Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

1,498 results found
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Right lower lobe lateral segment

The right lower lobe lateral or lateral basal segment is one of the five bronchopulmonary segments of the right lower lobe. It is the most inferolateral of the segments in the right lower lobe, below the superior segment.
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Right lower lobe medial segment

The right lower lobe medial or medial basal segment is one of the five bronchopulmonary segments of the right lower lobe. It is the most inferomedial of the segments in the right lower lobe. Together with the anterior segment, it is analogous to the left lower lobe anteromedial segment.
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Right lower lobe posterior segment

The right lower lobe posterior or posterior basal segment is one of the five bronchopulmonary segments of the right lower lobe. It is the most inferoposterior of the segments in the right lower lobe, below the superior segment. Related pathology Due to its low and posterior position, pathology...
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Right lower lobe superior segment

The right lower lobe superior or apical segment is one of the five bronchopulmonary segments of the right lower lobe. It is the most apical of the segments in the right lower lobe, posteroinferior to the upper aspect of the oblique fissure and posterior segment of the right upper lobe. Related ...
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Right lung

The right lung is one of two lungs, located in the right hemithorax on the right of the heart and mediastinum.  There are a few differences between the two lungs: The right lung is larger in volume than the left lung, with a larger transverse dimension (due to the heart on the left) but a shor...
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Right lymphatic duct

The right lymphatic duct forms from the confluence of the right jugular, right subclavian and right bronchomediastinal lymphatic trunks. It has a short 2 cm course, usually draining into venous system at the junction of the right internal jugular and subclavian veins. 
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Right main bronchus

The trachea bifurcates into the right and left main bronchi at the level of the carina, supplying air to the right and left lungs respectively. Each main or primary bronchus enters the hilum of its lung and gives rise to secondary lobar bronchi, which further divide into tertiary segmental bronc...
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Right middle lobe

The right middle lobe (RML) or simply the middle lobe is one of three lobes in the right lung. It is separated from the right upper lobe above by the horizontal fissure and the right lower lobe below by the right oblique fissure and is subdivided into two bronchopulmonary segments. Gross anatom...
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Right middle lobe bronchus

The bronchus intermedius divides into the right middle lobe bronchus and the right lower lobe bronchus. Gross anatomy The right middle lobe bronchus originates from the bronchus intermedius around 2.5 cm distal to the right upper lobe bronchus 1. It branches in an obliquely inferior, anterior ...
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Right middle lobe collapse

Right middle lobe collapse (or simply termed middle lobe collapse) has distinctive features, but can be subtle on frontal chest radiographs.  For a general discussion please refer to the article on lobar collapse.   It is important to note that of all the lobes, the right middle lobe is the mo...
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Right middle lobe consolidation

Right middle lobe consolidation refers to consolidation in part (incomplete) or all (complete) of the right middle lobe. Pathology Consolidation refers to the alveolar airspaces being filled with fluid (exudate/transudate/blood), cells (inflammatory), tissue, or other material. The list of ca...
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Right middle lobe lateral segment

The right middle lobe lateral segment is one of the two bronchopulmonary segments of the right middle lobe. It is the most lateral of the segments in the right middle lobe.
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Right middle lobe medial segment

The right middle lobe medial segment is one of the two bronchopulmonary segments of the right middle lobe. It is the most medial of the segments in the right middle lobe which abuts the right heart border.
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Right middle lobe syndrome

Right middle lobe syndrome refers to chronic right middle lobe collapse, without an obstructing lesion. It is usually with associated bronchiectasis.  Epidemiology Right middle lobe syndrome is usually encountered in older adults, with a predilection for women (see Lady Windermere syndrome). I...
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Right paraspinal line

The right paraspinal (also known as the paraspinous or paravertebral) line (or stripe) is a feature of frontal chest x-rays and is formed by the interface of the right lung and the posterior mediastinal soft tissue.  Lateral displacement of the right paraspinal line can be due to 1-3: osteophy...
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Right paratracheal stripe

The right paratracheal stripe is a normal finding on the frontal chest x-ray and represents the right tracheal wall, adjacent pleural surfaces and any mediastinal fat between them. It is visible because of the silhouette sign created by air within the trachea medially and air within the lung lat...
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Right pulmonary artery

The right pulmonary artery (RPA) is one of the branches of the pulmonary trunk, branching at the level of the transthoracic plane of Ludwig. It is longer than the left pulmonary artery and courses perpendicularly away from the pulmonary trunk and left pulmonary artery, between the superior vena ...
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Right sided aortic arch

Right-sided aortic arch is a type of aortic arch variant characterised by the aortic arch coursing to the right of the trachea. Different configurations can be found based on the supra-aortic branching patterns, with the two most common patterns being the right-sided aortic arch with mirror imag...
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Right upper lobe

The right upper lobe (RUL) is one of three lobes in the right lung.  It is separated from the right lower lobe by the oblique fissure and the middle lobe by the horizontal fissure and subdivided into three bronchopulmonary segments. Gross anatomy Location and structure The RUL lies in the upp...
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Right upper lobe anterior segment

The right upper lobe anterior segment is one of the three bronchopulmonary segments of the right upper lobe. It is the most anterior of the segments in the right upper lobe lying below the apical segment, anterior to the posterior segment and above the horizontal fissure.
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Right upper lobe apical segment

The right upper lobe apical segment is one of the three bronchopulmonary segments of the right upper lobe. It is the most apical of the segments in the right upper lobe, and the right lung. Together with the posterior segment, it is analogous to the left upper lobe apicoposterior segment and oc...
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Right upper lobe bronchus

The right upper lobe bronchus is the first of two secondary bronchi produced by the bifurcation of the right main bronchus. The other is the bronchus intermedius. Gross anatomy The right upper lobe bronchus is given off approximately 2.5 cm from the bifurcation of the trachea and is the superi...
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Right upper lobe collapse

Right upper lobe collapse has distinctive features, and is usually easily identified on frontal chest radiographs; much more so than left upper lobe collapse. For a general discussion please refer to the article on lobar collapse. Radiographic features Chest radiograph Collapse of the right ...
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Right upper lobe collapse in the exam

Getting a film with right upper lobe collapse in the exam is one of the many exam set-pieces that can be prepared for. Description There is increased opacification in the right upper zone with associated volume loss - rib spacing is reduced, midline structures displaced to the right and the ri...
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Right upper lobe posterior segment

The right upper lobe posterior segment is one of the three bronchopulmonary segments of the right upper lobe. It is the most posterior of the segments in the right upper lobe lying below the apical segment, posterior to the anterior segment and above the horizontal fissure. Together with the ap...
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Right ventricle

The right ventricle is the most anterior of the four heart chambers. It receives deoxygenated blood from the right atrium and pumps it into the pulmonary circulation. During diastole, blood enters the right ventricle through the atrioventricular orifice through an open tricuspid valve. During sy...
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Right ventricular dysfunction

Right ventricular dysfunction usually results from either pressure overload, volume overload, or a combination.  It occur in a number of clinical scenarios, including: pressure overload   cardiomyopathies: ischemic, congenital valvular heart disease arrhythmias sepsis It can manifest as r...
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Right ventricular enlargement

Right ventricular enlargement can be the result of a number of conditions, including: pulmonary valve stenosis pulmonary arterial hypertension atrial septal defect (ASD)  ventricular septal defect (VSD) tricuspid regurgitation dilated cardiomyopathy anomalous pulmonary venous drainage te...
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Rigler notch sign

The Rigler notch sign refers to an indentation in the border of a solid lung mass, which is thought to represents a feeding vessel, thus suggesting the presence of a bronchial carcinoma 1. However, this sign is also observed in other conditions, including granulomatous infections, and its differ...
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Rim sign in pulmonary infarction

The rim sign in pulmonary infarction is seen on PET-CT with very mild peripheral continuous FDG uptake and the complete absence of central uptake. This is a different appearance to that seen in lung abscesses or necrotic tumours, whereby the peripheral FDG-avidity is marked. History and etymolo...
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Ring shadow (disambiguation)

Ring shadows are radiographic signs seen on either chest x-rays or on upper gastrointestinal fluoroscopy: ring shadow (chest) ring shadow (abdomen)
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Ritalin lung

Ritalin lung describes pulmonary changes induced by IV exposure to methylphenidate (Ritalin). Epidemiology Methylphenidate is prescribed primarily for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy, the latter being the only licensed indication in adults. It is in the piperidin...
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Rituximab-induced interstitial lung disease

Rituximab-induced interstitial lung disease (R-ILD) or rituximab pneumonitis is a rare non-infectious pulmonary side effect of the monoclonal CD20 antibody rituximab used in therapy for certain oncological/haematological and rheumatological disorders. Epidemiology Since solely based on casuist...
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Rosai-Dorfman disease

Rosai-Dorfman disease, also known as sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy, is a rare benign idiopathic proliferative disease that involves phagocytic histiocytes. Epidemiology The disease predominantly occurs in young adults with a mean age at presentation of 21 years. There may be...
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Round atelectasis

Round atelectasis, also known as folded lung or Blesovsky syndrome, is an unusual type of lung atelectasis where there is infolding of a redundant pleura. The way the lung collapses can at times give a false mass-like appearance. Pathology Two theories have been put forward. The second theory ...
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Round pneumonia

Round pneumonia is a type of pneumonia usually only seen in paediatric patients. They are well defined, rounded opacities that represent regions of infected consolidation. Epidemiology The mean age of patients with round pneumonia is 5 years and 90% of patients who present with round pneumonia...
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Saber-sheath trachea

Saber-sheath trachea refers to diffuse coronal narrowing of the intrathoracic portion of the trachea with the concomitant widening of the sagittal diameter. It is not uncommon and is pathognomonic for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) 1.  The sagittal:coronal diameter is over 2:1 2 a...
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Saddle pulmonary embolism

Saddle pulmonary embolism commonly refers to a large pulmonary embolism that straddles the bifurcation of the pulmonary trunk, extending into the left and right pulmonary arteries. If large enough, it can completely obstruct both left and right pulmonary arteries resulting in right heart failur...
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Sarcoid-like post-immunotherapy granulomatosis

Sarcoid-like post-immunotherapy granulomatosis has been reported as an uncommon complication in patients treated with immunotherapy agents such as monoclonal antibodies. It was first reported in TNF inhibitors used to treat rheumatoid arthritis and has also been reported in various immunotherapy...
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Sarcoidosis

Sarcoidosis is a non-caseating granulomatous multi-system disease with a wide range of clinical and radiographic manifestations.  Individual systemic manifestations are discussed in respective articles:  pulmonary and mediastinal manifestations cardiac manifestations  musculoskeletal manifes...
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Sarcoidosis (thoracic manifestations)

Pulmonary and mediastinal involvement of sarcoidosis is extremely common, seen in over 90% of patients with sarcoidosis. Radiographic features are variable depending on the stage of the disease.  For a general discussion, please refer to the parent article: sarcoidosis. Epidemiology Pulmonary...
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Scimitar syndrome (lungs)

Scimitar syndrome, also known as hypogenetic lung syndrome, is characterised by a hypoplastic lung that is drained by an anomalous vein into the systemic venous system. It is a type of partial anomalous pulmonary venous return and is one of the several findings in congenital pulmonary venolobar ...
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Scleroderma

Scleroderma, also known as systemic sclerosis, is an autoimmune connective tissue disorder characterised by multisystem fibrosis and soft tissue calcification. As such, it affects many separate organ systems, which are discussed separately: musculoskeletal manifestations of scleroderma pulmona...
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Scleroderma (pulmonary manifestations)

Pulmonary manifestations of scleroderma are demonstrated histologically in 90% of patients with scleroderma. It is a leading cause of mortality and at autopsy. The lung is reportedly involved in close to 100% of cases. However, only 25% of patients will present with respiratory symptoms or demon...
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Secondary involvement of the pleura with lymphoma

Secondary involvement of the pleura with lymphoma (secondary pleural lymphoma) is very common, occurring in ~20% of lymphomas. It may be a result of an extension of lymphoma into the visceral or parietal pleura or be a complicating pleural effusion and is a poor prognostic factor.  Epidemiology...
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Secondary lobar bronchi

The secondary lobar bronchi or just lobar bronchi are the first subdivision of the main (or primary) bronchi. Like the primary and tertiary bronchi, they are conducting airways that are lined by cartilage rings. The left main bronchus gives rise to 2 secondary bronchi: left upper lobe bronchus...
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Secondary pulmonary arterial hypertension

Secondary pulmonary arterial hypertension includes all cases of pulmonary arterial hypertension except for those for which no cause is identified with are then termed idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension.  The classification of pulmonary arterial hypertension into primary and secondary ha...
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Secondary pulmonary haemosiderosis

Secondary pulmonary haemosiderosis (SPH) is a form of pulmonary haemosiderosis. This is considered the less common form and is usually due to conditions such as collagen vascular diseases, coagulation disorders, and congestive heart failure 3 (especially mitral stenosis).
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Secondary pulmonary lobule

The secondary pulmonary lobule is the functional unit of the lung and is the key to HRCT terminology. Gross anatomy Secondary pulmonary lobules measure between 1 and 2.5 cm across. They are polyhedral in shape bounded by fibrous septa (the interlobular septa) which are themselves continuous wi...
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Secondary pulmonary lymphoma

Secondary pulmonary lymphomas refer to pulmonary involvement with lymphoma when the condition is not limited to the lung and has mediastinal lymph node involvement or evidence of extrathoracic dissemination for at least three months after the initial diagnosis. This is a more common form of pulm...
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Segmental atelectasis

Segmental atelectasis refers to collapse of one or several segments of a lung lobe. It is a morphological subtype of lung atelectasis. It is better appreciated on CT and Its radiographic appearance can range from being a thin linear to a wedge shaped opacity then does not abut an interlobar fiss...
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Segmental bronchi of the right lower lobe (mnemonic)

The anatomy of the segmental bronchi of the right lower lobe can be remembered by using one of several mnemonics. The segments are as follows:  superior (B6)  medial basal (B7) anterior basal (B8) lateral basal (B9)  posterior basal (B10) Mnemonics  Small P Just remove the second "L" and...
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Septal lines in lung

Septal lines, also known as Kerley lines, are seen when the interlobular septa in the pulmonary interstitium become prominent. This may be because of lymphatic engorgement or oedema of the connective tissues of the interlobular septa. They usually occur when pulmonary capillary wedge pressure re...
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Septic pulmonary emboli

Septic pulmonary emboli refer to the embolisation of infectious particles (intravascular thrombus containing microorganisms) into the lungs via the pulmonary arterial system.  Clinical presentation Symptoms can be not specific but most manifest as a bacteraemia 18 with, dyspnoea, chest pain, c...
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Shaggy heart border

The shaggy heart border is a descriptive term referring to the ill definition of the cardiac silhouette on a chest radiograph. Due to its imprecise nature, some caution is advised against its use in radiological reports 4. It usually implies pleural disease on the mediastinal interface 3 and ma...
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Shifting granuloma sign

Shifting granuloma sign refers to a shift in the location of a parenchymal lesion visible on prior films that may be seen in the presence of atelectasis. For example, this occurs when a calcified granuloma is present in a lung and a significant parenchymal collapse "shifts" it from one location...
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Shmoo sign

Shmoo sign refers to the appearance of a prominent, rounded left ventricle and dilated aorta on a plain AP chest radiograph giving the appearance of Shmoo, a fictional cartoon character in the comic strip Li'l Abner, which first appeared in 1948. This sign is indicative of left ventricular enlar...
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Shone syndrome

Shone syndrome, also known as Shone complex, is a rare syndrome characterised by left-sided, obstructive congenital heart defects. Epidemiology Shone syndrome is thought to be very rare, accounting for less than 1% of all congenital heart disease 1. Clinical presentation Patients, usually ne...
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Shred sign (lungs)

Shred sign is a static sonographic sign observed in lung consolidation. The deeper border of consolidated lung tissue that makes contact with the aerated lung is shredded and irregular. This sign is not seen in massive translobar consolidation in which it is more difficult to appreciate the deep...
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Shrinking lung syndrome

Shrinking lung syndrome (SLS) refers to a rare complication of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and is characterised by: unexplained dyspnoea restrictive pattern on pulmonary function tests elevated hemidiaphragm Epidemiology As with SLE in general, it is thought to carry a increased fem...
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Sickle cell disease

Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a hereditary (autosomal recessive) condition resulting in the formation of abnormal haemoglobin (a haemoglobinopathy), which manifests as multisystem ischaemia and infarction, as well as haemolytic anaemia.  Epidemiology There is no recognised gender predilection. ...
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Sickle cell disease (acute chest syndrome)

Acute chest syndrome (ACS) in sickle cell disease is a leading thoracic complication as well as leading cause of mortality in those affected by sickle cell disease. The diagnosis is made on the combination of new pulmonary opacity on chest x-ray with at least one new clinical symptom or sign.  ...
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Sickle cell disease (chronic lung disease)

Chronic lung disease in sickle cell anaemia is one of the pulmonary complications that can occur with sickle cell disease. For a general discussion of sickle cell disease, please refer to sickle cell disease. Clinical presentation Patients often present slow progressive decline in pulmonary f...
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Signet ring sign

The signet ring sign is seen in bronchiectasis when the dilated bronchus and accompanying pulmonary artery branch are seen in cross-section. The bronchus and artery should be the same size, whereas in bronchiectasis, the bronchus is markedly dilated. The signet ring analogy has also been applie...
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Signs of pulmonary embolus on chest radiography

There are several described signs of pulmonary embolus on chest radiography which are suggestive of this diagnosis. None are pathognomonic and need to be interpreted with caution with close regard to the clinical presentation. Chang sign Fleischner sign Hampton hump (strictly a sign of pulmon...
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Silhouette sign (x-rays)

Silhouette sign is somewhat of a misnomer and in the true sense actually denotes the loss of a silhouette, thus, it is sometimes also known as loss of silhouette sign or loss of outline sign 4.  The differential attenuation of x-ray photons by two adjacent structures defines the silhouette, e.g...
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Silicosis

Silicosis is a fibrotic pneumoconiosis caused by the inhalation of fine particles of crystalline silicon dioxide (silica). Occupations such as mining, quarrying, and tunneling are associated with silicosis. The disease occurs in two clinical forms that are subdivided by their temporal relations...
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Siltzbach sarcoidosis chest radiographic staging system

Siltzbach system is a chest radiographic staging method for sarcoidosis. stage 0: normal chest radigraph: 10% at time of diagnosis stage I: lymph node enlargement: 50% at time of diagnosis stage II: lymph node enlargement and pulmonary opacities: 30% at time of diagnosis stage III: pulmonary...
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Single pleural based mass (differential)

The differential for a single pleural mass is essentially the same as that for multiple pleural masses with the addition of a few entities.  tumours pleural tumours solitary fibrous tumour of the pleura (pleural fibroma) mesothelioma localised mediastinal malignant mesothelioma metastatic...
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Sinusoid sign (ultrasound)

The sinusoid sign is a dynamic sonographic sign in M-mode describing the movement line representing the lung towards the pleural line which is displayed as a sinusoidal pattern. Similar to the quad sign, this sign has a high sensitivity and specificity for pleural effusion, which is anechoic in ...
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Situs classification

Situs classification can be a daunting topic, but it falls into three main groups : situs solitus: the normal configuration of thoracic and abdominal organs situs inversus: mirror image of normal situs ambiguus: an intermediate configuration with duplication (isomerism) Situs is best thought...
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Situs inversus

Situs inversus, short form of the Latin “situs inversus viscerum”, is a term used to describe the inverted position of chest and abdominal organs. It is called situs inversus totalis when there is a total transposition of abdominal and thoracic viscera (mirror image of internal organs normal pos...
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Situs solitus

Situs solitus refers to the normal position of the thoracic and abdominal organs. Radiographic features Plain radiograph On plain radiograph, careful attention should be directed at the location of the aortic arch, gastric fundus, cardiac apex, pulmonary fissures and the branching pattern of ...
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Sjögren syndrome (thoracic manifestations)

Thoracic manifestations of Sjögren syndrome are common and sometimes detected before the syndrome diagnosis. For a broad discussion on the syndrome and its typical lymphocytic infiltration of the exocrine glands, please refer to the main article on Sjögren syndrome.  Clinical presentation Pat...
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Small airways

Small airways traditionally refer to distal airways that are 2-3 mm or less in calibre 3 with a wall thickness of less than 0.5 mm 5. These therefore include terminal bronchi (have cartilage) as well as bronchioles (no cartilage). They may or may not be directly visible on CT. Related pathology...
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Small airways disease

Small airways disease comprise of a group infectious as well as non-infectious conditions that affect the small airways (i.e. airways that are more peripheral to the main bronchi and proximal bronchioles (4th the 14th generation) - arbitrarily considered to be those with an internal diameter of ...
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Small-cell lung cancer

Small-cell lung cancer (SCLC), also known as oat-cell lung cancer, is a subtype of bronchogenic carcinoma separated from non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) as it has a unique presentation, imaging appearances, treatment, and prognosis. SCLCs are neuroendocrine tumours of the lung that rapidly gr...
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Small cell lung cancer (staging - superseded)

Previously, small cell lung cancer (SCLC) was not staged in the same manner as non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), but since 2013 both are staged using the IASLC (International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer) lung cancer staging system (currently in its 8th edition, published in 2016)....
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Small lung volume (differential diagnosis)

The following differentials can be considered when small lung volumes are seen: pulmonary fibrosis prior surgery, e.g. lobectomy, lung volume reduction surgery pleural disease skeletal deformities, e.g. kyphosis, scoliosis  systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) neuromuscular disorders, e.g. p...
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Small pulmonary nodules (HRCT chest approach)

Small pulmonary lung nodules refer to an HRCT chest imaging descriptor for 5-10 mm lung nodules and are divided into three main categories based on their distribution pattern: centrilobular perilymphatic random Approach Distribution Firstly, determine whether the nodules are perilymphatic ...
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Smoking related lung disease

Smoking related lung diseases are the respiratory manifestations of disease that is related to smoking. Smoking affects the lungs in numerous ways, and can be classified under the following headings: smoking related interstitial lung diseases (SR-ILD) respiratory bronchiolitis respiratory br...
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Sniff test

The fluoroscopic sniff test, also known as diaphragm fluoroscopy, is a quick and easy real time fluoroscopic assessment of diaphragmatic motor function (excursion). It is used most often to confirm absence of muscular contraction of the diaphragm during inspiration in patients with phrenic nerve...
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Snowman sign (total anomalous pulmonary venous return)

Snowman sign refers to the configuration of the heart and the superior mediastinal borders resembling a snowman. This is seen in total anomalous pulmonary venous return (TAPVR) type I (supracardiac type). It is an abnormality of the fetal circulation wherein the entire pulmonary venous flow is ...
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Soft-tissue sarcoma

Soft-tissue sarcomas are a heterogeneous group of malignant tumours of mesenchymal origin (sarcoma) that originate from the soft tissues rather than bone. They are classified on the basis of tissue seen on histology. The commoner sarcomas in the adult and paediatric population are listed below. ...
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Solitary pulmonary nodule (an approach)

A solitary pulmonary nodule, according to the Nomenclature Committee of the Fleischner Society, is defined as a rounded opacity, well or poorly-defined on a conventional radiograph, measuring up to 3 cm in diameter and is not associated with lymphadenopathy, atelectasis, or pneumonia. Several r...
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Solitary pulmonary nodules

Solitary pulmonary nodule (SPN) is defined as a relatively well defined round or oval pulmonary parenchymal lesion equal or smaller than 30 mm in diameter. It is surrounded by pulmonary parenchyma and/or visceral pleura and is not associated with lymphadenopathy, atelectasis, or pneumonia 9. Qu...
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Sonographic approach to dyspnoea (mnemonic)

This mnemonic will help with the sonographic approach to the critically ill patient with dyspnoea: CHEST Mnemonic C: collapsed lung (pneumothorax)  ​absent anterior lung sliding / anterior B lines lung point present 1 H: heart failure (acute pulmonary oedema) diffuse bilateral anterior B ...
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Spindle cell carcinoma of lung

Spindle cell carcinoma of the lung a very rare primary pulmonary malignancy. It is sometimes classified as a sarcomatoid carcinoma of the lung. Some authors also use the term synonymously with pleomorphic carcinomas of the lung, while the WHO 1999 classification system places the latter as a sep...
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Spinnaker sign (mediastinum)

The spinnaker sign (also known as the angel wing sign) is a sign of pneumomediastinum seen on neonatal chest radiographs. It refers to the thymus being outlined by air with each lobe displaced laterally and appearing like spinnaker sails. This is distinct from the sail sign appearance of the nor...
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Split pleura sign (empyema)

The split pleura sign is seen with pleural empyemas and is considered the most reliable CT sign helping to distinguish an empyema from a peripheral pulmonary abscess (see empyema vs pulmonary abscess) 1,2.  The sign results from fibrin coating both the parietal and visceral surfaces of the pleu...
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Spontaenous haemopneumothorax

Spontaneous haemopneumothorax is a subtype of a haemopneumothorax where there is accumulation of blood and air within the pleural space in the abscence of trauma or other definitive cause. Pathology The source of bleeding is uncertain but in many cases can result from shearing of the adhesions...
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Squamous cell carcinoma in situ of the lung

Squamous cell carcinoma in situ (CIS) of the lung is a considered a preinvasive type of non-small cell lung cancer.  In some situations, this histology can also be found around the bronchial stump margin after resection of bronchial cancer, when there is presence of CIS on histology in a bronch...
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Squamous cell carcinoma of the lung

Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is one of the non-small cell carcinomas of the lung, overtaken by adenocarcinoma of the lung as the most commonly encountered lung cancer.  Epidemiology Squamous cell carcinoma accounts for ~30-35% of all lung cancers and in most instances are due to heavy smoking...

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