Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

1,382 results found
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Head cheese sign (lungs)

The head cheese sign refers to a juxtaposition of regions with three different densities: ground glass opacities (high attenuation) mosaic attenuation pattern (low attenuation) normal lung tissue (normal attenuation) A mixed infiltrative (ground glass opacity) and obstructive (mosaic attenua...
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Haystack sign (pneumomediastinum)

The haystack sign on chest x-rays in paediatric patients is indicative of pneumomediastinum. The paediatric heart is surrounded above and below with gas, giving it an appearance of a haystack from Monet's paintings. 
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Sternum

The sternum completes the anterior chest wall as the ventral breastplate. Gross anatomy The sternum is composed of a manubrium, a body and the inferior xiphoid process or xiphisternum. These articulations are via a hyaline cartilage with a fibrocartilaginous intervening disc:  the manubrium i...
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Platythorax

A platythorax refers to a morphological descriptor for the variation chest shape where there is a flat chest with a comparative reduction in  AP diameter when compared with the lateral diameter. See also pectus excavatum pectus carinatum
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Superior accessory fissure

The superior accessory fissure is present in around 5% of individuals examined with CT 4.  Gross anatomy The superior accessory fissure of the right lower lobe is located in the same plane and posterior to the right minor fissure. It separates the right lower lobe into superior and basal segme...
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Pectus arcuatum

Pectus arcuatum, or “wave-like chest”, is a descriptive term is used in a sirtuation of a mixed deformity which contain both a pectus excavatum and pectus carinatum either along the longitudinal or axial axis. It is also known as a pouter pigeon chest. There is often protrusion at the upper part...
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First rib

The first rib is the most superior of the twelve ribs. It is an atypical rib and is an important anatomical landmark and is one of the borders of the superior thoracic aperture. Gross anatomy Osteology Compared to a typical rib, the first rib is short and thick and it has a single articular f...
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Typical ribs

Typical ribs are those numbered 2 to 10 with ribs 1, 11 and 12 considered atypical. Gross anatomy A typical rib is long and flat. They contain a: head neck tubercle shaft angle Ribs have a rounded, smooth superior border. The inferior border is thin and sharp.  Osteology Head The head...
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Pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis

Pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis (PLCH) can be seen as part of widespread involvement in patients with disseminated LCH or more frequently as a distinct entity in young adult smokers. This article focuses on the latter.  Epidemiology PLCH is usually identified in young adults (20-40 yea...
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Azygos venous system

The azygos (venous) system is a collective term given to the H-shaped configuration of the azygos, hemiazygos, accessory hemiazygos veins and left superior intercostal vein. It is responsible for draining the thoracic wall and upper lumbar region via the lumbar veins and posterior intercostal v...
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Bronchial diverticulum

A bronchial diverticulum refers to a blind-ended outpouching arising from the bronchial tree.  Epidemiology  They are relatively common on CT studies. They are more common and more widespread in smokers 2 but can also present in non-smokers. There may be a slightly increased male predilection ...
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Right atrium

The right atrium (RA) is one of the four chambers of the human heart, and is the first chamber to receive deoxygenated blood returning from the body. It plays an important role in originating and regulating the conduction of the heart. Gross anatomy The right atrium receives deoxygenated blood...
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Septic pulmonary emboli

Septic pulmonary emboli refers to the embolisation of infectious particles (intravascular thrombus containing microorganisms) into the lungs via the pulmonary arterial system.  Pathology Septic emboli can occur from varying sources which embolise 5: tricuspid valve endocarditis infection els...
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Pulmonary embolism

Pulmonary embolism (PE) refers to embolic occlusion of the pulmonary arterial system. The majority of cases result from thrombotic occlusion, and therefore the condition is frequently termed pulmonary thrombo-embolism which is what this article mainly covers. Other embolic sources include: air...
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Aspiration bronchiolitis

Aspiration bronchiolitis, or diffuse aspiration bronchiolitis, is a condition characterised by a chronic inflammation of bronchioles caused by recurrent aspiration of foreign particles. Clinical presentation The onset of aspiration bronchiolitis can be more insidious than aspiration pneumonia,...
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Mosaic attenuation pattern in lung

Mosaic attenuation is the description given to the appearance at CT where there is a patchwork of regions of differing attenuation.  It is a non-specific finding, which may be seen in any of the following: obstructive small airways disease: low attenuation regions are abnormal and reflect decre...
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Squamous cell carcinoma of the lung

Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is one of the non-small cell carcinomas of the lung, overtaken by adenocarcinoma of the lung as the most commonly encountered lung cancer.  Epidemiology Squamous cell carcinoma accounts for ~30-35% of all lung cancers and in most instances are due to heavy smoking...
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Small airways disease

Small airways disease comprise of a group infectious as well as non-infectious conditions that affect the small airways (i.e. airways that are more peripheral to the main bronchi and proximal bronchioles (4th the 14th generation) - arbitrarily considered to be those with an internal diameter of ...
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Thoracic spine sign (ultrasound)

The thoracic spine sign on lung ultrasound is an indirect indicator of the presence of a pleural effusion or haemothorax. It represents the visualisation of the vertebral bodies in the thoracic cavity above the diaphragm which are usually not seen unless there is a fluid collection.  Radiograph...
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Malignant pleural disease

Malignant pleural disease usually heralds a poor prognosis, whether it represents a primary pleural malignancy or metastatic involvement.  Clinical presentation Clinical presentation is variable. Patients may be asymptomatic or have pleuritic pain. If associated with a sizeable pleural effusio...
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Trachea

The trachea, known colloquially as the windpipe, connects the upper respiratory tract to the lungs via the tracheobronchial tree, enabling gas exchange. Gross anatomy The trachea is a tube-shaped structure consisting of 15-to-20 D-shaped cartilage rings anterolaterally bridged by annular ligam...
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Minimal aortic injury

Minimal aortic injuries are traumatic aortic lesions that usually involve the intima and are recognised more frequently due to the use of high-resolution imaging. Epidemiology Minimal aortic injuries account for 10-28% of all blunt traumatic aortic injuries 1,6,7. The proportion of this type o...
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Lobar lung collapse

Lobar collapse refers to the collapse of an entire lobe of the lung. As such it is a subtype of atelectasis (although collapse is not entirely synonymous is atelectasis), which is a more generic term for 'incomplete expansion'. Individual lobes of the lung may collapse due to obstruction of the ...
Article

Mucoepidermoid carcinoma of lung

Mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) of the lung is a type of non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). It is classified under the group of lung carcinomas of the salivary gland type. Epidemiology Mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) is the most common of the SGTTLs 9. The tumour is thought to account for ~ 0.2...
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Recreational drug use (radiological manifestations)

Radiological manifestations of recreational drug use are not infrequently seen as the use of recreational drugs is widespread. Epidemiology Interestingly, recent reports have suggested a decreasing incidence of reported drug use in the general population over the past decade, but it remains th...
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Bronchial vein

The bronchial veins are counterparts to the bronchial arteries and drain the bronchi, hilar structures and the mid-portion of the oesophagus. Gross anatomy There is typically a single bronchial vein at each hilum, formed from the superficial bronchial veins with deep bronchial veins draining i...
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Septal lines in lung

Septal lines, also known as Kerley lines, are seen when the interlobular septa in the pulmonary interstitium become prominent. This may be because of lymphatic engorgement or oedema of the connective tissues of the interlobular septa. They usually occur when pulmonary capillary wedge pressure re...
Article

Sternal fracture

Sternal fractures occur in ~5% of blunt chest trauma with the manubrium being the most commonly injured part. Clinical presentation Acute, severe sternal pain that is worse with respiration with localised tenderness. Pathology Mechanism of injury Fractures of the sternum can result from bot...
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Medical devices in the thorax

Medical devices in the thorax are regularly observed by radiologists when reviewing radiographs and CTs. Extrathoracic devices tubing, clamps, syringes lying on or under the patient rubber sheets, foam mattresses, clothing, hair braids, nipple piercings etc may also be visible These devices ...
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Right lower lobe superior segment

The right lower lobe superior or apical segment is one of the five bronchopulmonary segments of the right lower lobe. It is the most apical of the segments in the right lower lobe, posteroinferior to the upper aspect of the oblique fissure and posterior segment of the right upper lobe. Related ...
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Unilateral hypertranslucent hemithorax

Unilateral hypertranslucent hemithorax has many potential causes. It may be the result of rotation away from an optimal position or because of pathology. Rotation A unilateral hypertranslucent hemithorax may be caused by the positioning of the patient. Rotation away from the radiation beam alt...
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Extrapleural fat sign

The extrapleural fat sign is an imaging feature which can be seen on CT under certain circumstances. It occurs from the inward displacement of extrapleural fat by an extrapleural fluid collection, extrapleural haematoma or extrapleural mass. The presence of the extrapleural fat sign is indicativ...
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Extrapleural haematoma

Extrapleural haematomas are uncommon and usually seen in the context of rib fracture, subclavian venous catheter traumatic insertion, and blunt chest injury. Pathology Extrapleural haematomas result from the accumulation of blood in the extrapleural space where the overlying extrapleural fat i...
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Chest x-ray airway (summary)

Chest x-ray review is a key competency for medical students, junior doctors and other allied health professionals. Using A, B, C, D, E is a helpful and systematic method for chest x-ray review where A refers to the assessment of the airways. Reference article This is a summary article; we do n...
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Thoracic aortic aneurysm

Thoracic aortic aneurysms are relatively uncommon compared to abdominal aortic aneurysms. There is a wide range of causes, and the ascending aorta is most commonly affected. CTA and MRA are the modalities of choice to image this condition. Terminology The term aneurysm is used when the axial d...
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Graft versus host disease (pulmonary manifestations)

Pulmonary graft versus host disease (GvHD) is one of the thoracic manifestations that can complicate haematopoetic stem cell transplantation. Pulmonary GvHD can be broadly divided into acute and chronic disease 1-4: acute pulmonary GvHD pulmonary involvement is rare the median time of onset o...
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Caplan syndrome

Caplan syndrome, also known as rheumatoid pneumoconiosis, is the combination of seropositive rheumatoid arthritis and a characteristic pattern of fibrosis. Although first described in coal miners (coal workers' pneumoconiosis), it has subsequently been found in patients with a variety of pneumo...
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Tracheal diverticulum

A tracheal diverticulum is usually an incidental finding. Occasionally it may mimic pneumomediastinum, so called pseudopneumomediastinum. Pathology It may be congenital or acquired. The acquired form is thought to be due to prolonged increased intraluminal pressure, e.g. due to a chronic cough...
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Reticular and linear pulmonary opacification

In chest radiology, reticular and linear opacification refers to a broad subgroup of pulmonary opacification caused by a decrease in the gas to soft tissue ratio due to a pathological process centred in or around the pulmonary interstitium. This includes thickening of any of the interstitial com...
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Intralobular septal thickening

Intralobular septal thickening is a form of interstitial thickening and should be distinguished from interlobular septal thickening. It is often seen as fine linear or reticular thickening.  It has been described with any conditions of variable aetiology which include sarcoidosis 2 asbestosis...
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Air bronchogram (summary)

Air bronchogram describes gas within a bronchus that is surrounded by alveoli filled with fluid, pus or other material. It is a very useful sign because it is highly sensitive and specific for the presence of consolidation rather than collapse. Reference article This is a summary article; read...
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Hemithorax white-out (differential)

Complete white-out of a hemithorax on the chest x-ray has a limited number of causes. The differential diagnosis can be shortened further with one simple observation: the position of the trachea. Is it central, pulled or pushed from the side of opacification? Is there pulmonary volume loss or vo...
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Usual interstitial pneumonia

Usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) is one of the morphological and pathological patterns of interstitial lung disease. On imaging, it usually presents with a patchy craniocaudal gradient of peripheral septal thickening, bronchiectasis, and honeycombing.  Terminology In the past, the term UIP ...
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Mycetoma

Mycetoma refers to a chronic and progressively destructive granulomatous disease. The defining clinical triad comprises: localised mass-like soft tissue injury with  draining sinuses, that  discharge grains of contagious material It is one of the 17 neglected tropical diseases defined by WHO...
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Chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis

Chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis (CHP) refers to hypersensitivity pneumonitis where there is radiological evidence of fibrosis and represents the end-stage of repeated or persistent pneumonitis 7. Radiographic features CT High-resolution CT of the chest typically reveals indistinct centri...
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Subacute invasive pulmonary aspergillosis

Subacute invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (previously known as chronic necrotising aspergillosis (CNA) or semi-invasive aspergillosis is a subacute to chronic localised and indolent form of invasive aspergillosis. It is also sometimes grouped under the term chronic pulmonary aspergillosis. Epid...
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Chronic pulmonary aspergillosis

Chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA) is a group of chronic aspergillosis found in non-immunocompromised patients with prior or current lung disease (e.g. chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, mycobacteriosis or conditions such as diabetes). It can manifest as several forms 1. chronic cavitar...
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Chronic cavitary pulmonary aspergillosis

Chronic cavitary pulmonary aspergillosis (CCPA) is considered the most common form of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis. In untreated cases, this may progress to chronic fibrosing pulmonary aspergillosis. See also pulmonary aspergillosis
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Cryptogenic organising pneumonia

Cryptogenic organising pneumonia (COP), or just organising pneumonia, is a disease of unknown aetiology characterised on imaging by multifocal ground glass opacifications and/or consolidation. A wide variety of infectious as well as noninfectious causes may result in a similar histologic pattern...
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Invasive aspergillosis

Invasive aspergillosis is a form of pulmonary aspergillosis seen in patients with decreased immunity. It comprises a number of entities that are discussed individually: subacute invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (previously known as chronic necrotising aspergillosis (CNA) or semi-invasive asperg...
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Fibrobullous disease

Fibrobullous disease is an observational finding where there are bullous spaces interspersed by areas of scarring (fibrosis). In general, there may be an apical predilection. This has been described in association with conditions such as: ankylosing spondylitis 1 rheumatoid arthritis 2
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Aspergilloma

Aspergillomas are mass-like fungus balls that are typically composed of Aspergillus fumigatus, and are a non-invasive form of pulmonary aspergillosis. It usually falls under the subgroup chronic pulmonary aspergillosis. Terminology Although the term mycetoma is frequently used to describe thes...
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Obstructive bronchopulmonary aspergillosis

Obstructive bronchopulmonary aspergillosis is an uncommon manifestation of non-invasive aspergillosis seen in patients with AIDS. It is typically caused by Aspergillus fumigatus and represents marked overgrowth of intraluminal of the fungus. See also pulmonary aspergillosis: aspergilloma (sap...
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Pulmonary aspergillosis

Pulmonary aspergillosis is a collective term used to refer to a number of conditions caused by infection with a fungus of the Aspergillus species (usually Aspergillus fumigatus). There are a number of recognised pulmonary forms, the number depending on the author 1,3-4 . Each form has specific ...
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Pulmonary bullae

Pulmonary bullae are focal regions of emphysema with no discenible wall which measure more than 1 cm in diameter 1-2. Some use the term pulmonary bleb for a 1-2 cm lesion, whereas others use the terms bleb and bulla interchangeably. They are often subpleural in location and may result in spontan...
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Ankylosing spondylitis: thoracic manifestations

Thoracic manifestations of ankylosing spondylitis can be varied. For a general discussion of the condition refer to the parent article on ankylosing spondylitis. It can affect the tracheobronchial tree and the lung parenchyma, and the disease spectrum includes: upper lobe fibrocystic changes -...
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Cyst

A cyst is an abnormal fluid filled structure which is lined by epithelium. This distinguishes it from a pseudocyst with lacks an epithelial lining and instead has a vascular and fibrotic capsule Cysts are extremely common and found in many organs. Examples include: renal cysts hepatic cysts ...
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Left atrial appendage closure devices

Left atrial appendage (LAA) closure devices refers to a device placed in the LAA in patients with atrial fibrillation who cannot be anticoagulated pharmaceutically to prevent thromboembolic events. It is placed percutaneously via the femoral vein to right atrium to left atrium by forming a punct...
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Nodular pulmonary amyloidosis

Nodular pulmonary amyloidosis is a subtype of pulmonary amyloidosis. It is considered a limited form of amyloidosis characterized by one or more intrapulmonary nodules or masses (amyloidomas). Clinical presentation Patients are usually asymptomatic. Some may rarely present with a cough or shor...
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Pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis

Pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis (PPFE) is a recently described rare, benign entity. About half of cases are felt to be idiopathic, with the other half secondary to underlying diseases or conditions (e.g. transplantation). Idiopathic cases belong to the group of idiopathic interstitial pneumonia...
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Pneumatocele

Pneumatoceles are intrapulmonary air-filled cystic spaces that can have a variety of sizes and appearances. They may contain air-fluid levels and are usually the result of ventilator-induced lung injury in neonates or post-infectious. They should not be mistaken for a cavitating lung mass.  Epi...
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Lymphocytic interstitial pneumonitis

Lymphocytic interstitial pneumonitis (LIP) is a benign lymphoproliferative disorder characterised by lymphocyte predominant infiltration of the lungs. It is classified as a subtype of interstitial lung disease. It also falls under the umbrella of non-lymphomatous pulmonary lymphoid disorders. E...
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Costal cartilage fracture

Costal cartilage fractures are fractures of the cartilage connecting the ribs anteriorly to the sternum. Epidemiology There is little published data on costal cartilage fractures. Most reported cases are in males and resulted from blunt trauma or a fall 1-2. Clinical presentation In young ch...
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Tc-99m MAA

Tc-99m MAA (microaggregated albumin) is one of the technetium radiopharmaceuticals used in lung perfusion imaging. Characteristics photon energy: 140 KeV physical half life: 6 hours biological half life: 2-3 hours normal distribution: lungs, liver, spleen, kidneys pharmacokinetics: >90% p...
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V/Q scan

V/Q (ventilation/perfusion) scan is a scintigraphic examination of the lung that evaluates pulmonary vasculature perfusion and segmental bronchoalveolar tree ventilation. Indications diagnosis of suspected pulmonary embolism (PE) monitor pulmonary function following lung transplant provide p...
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Pulmonary leukostasis

Pulmonary leukostasis is a medical emergency that is most commonly seen as a complication of chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) in blast crisis, and acute myeloid leukemia when white blood cell (WBC) counts are over 100 x 109/L (100,000/microL). It needs to be considered in any patient with myeloge...
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All trans retinoic acid syndrome

All trans retinoic acid (ATRA) syndrome (more recently known as differentiation syndrome (DS)8) is a condition that can occur with patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia who are on therapeutic all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA). All-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) is a normal constituent of plasma. ...
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Pulmonary manifestations of leukaemia

Pulmonary manifestations of leukaemia can be varied and can occur from both acute and chronic forms.  They include  Direct involvement pulmonary leukaemic infiltrates pulmonary leukostasis Indirect pathology superimposed infection drug related pathology all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) syn...
Article

Interlobular septal thickening

There are many causes of interlobular septal thickening, and this should be distinguished from intralobular septal thickening. Thickening of the interlobular septa can be smooth, nodular or irregular, with many entities able to cause more than one pattern. Pathology Causes of septal thickening...
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Halo sign (chest)

The halo sign (HS) in chest imaging is a feature seen on lung window settings (typically HRCT), ground glass opacity surrounding a pulmonary nodule or mass and represents haemorrhage. It is typically seen in angioinvasive aspergillosis. Pathology Histopathologically, it represents a focus of p...
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Chang sign (pulmonary embolism)

The Chang sign refers to the dilatation and abrupt change in calibre of the main pulmonary artery due to pulmonary embolism 1.  History and etymology It is named after C. H. Joseph Chang, (July 7 1929 - November 15 2017) an American radiologist, who first described it in 1965 2. See also knu...
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Fleischner sign (enlarged pulmonary artery)

The Fleischner sign is a prominent central artery that can be caused either by pulmonary hypertension that develops or by distension of the vessel by a large pulmonary embolus. It can be seen on chest radiographs and CT pulmonary angiography. It is seen most commonly in the setting of massive p...
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Hampton hump

Hampton hump refers to a dome-shaped, pleural-based opacification in the lung most commonly due to pulmonary embolism and lung infarction (it can also result from other causes of pulmonary infarction (e.g. vascular occlusion due to angioinvasive aspergillosis). While a pulmonary artery embolism ...
Article

Hairy pleural plaque

Hairy pleural plaques, are a manifestation of asbestos-related disease. They arise from the visceral pleura, typically from an interlobar fissure. The hairiness stems from short radially-oriented linear regions of fibrosis extending from the plaque into the adjacent lung parenchyma. Compared to...
Article

Coin lesion (lung)

Coin lesion refers to a round or oval, well-circumscribed solitary pulmonary lesion. It is usually 1-5 cm in diameter and calcification may or may not be present 1,3. Typically, but not always, the patient is asymptomatic 1.  Differential diagnosis The differential diagnosis for such lesions i...
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Lung abscess

A lung abscess is a circumscribed collection of pus within the lung. They are often complicated to manage and difficult to treat and, in some cases, may be life threatening. Epidemiology As a result of the widespread availability of antibiotics, the incidence of lung abscesses has dramatically...
Article

Isomerism

Isomerism is a term which in general means 'mirror-image'. It is used in the context of heterotaxy and is of two types: left isomerism right isomerism Left isomerism Mirror image of the structures on the left side of the chest along the left-right axis of the body, i.e. patients with isomeri...
Article

Extrapleural sign

The extrapleural sign, described by Ben Felson in 1973 1, refers to the appearance of a pulmonary opacity with oblique margins that taper slowly to the chest wall when the lesion is viewed tangentially to the x-ray beam. This appearance suggests that the lesion is pleural or extrapleural in natu...
Article

Primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma

Primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma is a distinct entity, recognised in the WHO classification of lymphoma. Epidemiology Primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma accounts approximately 5% of large B-cell lymphoma, which is usually disseminated or found in the abdomen. There appears to b...
Article

Thymic carcinoma

Thymic carcinoma is part of the malignant end of thymic epithelial tumours. Epidemiology Patients are typically 50 to 70 years of age at presentation 9. Pathology The incidence of paraneoplastic syndromes is thought to be low. At least 10 different histologic variants have been described 4. ...
Article

Cardiac MRI

Cardiac MRI consists of using MRI to study heart anatomy, physiology and pathology. Advantages The main advantages of cardiac MRI in comparison with other techniques are: better definition of soft tissues use of different types of sequences improves diagnostic accuracy no ionising radiation...
Article

Brock model for pulmonary nodules

The Brock model, also known as the PanCan model, is a multivariable model that estimates the risk that a pulmonary nodule on CT scan is a lung cancer. The model was developed from participants enrolled in the Pan-Canadian Early Detection of Lung Cancer Study 1, has been validated in lung cancer...
Article

Ginkgo leaf sign (chest)

The ginkgo leaf sign of the chest, also referred as the ginkgo leaf sign of subcutaneous emphysema, is a radiograph appearance which is seen with extensive subcutaneous emphysema of the chest wall. Gas outlines the fibres of the pectoralis major muscle and creates a branching pattern that resemb...
Article

Ghon lesion

A Ghon lesion (sometimes called Ghon focus) represents a calcified tuberculous caseating granuloma (tuberculoma) and represents the sequelae of primary pulmonary tuberculosis infection. When associated with a calcified ipsilateral hilar node it is known as a Ranke complex. History and etymolog...
Article

Octreotide scintigraphy

Octreotide scintigraphy uses 111In-labelled octreotide which is a somatostatin analog; it is also known as an OctreoscanTM, a brand name for 111In-labelled pentetreotide; pentetreotide is a DTPA-conjugated form of octreotide, originally manufactured by Mallinckrodt Nuclear Medicine LLC, which no...
Article

Hydatid disease

Hydatid cysts result from infection by the Echinococcus, and can result in cyst formation anywhere in the body.  Pathology There are two main species of the Echinococcus tapeworm 1,2: Echinococcus granulosus commoner pastoral: dog is a main host; most common form sylvatic: wolf is a main ...
Article

Posterior mediastinum

The posterior mediastinum (or paravertebral compartment) is a potential space along the paravertebral sulci. It is conceptually considered a portion of the inferior mediastinum, and separated from the middle mediastinal compartment and the remainder of the extra-pleural intrathoracic cavity by a...
Article

Mediastinum

The mediastinum is a space in the thorax that contains a group of non-delineated organs and their surrounding connective tissue. It lies in the midline of the chest between the pleura of each lung and extends from the sternum to the vertebral column.  Gross anatomy The mediastinum contains all...
Article

Mediastinum (ITMIG classification)

The International Thymic Malignancy Interest Group (ITMIG) classification of mediastinal compartments was developed to reflect a division of the mediastinum based on cross-sectional imaging. It was in part an effort to consolidate prior discrepant classification systems in use by different medic...
Article

Pulmonary hydatid infection

Pulmonary hydatid infection is a common manifestation of hydatid disease. Epidemiology The lung is the second most common site of involvement with echinococcosis  granulosus in adults after the liver (10-30% of cases), and the most common site in children1. The coexistence of liver and lung di...
Article

Kartagener syndrome

Kartagener syndrome is a subset of primary ciliary dyskinesia, an autosomal recessive condition characterised by an abnormal ciliary structure or function, leading to impaired mucociliary clearance.  Epidemiology The prevalence of primary ciliary dyskinesia is approximately 1 in 12,000-60,000 ...
Article

Bronchopleural fistula

Bronchopleural fistula refers to a communication between the pleural space and the bronchial tree.  Pathology Causes post-operative complication of pulmonary resection: considered by far the most common cause, with a reported incidence from 1.5 to 28% after pulmonary resection1 may rarely b...
Article

Cervical aortic arch

Cervical aortic arch is a rare aortic arch anomaly characterised by an elongated, high-lying aortic arch extending at or above the level of the medial ends of the clavicles. Clinical presentation Patients with cervical aortic arch are usually asymptomatic. Symptomatic patients may present with...

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