually 10 individual segmental b...
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Left lower lobe collapse

Left lower lobe collapse has distinctive features, and can be readily identified on frontal chest radiographs, provided attention is paid to the normal cardiomediastinal contours. However, the shadow cast by the heart does make it more difficult to see than the right lower lobe collapse. Some o...
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Left lower lobe consolidation

Left lower lobe consolidation refers to consolidation in part (incomplete) or all (complete) of the left lower lobe. Pathology Consolidation refers to the alveolar airspaces being filled with fluid (exudate/transudate/blood), cells (inflammatory), tissue, or other material. The list of causes...
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Left lower lobe lateral segment

The left lower lobe lateral or lateral basal segment is one of the four bronchopulmonary segments of the left lower lobe. It is the most inferolateral of the segments in the left lower lobe, below the superior segment.
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Left lower lobe posterior segment

The left lower lobe posterior or posterior basal segment is one of the four bronchopulmonary segments of the left lower lobe. It is the most inferoposterior of the segments in the left lower lobe, below the superior segment. Related pathology Due to its low and posterior position, pathology in...
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Left lower lobe superior segment

The left lower lobe superior or apical segment is one of the four bronchopulmonary segments of the left lower lobe. It is the most apical of the segments in the left lower lobe, posterior to the upper aspect of the oblique fissure and apicoposterior segment of the left upper lobe. Related patho...
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Left lung

The left lung is one of two lungs, located in the left hemithorax on the left of the heart and mediastinum.  There are a few differences between the two lungs: The left lung is smaller in volume than the right lung, with a smaller transverse dimension (due to the heart on the left) but a large...
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Left main bronchus

The trachea bifurcates into the right and left main bronchi at the level of the carina, supplying air to the right and left lungs respectively. Each main or primary bronchus enters the hilum of its lung and gives rise to secondary lobar bronchi, which further divide into tertiary segmental bronc...
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Left paramediastinal catheter position (differential)

When a central venous catheter that is supposed to terminate in the superior vena cava or right atrium is abnormally located to the left of the mediastinum and below the level of the brachiocephalic vein, a limited differential of left paramediastinal catheter position should be considered 1: l...
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Left paraspinal line

The left paraspinal (also known as the paraspinous or paravertebral) line (or stripe) is a feature of frontal chest x-rays. It is formed by the interface between the left lung and the left posterior mediastinal soft tissues 1. It is more commonly seen than the right paraspinal line. Lateral dis...
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Left paratracheal stripe

The left paratracheal stripe is formed by the interface of the medial pleural surface of the left upper lobe and left lateral border of the trachea and/or the fat adjacent 1 with air within each structure forming the outline. It may not be visible if the left upper lobe contacts the left subclav...
Article

Left pulmonary artery

The left pulmonary artery (LPA) is one of the branches of the pulmonary trunk, branching at the level of the transthoracic plane of Ludwig. It is shorter than the right pulmonary artery and represents a direct posterior continuation of the pulmonary trunk. It arches posterosuperiorly over the su...
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Left superior intercostal vein

The left superior intercostal vein drains the left posterosuperior hemithorax and is considered to be part of the azygos venous system even though it does not directly drain into the azygos vein.  Gross anatomy Origin and course The left superior intercostal vein forms by the union of the 2nd...
Article

Left upper lobe

The left upper lobe (LUL) is one of two lobes in the left lung. It is separated from the left lower lobe by the left oblique fissure and subdivided into four bronchopulmonary segments, two of which represent the lingula. Gross anatomy Location and structure The left upper lobe lies in the upp...
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Left upper lobe anterior segment

The left upper lobe anterior segment is one of the four bronchopulmonary segments of the left upper lobe. It is the most anterior of the segments in the left upper lobe lying below and anterior to the apicoposterior segment and above the oblique fissure.
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Left upper lobe apicoposterior segment

The left upper lobe apicoposterior segment is one of the bronchopulmonary segments of the left upper lobe. As its name suggests, it is the most apical and posterior of the segments within the left upper lobe and is supplied by the left apicoposterior segmental bronchus. It is the equivalent seg...
Article

Left upper lobe bronchus

The left main bronchus divides into the left upper lobe bronchus and the left lower lobe bronchus. It is one of the secondary lobar bronchi. Gross Anatomy The left upper lobe bronchus is very short and divides immediately into the segmental bronchi.  There are usually 10 individual segmental b...
Article

Left upper lobe collapse

Left upper lobe collapse has distinctive features but can be challenging to identify on chest radiographs by the uninitiated. Hence it is a classic chest radiograph case for radiology fellowships exams. For a general discussion refer to the article on lobar collapse. Radiographic features Pla...
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Left upper lobe collapse in the exam

Getting a film with left upper lobe collapse in the exam is one of the many exam set-pieces that can be prepared for. Description This frontal chest radiograph shows a hazy (or veil-like*) opacification of the left hemithorax that is associated with superior displacement left hilum and horizon...
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Left upper lobe consolidation

Left upper lobe consolidation refers to consolidation in part (incomplete) or all (complete) of the left upper lobe. Pathology Consolidation refers to the alveolar air spaces being filled with fluid (exudate/transudate/blood), cells (inflammatory), tissue, or other material. The list of cause...
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Left upper lobe inferior lingular segment

The left upper lobe inferior lingular segment is one of the four bronchopulmonary segments of the left upper lobe. It lies below the superior lingular segment of the left upper lobe.
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Left upper lobe superior lingular segment

The left upper lobe superior lingular segment is one of the four bronchopulmonary segments of the left upper lobe. It lies below the apicoposterior and anterior segments of the left upper lobe.
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Left ventricle

The left ventricle is one of four heart chambers. It receives oxygenated blood from the left atrium and pumps it into the systemic circulation via the aorta. Gross anatomy The left ventricle is conical in shape with an anteroinferiorly projecting apex and is longer with thicker walls than the ...
Article

Legionella pneumonia

Legionella pneumonia, also known as Legionnaires' disease, refers to pulmonary infection primarily with the organism Legionella pneumophila. It is sometimes classified as atypical pneumonia.  Epidemiology Legionella pneumonia tends to be more prevalent among immunocompromised patients. Legione...
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Lepidic-predominant adenocarcinoma of the lung

Lepidic-predominant adenocarcinoma (LPA) of the lung, formerly known as non-mucinous bronchoalveolar carcinoma, is a subtype of invasive adenocarcinoma of the lung characterized histologically when the lepidic component comprises the majority of the lesion. Terminology The category of 'lepid p...
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Leptospirosis

Leptospirosis results from infection of the zoonoses Leptospira spp. The condition can have multiorgan manifestations. Commonly affected organs include: lung: pulmonary leptospirosis liver: hepatic leptospirosis central nervous system: CNS leptospirosis skeletal muscle: muscular leptospirosi...
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Lesser diaphragmatic apertures

The lesser diaphragmatic apertures allow the passage of smaller structures from the thoracic cavity to abdominal cavity across the diaphragm. They are very much smaller than the other diaphragmatic apertures: two in the right crus of the diaphragm: transmit greater and lesser right splanchnic n...
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Leukemia (thoracic manifestations)

Thoracic manifestations of leukemia can be divided into those related to the disease itself and those associated with its treatment. Leukaemias are hematologic malignancies in which occur a proliferation of hematopoietic cells at an undifferentiated or partially differentiated stage of maturatio...
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Leukemic cell lysis pneumopathy

Leukemic cell lysis pneumopathy, also referred to as acute lysis pneumopathy, refers to an acute respiratory failure that can occur in patients with leukemia after the initiation of chemotherapy, particularly in those with hyperleukocytosis. On imaging, it manifests with features of acute respir...
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Leukostasis

Leukostasis, also referred to as symptomatic hyperleukocytosis, is a medical emergency in patients with leukemia, particularly acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and in the blast phase of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), characterized by the over-accumulation of leukemic cells within the small vessels....
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Ligamantum arteriosum calcification

Ligamantum arteriosum calcification can be a common finding on chest CT scans in adults and can increases in prevalence with increasing age and atherosclerosis. It can sometimes even be present in children 3. Many patterns have been described which include. punctate: considered commonest curv...
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Ligamentum arteriosum

The ligamentum arteriosum (or arteriosus) is the small fibrous remnant of the fetal ductus arteriosum, located between and connecting the proximal left pulmonary artery and the undersurface of the junction of the aortic arch and descending aorta, at the aortic isthmus. The left recurrent larynge...
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Light chain deposition disease

Light chain deposition disease (LCDD) is a rare disease.  It can affect multiple organ systems.  renal manifestations of light chain deposition disease - renal involvement is a constant feature, resulting in proteinuria with or without nephrotic syndrome and renal failure.  hepatic manifestat...
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Light chain deposition disease (pulmonary manifestations)

Pulmonary manifestations of light chain deposition disease are rare when considering the full disease spectrum of light chain deposition disease. Pathology The light chains are secreted by a plasma clone and deposit in the alveolar walls, small airways, and vessels.  Radiographic features CT...
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Linear atelectasis

Linear atelectasis refers to a focal area of subsegmental atelectasis that has a linear shape. Depending on its shape, it is also known as plate, discoid or band atelectasis. Linear atelectasis may appear to be horizontal, oblique or perpendicular and is very common. It usually occurs as a conse...
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Lines and tubes (chest radiograph)

Lines and tubes are important components in chest radiographic evaluation. Nasogastric (NG) tube See: nasogastric tube positioning.  Correct position NG tube tip ≥10 cm distal to the gastro-esophageal junction i.e. below the left hemidiaphragm Complications insertion into trachea or bronc...
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Lingula (disambiguation)

Lingula (plural: lingulae) can refer to a number of different anatomical structures: lingula (mandible) lingula (lung) lingula (cerebellum) lingula (sphenoid bone) History and etymology Lingula is the diminutive form of lingua, Latin for the tongue. Thus lingula is used for a small tongue-...
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Lingula (lung)

The lingula is a combined term for the two lingular bronchopulmonary segments of the left upper lobe: superior lingular segment inferior lingular segment The two lingular segments are the most anterior of the segments in the left upper lobe lying below the apicoposterior and anterior segments...
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Lipoblastoma of lung

Lipoblastoma of the lung is a fat derived thoracic tumor. Epidemiology They occur during infancy and early childhood. More than 90% of cases are diagnosed in children less than 3 years of age, with nearly 75% occurring before the age of 12 months Pathology Lipoblastomas are rare soft-tissue ...
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Lipoid pneumonia

Lipoid pneumonia is a form of pneumonia associated with oily or lipid components within the pneumonitis component. This can either result from aspiration of oily substances (exogenous lipoid pneumonia) or endogenous accumulation of lipid substances in the alveoli (endogenous lipoid pneumonia)...
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Lipomatosis

Lipomatosis is a condition where there is diffuse excessive fat deposition within the body. This can especially affect certain regions. neck and upper region of trunk Madelung disease mediastinal lipomatosis heart lipomatous hypertrophy of the interatrial septum lipomatous metaplasia of th...
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Liquefactive necrosis

Liquefactive necrosis is a form of necrosis where there is transformation of the tissue into a liquid viscous mass. Pathology In liquefactive necrosis, the affected cell is completely digested by hydrolytic enzymes leading to a soft, circumscribed lesion which can consist of fluid with remains...
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Lobar collapse (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Lobar collapse is relatively common and occurs following obstruction of a bronchus. Gas is resorbed from the lung parenchyma distal to the obstruction resulting in the collapse of the lung, with volume reduction and negativ...
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Lobar consolidation

Lobar consolidation is the term used to describe consolidation in one of the lobes of the lung. It infers a alveolar spead of disease and is most commonly due to pneumonia. Pathology Consolidation refers to the alveolar airspaces being filled with fluid (exudate/transudate/blood), cells (infla...
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Lobar lung collapse

Lobar collapse refers to the collapse of an entire lobe of the lung. As such it is a subtype of atelectasis (collapse is not entirely synonymous with atelectasis, which is a more generic term for 'incomplete expansion').  Individual lobes of the lung may collapse due to obstruction of the supply...
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Lobar pneumonia

Lobar pneumonia, also known as non-segmental pneumonia or focal non-segmental pneumonia 7, is a radiological pattern associated with homogeneous and fibrinosuppurative consolidation of one or more lobes of a lung in response to bacterial pneumonia.  The radiological appearance of lobar pneumoni...
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Lobectomy (lung)

A lobectomy (plural: lobectomies) is the complete resection of one lobe of the lung and is the commonest lung surgery performed for bronchogenic carcinoma. Technique A posterolateral thoracotomy is the commonest approach for the resection of lung malignancies. For other surgical approaches for...
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Localized mediastinal malignant mesothelioma

A localized (solitary) mediastinal malignant mesothelioma is a rare variant of malignant pleural mesothelioma and is thought to arise from mesothelial cells of the pericardium. There are too few report cases to be dogmatic in regards to epidemiological or radiographic features. Differential d...
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Localized pulmonary emphysema

Localized pulmonary emphysema is not a commonly used term but generally used to describe pulmonary emphysema confined to a particular location within the lung (may involve a lobe, segment or subsegment). It has also been used to describe focal areas of enlargement or destruction of air spaces wi...
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Localized pulmonary hemorrhage

Localized pulmonary hemorrhage is a descriptive term for a pulmonary hemorrhage restricted to a particular focal region of the lung. It can range from involving a small focus of hemorrhage to a whole lobe. Pathology Etiology Focal pulmonary hemorrhage can occur from a number of causes: pulmo...
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Loculated pneumothorax

A loculated pneumothorax is a form of pneumothorax where a pocket of pleural air is trapped within a localized area. They may occur in a number of situations including in patients with acute respiratory disease treated with mechanical ventilation 1 and status post pleural aspiration in the conte...
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Löffler syndrome

Simple pulmonary eosinophilia (also known as Löffler syndrome) is a type of pulmonary eosinophilia that typically presents with transient radiographic infiltrates, minimal constitutional upset, and an elevated eosinophil count in peripheral blood. Pathology Etiology The cause is not usually i...
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Löfgren syndrome

Löfgren syndrome is a specific acute clinical presentation of systemic sarcoidosis that usually manifests with lymphadenopathy, fevers, erythema nodosum, and arthritis.  Terminology It is important to not confuse this syndrome with Löffler syndrome, as the names are quite similar but the condi...
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Low attenuation lymphadenopathy

Low attenuation lymphadenopathy refers to abnormal lymph nodes that on CT appear to have lower attenuation than other soft tissues. This category can be split into two types: cystic (necrotic) lymph nodes metastatic carcinoma (or lymphoma) infections (tuberculous or fungal) cavitating mesent...
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Lower lobe bronchiectasis

The distribution of bronchiectasis can help in narrowing the differential diagnosis. Lower lobe bronchiectasis is the commonest zonal predilection in bronchiectasis 2. It is mostly idiopathic but can be typically seen in post infective bronchiectasis recurrent childhood infections aspiration ...
Article

Lower respiratory tract infection

A lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) is a very broad term which can mean inflammation of the respiratory tract below the level of the larynx. This term may include a pneumonia (which is often given to described more organized consolidation within the lungs). There is also overlap with the ...
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Lower zone

The lower zone is one of the four chest radiograph zones.  Radiographic features Plain radiograph on frontal chest radiographs, extends inferiorly from the inferior aspect of the hilum to the hemidiaphragm
Article

Luftsichel sign (lungs)

The luftsichel sign is seen in some cases of left upper lobe collapse and refers to the frontal chest radiographic appearance due to hyperinflation of the superior segment of the left lower lobe interposing itself between the mediastinum and the collapsed left upper lobe.   Radiographic feature...
Article

Lumbar rib

Lumbar (or 13th) ribs are a rare anatomical variant and represent transitional vertebrae at the thoracolumbar junction with a prevalence of ~1% 1. It presents as an additional rib coming off T13 or L1 (depending on numbering classification) and may be unilateral or bilateral. Lumbar ribs are mos...
Article

Lunate trachea

Lunate trachea is a rare variant of the trachea in inspiration where the trachea has a flattened shape said to resemble a crescent or moon. Normally the tracheal index (ratio of coronal to sagittal diameter) is less than 1, but with lunate trachea the ratio is greater than 1 1, 2. It is a very ...
Article

Lung

The lungs are the functional units of respiration and are key to survival. They contain 1500 miles of airways, 300-500 million alveoli and have a combined surface area of 70 square meters (half a tennis court). Each lung weighs approximately 1.1 kg. They are affected by a wide range of pathology...
Article

Lung abscess

Lung abscesses are circumscribed collections of pus within the lungs. They are often complicated to manage and difficult to treat and, in some cases, may be life-threatening. Epidemiology As a result of the widespread availability of antibiotics, the incidence of lung abscesses has dramaticall...
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Lung architectural distortion

Lung architectural distortion in thoracic radiology refers to a descriptive term give when the normal pulmonary bronchial, vascular, fissural or septal anatomy is disrupted and manifested as loss of smooth course of the fissures, crowding of dilated bronchioles or vessels with angulated course 1...
Article

Lung atelectasis

Lung atelectasis (plural: atelectases) refers to collapse or incomplete expansion of pulmonary parenchyma. Note that the term "atelectasis" is typically used when there is partial collapse, whereas the term "collapsed lung" is typically reserved for when the entire lung is totally collapsed.   ...
Article

Lung cancer

Lung cancer (primary lung cancer), or frequently if somewhat incorrectly known as bronchogenic carcinoma, is a broad term referring to the main histological subtypes of primary lung malignancies that are mainly linked with inhaled carcinogens, with cigarette smoke being a key culprit.  This art...
Article

Lung cancer associated with cystic airspaces

Lung cancer associated with cystic airspaces, rather than a distinct disease, represents a spectrum of radiological patterns of tumor growth mainly characterized by lesions arising or abutting the walls of cystic airspaces. Attention to this pattern has been brought in the recent decades primari...
Article

Lung cancer screening

Lung cancer screening with low-dose CT (LDCT) is an imaging strategy that is beginning to be adopted for high-risk patients in some health systems. Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer death worldwide, and there is accumulating higher level evidence that a mortality benefit exists with...
Article

Lung cancer (staging - IASLC 7th edition - superseded)

The IASLC (International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer) 7th edition lung cancer staging system was proposed in 2010 and has now been updated and superseded by the 8th edition, published in 2016. Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) used to be staged di...
Article

Lung cancer (staging - IASLC 8th edition)

The IASLC (International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer) 8th edition lung cancer staging system was introduced in 2016 and supersedes the IASLC 7th edition.  Standard-of-care lung cancer staging ideally should be performed in a multidisciplinary meeting using the information provided ...
Article

Lung cancer (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and non-radiologists Lung cancer is the most common cancer worldwide and refers to malignancy originating in the airways or pulmonary parenchyma. Clinical presentation Patients may be asymptomatic until locally advanced or metastatic disease. The m...

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