Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

1,430 results found
Article

Langerhans cell histiocytosis

Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare multi-system disease with a wide and heterogeneous clinical spectrum and variable extent of involvement.  Terminology Langerhans cell histiocytosis was previously known as histiocytosis X. The newer term is preferred as it's more descriptive of its...
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Lipomatosis

Lipomatosis is a condition where there is diffuse excessive fat deposition within the body. This can especially affect certain regions. neck and upper region of trunk Madelung disease mediastinal lipomatosis heart lipomatous hypertrophy of the interatrial septum lipomatous metaplasia of th...
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Carney triad

The Carney triad (not to be confused with the related Carney Stratakis syndrome, or the unrelated Carney complex) is a rare syndrome defined by the coexistence of three tumours: extra-adrenal paraganglioma (e.g. spinal paraganglioma) initially, only functioning extra-adrenal paragangliomas wer...
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Aspergilloma

Aspergillomas are mass-like fungus balls that are typically composed of Aspergillus fumigatus and are a non-invasive form of pulmonary aspergillosis. It usually falls under the subgroup chronic pulmonary aspergillosis. Terminology Although the term mycetoma is frequently used to describe these...
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Pulmonary embolism

Pulmonary embolism (PE) refers to embolic occlusion of the pulmonary arterial system. The majority of cases result from thrombotic occlusion, and therefore the condition is frequently termed pulmonary thromboembolism which is what this article mainly covers. Other embolic sources include: air ...
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Bronchiectasis

Bronchiectasis refers to abnormal dilatation of the bronchial tree and is seen in a variety of clinical settings. CT is the most accurate modality for diagnosis. It is largely considered irreversible. Epidemiology As there are many causes of bronchiectasis, which may occur at essentially any a...
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Unilateral hypertranslucent hemithorax

Unilateral hypertranslucent hemithorax has many potential causes. It may be the result of rotation away from an optimal position or because of pathology. Rotation A unilateral hypertranslucent hemithorax may be caused by the positioning of the patient. Rotation away from the radiation beam alt...
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Pulmonary embolism rule-out criteria (PERC)

The pulmonary embolism rule-out criteria (PERC) may be utilised to negate the need for further pulmonary embolism (PE) workup in patients who are deemed low risk for PE but in whom the diagnosis is being considered 1. Criteria age <50 pulse <100 bpm oxygen saturation >95% on room air absenc...
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Aortic dissection

Aortic dissection is the most common form of the acute aortic syndromes and a type of arterial dissection. It occurs when blood enters the medial layer of the aortic wall through a tear or penetrating ulcer in the intima and tracks along the media, forming a second blood-filled channel within th...
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Luftsichel sign (lungs)

The Luftsichel sign is seen in some cases of left upper lobe collapse and refers to the frontal chest radiographic appearance due to hyperinflation of the superior segment of the left lower lobe interposing itself between the mediastinum and the collapsed left upper lobe.   Radiographic feature...
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Hypersensitivity pneumonitis

Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP), also known as extrinsic allergic alveolitis, represents a group of pulmonary disorders mediated by an inflammatory reaction to inhalation of an allergen. These may be organic or inorganic particles (microbes, animal or plant proteins, and certain chemicals) tha...
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Elevated hemidiaphragm

Elevated hemidiaphragms can result from many causes: above the diaphragm 1 decreased lung volume atelectasis/collapse lobectomy/pneumonectomy pulmonary hypoplasia diaphragm 3-7 phrenic nerve palsy diaphragmatic eventration contralateral stroke: usually middle cerebral artery distribut...
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Low attenuation lymphadenopathy

Low attenuation lymphadenopathy suggests underlying necrosis and can be seen in: metastatic carcinoma (or lymphoma) infections (tuberculous or fungal) Whipple disease coeliac sprue inflammatory necrotic disorders (e.g. Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease) See also lymphadenopathy low attenuation ly...
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Oesophageal stricture

Oesophageal strictures refer to any persistent intrinsic narrowing of the oesophagus.  Pathology Aetiology The most common causes are fibrosis induced by inflammatory and neoplastic processes. Because radiographic findings are not reliable in differentiating benign from malignant strictures, ...
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Methotrexate lung disease

Methotrexate lung disease is the specific aetiological type of drug-induced lung disease. It can occur due to the administration of methotrexate which is an antimetabolite, which is given for various reasons but commonly to treat rheumatoid arthritis. It is also given alone or in combination wit...
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Drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms

Drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) is a syndrome reflecting a marked hypersensitivity reaction to drugs or medications. Clinical presentation  Clinical presentation can be variable and symptoms may arise from 2 to 8 weeks after initiating the offending drug. Typical cli...
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Costal cartilage

The costal cartilages form part of the thoracic cage and anterior chest wall. There are 10 costal cartilages, one for rib 1-10, with each of which forms a costochondral joint. Costal cartilages 1-7 articulate with the sternum at sternocostal joints, and costal cartilages 8-10 are attached to eac...
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Cervical rib

Cervical ribs are supernumerary or accessory ribs arising from the seventh cervical vertebra. They occur in ~0.5% of the population, are usually bilateral, but often asymmetric 2, and are more common in females.  Although cervical ribs are usually asymptomatic, they are the most important anato...
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Costal cartilage fracture

Costal cartilage fractures are fractures of the cartilage connecting the ribs anteriorly to the sternum. Epidemiology There is little published data on costal cartilage fractures. Most reported cases are in males and resulted from blunt trauma or a fall 1,2. Clinical presentation In young ch...
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Scleroderma (pulmonary manifestations)

Pulmonary manifestations of scleroderma are demonstrated histologically in 90% of patients with scleroderma. It is a leading cause of mortality and at autopsy. The lung is reportedly involved in close to 100% of cases. However, only 25% of patients will present with respiratory symptoms or demon...
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Kerley lines in the exam

Getting a film with Kerley lines in the exam is one of the many exam set-pieces that can be prepared for. The film goes up and after a couple of seconds pause, you need to start talking: CXR There are bilateral basal interstitial lines that extend to the pleural surface - these are septal (Ke...
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Benjamin Felson

Benjamin "Benny" Felson (1913-1988) was a renowned Cincinnati chest radiologist who coined or popularised several of the most commonly-used terms in the everyday parlance of the English-speaking radiology community.   Early life Benjamin Felson was born in Newport, Kentucky on 21st October 191...
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Pulmonary pseudotumour

A pulmonary pseudotumour is no more than 'something' which mimics a tumour. Most frequently the term is used to denote focal collections of fluid trapped in the pleural fissures. Other entities which have been described with the term pseudotumours include: round atelectasis pulmonary inflammat...
Article

Pneumomediastinum

Pneumomediastinum is the presence of extraluminal gas within the mediastinum. Gas may originate from the lungs, trachea, central bronchi, oesophagus, and peritoneal cavity and track from the mediastinum to the neck or abdomen. Terminology In the setting of trauma, if pneumomediastinum is visib...
Article

Swyer-James syndrome

Swyer-James syndrome (SJS), also known as Swyer-James-MacLeod syndrome and Bret syndrome, is a rare lung condition that manifests as unilateral hemithorax lucency as a result of postinfectious obliterative bronchiolitis.  Epidemiology The condition typically follows a viral respiratory infecti...
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Bird fancier lung

Bird fancier lung refers to a type of hypersensitivity pneumonitis occurring as a response to avian antigens (usually inhaled proteins in the dust of bird feathers and droppings). It can have acute, subacute and chronic clinical presentations. For a broad discussion on this entity, please refer...
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All-trans retinoic acid syndrome

All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) syndrome (more recently known as differentiation syndrome (DS)8) is a condition that can occur with patients with acute promyelocytic leukaemia who are on therapeutic all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA). All-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) is a normal constituent of plasma....
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Dynamic tracheal collapse

Dynamic tracheal collapse refers to collapse of the trachea during expiration. It is perhaps best assessed on CT in the end expiratory phase. An inspiratory series is also useful for comparative purposes. The term excessive dynamic airway collapse (EDAC) refers to abnormal and exaggerated bulgin...
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Oesophagus

The oesophagus is a muscular tube that conveys food and fluids from the pharynx to the stomach. Gross anatomy The oesophagus is 23-37 cm long with a diameter of 1-2 cm and is divided into three parts: cervical: continuous with the hypopharynx, commences at the lower border of cricoid cartilag...
Article

Pectus excavatum

Pectus excavatum (or funnel chest) is a congenital chest wall deformity characterised by concave depression of the sternum, resulting in cosmetic and radiographic alterations. Epidemiology It is the most common chest wall deformity, accounting for approximately 90% of cases, occurs in up to 1 ...
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Musculophrenic artery

The musculophrenic artery is one of two terminal branches of the internal thoracic artery. Gross anatomy The musculophrenic artery runs along the costal slips of the diaphragm. It supplies the 7th, 8th and 9th intercostal spaces with paired anterior intercostal arteries, as well as fine branch...
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Usual interstitial pneumonia

Usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) is one of the morphological and pathological patterns of interstitial lung disease. On imaging, it usually presents with a patchy craniocaudal gradient of peripheral septal thickening, bronchiectasis, and honeycombing.  Terminology In the past, the term usua...
Article

Hydatid disease

Hydatid cysts result from infection by the Echinococcus, and can result in cyst formation anywhere in the body.  Pathology There are two main species of the Echinococcus tapeworm 1,2: Echinococcus granulosus commoner pastoral: dog is a main host; most common form sylvatic: wolf is a main h...
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Wells criteria for pulmonary embolism

The Wells criteria for pulmonary embolism is a risk stratification score and clinical decision rule to estimate the probability for acute pulmonary embolism (PE) in patients in which history and examination suggests acute PE is a diagnostic possibility. It provides a pre-test probability which, ...
Article

Cystic lung disease (gamut)

The gamut for cystic lung disease is long, but includes: emphysema cystic bronchiectasis honeycombing pneumatocele lymphangiomyomatosis pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis Sjogren disease lymphoid interstitial pneumonia See also cystic lung disease
Article

Hydatid cyst signs

There are several signs of hydatid cysts seen associated with hydatid disease: cumbo sign: air is seen between the pericyst and the laminated membrane of the cyst  serpent sign: internal rupture of the cyst with collapse of membranes of the parasite into the cyst spin sign / whirl sign: detac...
Article

Random pulmonary nodules

Random pulmonary nodules refer to a distribution pattern of pulmonary nodules where their pattern of involvement with respect to the lung lacks an architectural predominance. These nodules affect the fissures, peribronchovascular structures and the centre of the secondary pulmonary nodules. They...
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Endobronchial metastases

Endobronchial metastases (EBMs) are an uncommon form of intrathoracic metastases. They are much less common than intrapulmonary metastases. Clinical presenation The clinical presentation varies and includes: haemoptysis cough post-obstructive pneumonitis from distal obstruction Pathology ...
Article

Pericardial calcification

Pericardial calcification usually occurs in patients with a history of pericarditis.  Pathology Aetiology uraemia previous trauma or prior pericarditis later sequelae of rheumatic heart disease malignant pericardial involvement (e.g. mediastinal teratoma) On chest radiography, location of...
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Tracheal and endobronchial lesions

Primary tracheal and endobronchial lesions are generally rare and can be either malignant or benign. The majority of these lesions are malignant. Pathology Malignant primary malignant endobronchial lesions bronchogenic adenocarcinoma squamous cell carcinoma: commonest malignant lesion in tr...
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Carcinoid tumour

Carcinoid tumours are a type of neuroendocrine tumour that can occur in a number of locations. Carcinoid tumours arise from endocrine amine precursor uptake and decarboxylation (APUD) cells that can be found throughout the gastrointestinal tract as well as other organs (e.g. lung). In general, t...
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Pulmonary Mycobacterium chelonae infection

Pulmonary Mycobacterium chelonae infection is a type of pulmonary non-tuberculous mycobacterial infection where the causative organism is Mycobacterium chelonae. Pathology M. chelonae is classified as rapidly growing mycobacterium (RGM), class IV in the Runyon classification.  Radiographic fe...
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Cylindrical bronchiectasis

Cylindrical bronchiectasis (or tubular bronchiectasis) is the most commonly identified morphologic type of bronchiectasis where there is smooth uniform enlargement of bronchi with loss of the normal distal tapering of the airways but without focal outpouchings or tortuosity.  Radiographic featu...
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Tram-track sign (chest)

Tram-track sign may be used in chest radiography or CT to denote the thickened non-tapering (parallel) walls of cylindrical bronchiectasis. It should not be confused with other tram-track signs elsewhere in the body. 
Article

Lung atelectasis

Lung atelectasis refers to collapse or incomplete expansion of pulmonary parenchyma. Note that the term "atelectasis" is typically used when there is partial collapse, whereas the term "collapsed lung" is typically reserved for when the entire lung is totally collapsed. Classification Atelecta...
Article

Folliculin gene-associated syndrome

Folliculin gene-associated syndrome (FLCN-S) or Birt-Hogg-Dubé (BHD) syndrome is a genetic multisystemic disease mainly characterised by: multiple lung cysts and secondary spontaneous pneumothoraces multiple bilateral renal tumours (particularly chromophobe renal cell cancer and oncocytoma) c...
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Mixed connective tissue disease (pulmonary manifestations)

Pulmonary manifestations of mixed connective tissue disease can be seen in a wide range (20-85%) of those of mixed connective tissue disease. It can have multiple manifestations.  More commonly described features include: an interstitial pneumonitis: 20-65% pulmonary fibrosis: 20-65% pulmona...
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Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a clinical syndrome and considered the most common and the most lethal form of pulmonary fibrosis corresponding to the histologic and imaging pattern of UIP. It is more common in middle age or elderly men and diagnosed by:  histological or imaging pattern ...
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Pulmonary fibrosis

Pulmonary fibrosis is a descriptive term given when there is excess of fibrotic tissue in lung. It can occur in a wide range of clinical settings and can be precipitated by a multitude of causes. The term should not be confused with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis which is a progressive fibrotic l...
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Lymphangitic carcinomatosis

Lymphangitic carcinomatosis, or lymphangitis carcinomatosa, is the term given to tumour spread through the lymphatics of the lung and is most commonly seen secondary to adenocarcinoma. Epidemiology The demographics will reflect that of the underlying malignancy (see below). Clinical presentat...
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Paracicatricial emphysema

Paracicatricial emphysema is a morphological sub type of pulmonary emphysema.  Pathology In this form, emphysematous spaces are seen adjacent to areas of scarring with latter usually caused by silicosis, granulomatous infection, tuberculosis, pneumonia or pulmonary infarction. Radiographic fe...
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Tc-99m MAA

Tc-99m MAA (macroaggregated albumin) is one of the technetium radiopharmaceuticals used in lung perfusion imaging. Characteristics photon energy: 140 KeV physical half life: 6 hours biological half life: 2-3 hours normal distribution: lungs, liver, spleen, kidneys pharmacokinetics: >90% p...
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Broncho-arterial ratio

The broncho-arterial (BA) ratio is a descriptive parameter used in thoracic CT imaging. It is defined as the diameter of the bronchial lumen divided by the diameter of its accompanying artery 1. It is usually measured in the segmental to subsegmental artery level. In healthy humans, the broncho...
Article

Posterior junction line

The posterior junction (junctional) line is formed by the opposition of the pleural surfaces of the posteromedial surfaces of the upper lobes of the lungs, posteriorly to the oesophagus but anterior to the thoracic spine (usually T3-T5) 1,2. There are many causes for an abnormal appearance of t...
Article

Stab wound: overview

Stab wounds are a form of penetrating trauma that may be self-inflicted or inflicted by another person either accidentally or intentionally. They may be caused from a variety of objects and may occur anywhere in the body. Terminology Although commonly caused by a knife as well, slash injuries ...
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Penetrating thoracic trauma

Penetrating thoracic trauma, namely gunshot and stab injuries, vary widely in incidence globally but nevertheless result in high mortality and serious morbidity. CT is the modality of choice in imaging these patients and can reduce the need for surgical exploration.  Pathology Penetrating thor...
Article

Diffuse idiopathic pulmonary neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia

Diffuse idiopathic pulmonary neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia (DIPNECH) is an extremely rare pulmonary disorder at the benign end of the neuroendocrine cells proliferation spectrum. It is mainly seen in non-smoker middle age females with a history of chronic cough or asthma.  On imaging, it is c...
Article

Pulmonary interstitial emphysema

Pulmonary interstitial emphysema (PIE) refers to the abnormal location of air within the pulmonary interstitium and lymphatics. It typically results from rupture of overdistended alveoli following barotrauma in infants who have hyaline membrane disease. Interstitial emphysema can also occasional...
Article

Azygo-oesophageal recess deviation

The azygoesophageal recess (AER) is formed by the interface between the right lung and the mediastinal reflection of the azygos vein and oesphagus. The line has a variable appearance: in its upper third, it deviates to the right, where it may either be straight or concave relative to the right ...
Article

Lung transplant complications

Lung transplant complications can occur at variable time intervals following transplantation.  It is essential for radiologists to be aware of specific complications as chest imaging is routinely used in the post-transplant assessment. When reporting a postoperative chest radiograph or CT, it i...
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Obliterative bronchiolitis

Obliterative bronchiolitis (OB), also known as bronchiolitis obliterans or constrictive bronchiolitis, is a type of bronchiolitis and refers to bronchiolar inflammation with submucosal peribronchial fibrosis associated with luminal stenosis and occlusions. OB should not be confused with bronchio...
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Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis

Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is a lung disease characterised by an abnormal intra-alveolar accumulation of surfactant-derived lipoproteinaceous material. PAP is classically associated with the crazy paving pattern of lung findings on CT, although it is a rare cause of this non-specific ...
Article

Congestive cardiac failure

Congestive cardiac failure (CCF), also known as congestive heart failure (CHF), refers to the clinical syndrome caused by inherited or acquired abnormalities of heart structure and function, causing a constellation of symptoms and signs that lead to decreased quality and quantity of life. Epide...
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Mucoid impaction (lung)

Mucoid impaction, also referred to as mucus plugging or bronchocele, airway filling by mucoid secretions and can be obstructive or non-obstructive. It is a common pathological finding in chest imaging. Pathology Aetiology Mucoid impaction may result from either obstructive or non-obstructive ...
Article

Radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis

Radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis is the late manifestation of radiation-induced lung disease (RILD) and is relatively common following radiotherapy for chest wall or intrathoracic malignancies. This article does not deal with changes seen in the acute phase. Please refer to the article on r...
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Diffuse alveolar haemorrhage

Diffuse alveolar haemorrhage (DAH) is a subset of diffuse pulmonary haemorrhage when bleeding is diffuse and directly into the alveolar spaces. It can occur in a vast number of clinical situations and can be life threatening. Pathology Blood tends to fill alveolar spaces at multiple sites. Ae...
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Aortic intramural haematoma

Aortic intramural haematoma (IMH) is an atypical form of aortic dissection due to haemorrhage into the wall from the vasa vasorum without an intimal tear. It is part of the acute aortic syndrome spectrum. Epidemiology Typically aortic intramural haematomas are seen in older hypertensive patien...
Article

Hampton hump

Hampton hump refers to a dome-shaped, pleural-based opacification in the lung most commonly due to pulmonary embolism and lung infarction (it can also result from other causes of pulmonary infarction (e.g. vascular occlusion due to angioinvasive aspergillosis). While a pulmonary embolism is expe...
Article

Coin lesion (lung)

Coin lesion refers to a round or oval, well-circumscribed solitary pulmonary lesion. It is usually 1-5 cm in diameter and calcification may or may not be present 1,3. Typically but not always the patient is asymptomatic 1.  Differential diagnosis The differential diagnosis for such lesions is ...
Article

Melting ice cube sign (lungs)

The melting ice cube sign describes the resolution of pulmonary haemorrhage following pulmonary embolism (PE).  When there is pulmonary haemorrhage without infarction following PE, the typical wedge-shaped, pleural-based opacification (Hampton's hump) resolves within a week while preserving its...
Article

Continuous diaphragm sign

The continuous diaphragm sign is a chest radiograph sign of pneumomediastinum or pneumopericardium if lucency is above the diaphragm, or of pneumoperitoneum if lucency is below the diaphragm.  Normally the central portion of the diaphragm is not discretely visualised on chest radiographs as it ...
Article

Chest x-ray lines and stripes

Chest x-ray lines and stripes are important to recognise on chest radiographs.  Lines are usually less than 1mm in width and are comprised of tissue outlined on either side by air and typically represent pleural-covered structures within the middle and superior mediastinum 1, 2: anterior junct...
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Nodular pulmonary amyloidosis

Nodular pulmonary amyloidosis is a subtype of pulmonary amyloidosis. It is considered a limited form of amyloidosis polarised by one or more intrapulmonary nodules or masses (amyloidomas). Epidemiology Albeit rare in general it is commoner than the diffuse parenchymal form. The incidence is th...
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Tracheobronchial amyloidosis

Tracheobronchial amyloidosis refers to tracheal and/or bronchial involvement in amyloidosis. It is sometimes classified as a subtype of pulmonary amyloidosis. Epidemiology It is a rare manifestation with some reports suggesting less than 100 published cases around the time of writing 5. Clini...
Article

Tuberculosis (pulmonary manifestations)

Pulmonary manifestations of tuberculosis are varied and depend in part whether the infection is primary or post-primary. The lungs are the most common site of primary infection by tuberculosis and are a major source of spread of the disease and of individual morbidity and mortality. A general d...
Article

Transverse cervical artery

The transverse cervical artery, also known as the cervicodorsal trunk, is 1 of the 4 branches of the thyrocervical trunk (off the first part of the subclavian artery). It is a short artery that bifurcates into the superficial and deep branches, both which course superficially and laterally acro...
Article

Ganglioneuroma

Ganglioneuromas are fully differentiated neuronal tumours that do not contain immature elements and potentially occur anywhere along the peripheral autonomic ganglion sites.  On imaging, usually, they present as well-defined solid masses and can be quite large at presentation. Generally, they a...
Article

Air trapping

Air trapping in chest imaging refers to retention of excess gas (“air”) in all or part of the lung, especially during expiration, either as a result of complete or partial airway obstruction or as a result of local abnormalities in pulmonary compliance. It may also sometimes be observed in norma...
Article

Lung abscess

Lung abscesses are circumscribed collections of pus within the lungs. They are often complicated to manage and difficult to treat and, in some cases, may be life-threatening. Epidemiology As a result of the widespread availability of antibiotics, the incidence of lung abscesses has dramaticall...
Article

Cavitating pneumonia

Cavitating pneumonia is a complication that can occur with a severe necrotising pneumonia and in some publications it is used synonymously with the latter term 2.  It is a rare complication in both children and adults. Cavitation associated with Mycobacterium tuberculosis is separately discusse...
Article

Lung cancer (staging - IASLC 8th edition)

The IASLC (International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer) 8th edition lung cancer staging system was introduced in 2016 and supersedes the IASLC 7th edition.  TNM system T: primary tumour Tx: primary tumour cannot be assessed or tumour proven by the presence of malignant cells in spu...
Article

Mounier-Kuhn syndrome

Mounier-Kuhn syndrome is a somewhat controversial entity and used synonymously with tracheobronchomegaly by most authors 7,8,9.  Epidemiology Mounier-Kuhn syndrome is most frequently seen in middle age men before the age of 50 1,6. Clinical presentation The anatomical and physiological chang...
Article

Kartagener syndrome

Kartagener syndrome is a subset of primary ciliary dyskinesia, an autosomal recessive condition characterised by an abnormal ciliary structure or function, leading to impaired mucociliary clearance.  Epidemiology The prevalence of primary ciliary dyskinesia is approximately 1 in 12,000-60,000 ...
Article

Tracheobronchopathia osteochondroplastica

Tracheobronchopathia osteochondroplastica (TO) is a very rare idiopathic non-neoplastic tracheobronchial abnormality. Epidemiology The estimated prevalence on routine bronchoscopy can be up to 0.7%. It typically affects those in the 5th to 6th decades and there may be a male predilection 4.  ...
Article

Tracheomalacia (differential)

A dilated trachea has numerous causes, and in almost all cases represents tracheomalacia (increased size and increased compliance). As is almost always the case, various diameters have been used. Typical figures include >26 mm in men, >23 mm in women or >3 cm for both genders. Although many of...
Article

Tracheomalacia

Tracheomalacia, or sometimes described as tracheobronchomalacia, is a common incidental finding on imaging of the chest of older patients and manifests as an increase in tracheal diameter as well as a tendency to collapse on expiration. Generally, more than 70% collapse of the trachea during exp...
Article

Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis

Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) is at the mild end of the spectrum of disease caused by pulmonary aspergillosis and can be classified as an eosinophilic lung disease 2-4. Epidemiology This entity is most commonly encountered in patients with longstanding asthma, and only occasio...
Article

Pulmonary aspergillosis

Pulmonary aspergillosis is a collective term used to refer to a number of conditions caused by infection with a fungus of the Aspergillus species (usually Aspergillus fumigatus). There are a number of recognised pulmonary forms, the number depending on the author 1,3-4 . Each form has specific ...
Article

Aflatoxins

Aflatoxins are naturally occuring mycotoxins that are produced by Aspergillus species, especially Aspergillus flavus. They are acutely toxic and carcinogenic. Acute exposure High-level aflatoxin exposure can result in acute aflatoxicosis with acute hepatic necrosis, leading to cirrhosis, and p...
Article

Aspergillus

Aspergillus is a fungal genus consisting of approximately 180 species.  It is a ubiquitous fungus frequently found in urban areas especially in decomposing organic matter or water damaged walls and ceilings. Only a few Aspergillus species are associated with human disease.  Aspergillus species ...
Article

Thymic sail sign

The thymic sail sign represents a triangular-shaped inferior margin of the normal thymus seen on a neonatal frontal chest radiograph. It is more commonly seen on the right side, but can also be bilateral. It is seen in 3-15% of all cases. This sign should not be confused with the spinnaker sail ...
Article

Round pneumonia

Round pneumonia is a type of pneumonia usually only seen in paediatric patients. They are well defined, rounded opacities that represent regions of infected consolidation. Epidemiology The mean age of patients with round pneumonia is 5 years and 90% of patients who present with round pneumonia...
Article

Acute respiratory distress syndrome

Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a form of acute lung injury (ALI) and occurs as a result of a severe pulmonary injury that causes alveolar damage heterogeneously throughout the lung. It can either result from a direct pulmonary source or as a response to systemic injury. Pathology...

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