Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

1,498 results found
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Squamous dysplasia of lung

Squamous dysplasia (SD) of lung is a type of preinvasive lung lesion and is considered a precursor to bronchogenic squamous cell carcinoma. It is sometimes considered a low end of the spectrum of carcinoma in situ (CIS) of lung 2.
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Stab wound: overview

Stab wounds are a form of penetrating trauma that may be self-inflicted or inflicted by another person either accidentally or intentionally. They may be caused from a variety of objects and may occur anywhere in the body. Terminology Although commonly caused by a knife as well, slash injuries ...
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Stag's antler sign (lungs)

The stag's antler sign refers to upper lobe pulmonary venous diversion (cephalisation) in pulmonary venous hypertension or pulmonary oedema as seen on frontal chest radiograph. The prominence of upper lobe pulmonary veins resemble a stag's antlers. It is the earliest sign of pulmonary venous hy...
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Standard uptake value

The standard uptake value (SUV) is a simple way of determining activity in PET imaging, most commonly used in fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) imaging. It is also known as the dose uptake ratio (DUR). As the name suggests it is a mathematically derived ratio of tissue radioactivity concentration at a po...
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Stanford classification of aortic dissection

Along with the DeBakey classification, the Stanford classification is used to separate aortic dissections into those that need surgical repair, and those that usually require only medical management. The Stanford classification divides dissections by the most proximal involvement: type A: A aff...
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Steeple sign (trachea)

The steeple sign, also called the wine bottle sign, refers to the tapering of the upper trachea on a frontal chest radiograph reminiscent of a church steeple. The appearance is suggestive of croup, which should be obvious clinically. A corresponding lateral x-ray would show narrowing of the subg...
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Sternal body

The sternal body or gladiolus is the middle and largest of the three parts of the sternum.  It is formed by the fusion of four sternebrae which finish ossifying after puberty. Gross anatomy The sternal body is the longest of the three parts of the sternum and is widest near its lower end. It i...
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Sternal foramen

Sternal foramen (or perforated sternum) is a developmental variant of the sternum and results from incomplete fusion of the sternal ossification centres. They are common occurring in approximately 5% of the population (range 4.3-6.7%). They are most commonly found in the inferior aspect of the s...
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Sternal fracture

Sternal fractures occur in ~5% of blunt chest trauma with the manubrium being the most commonly injured part. Clinical presentation Acute, severe sternal pain that is worse with respiration with localised tenderness. Pathology Mechanism of injury Fractures of the sternum can result from bot...
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Sternalis muscle

The sternalis muscle is an uncommon anatomic variant of the chest wall musculature and is of uncertain aetiology and function. Its importance lies in that it should not be mistaken for a pathological lesion.  Epidemiology Cadaveric studies have shown that the muscle is present in ~5% (range 1-...
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Sternoclavicular joint (anterior oblique views)

The anterior oblique projections of the sternoclavicular joints are complimentary to the front on PA view in the sternoclavicular joint series. The oblique positioning manoeuvres the join of interest away from central structures to produce a clearer view of articulation. The side of obliquity p...
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Sternoclavicular joint (PA view)

The sternoclavicular PA view is part of the plain radiographic series assessing the sternoclavicular joint. The projection produces a bilateral view of the sternoclavicular joints in the posteroanterior plane. Patient position the patient is preferably laid prone with arms resting above the he...
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Sternoclavicular joint (serendipity view)

The serendipity view is a specialised radiographic projection utilised in the setting of suspect dislocations of the sternoclavicular joint. The projection is seldom used in departments with functioning computed tomography, however still utilised in postoperative imaging. Patient position the ...
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Sternum

The sternum completes the anterior chest wall as the ventral breastplate. Gross anatomy The sternum is composed of a manubrium, a body and the inferior xiphisternum or xiphoid process. These articulations are via hyaline cartilage with a fibrocartilaginous intervening disc:  the manubrium is ...
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Sternum (lateral view)

The lateral sternum view a radiographic investigation of the entire length of the sternum in profile. The view is used to query fractures or infection 1. Patient position patient is erect with the left or right side of the thorax adjacent to the image receptor patient's hands are behind their...
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Sternum (oblique view)

The oblique sternum view a radiographic investigation of the entire sternum often complimenting the lateral sternum projection. The view is used to query fractures or infection 1. Patient position the patient is RAO facing the upright detector; the projection is performed RAO to project the st...
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Straight back syndrome

Straight back syndrome refers to the loss of the normal thoracic kyphosis and associated decrease in anteroposterior diameter. Clinical presentation Most patients are asymptomatic. On precordial auscultation, individuals with this condition can have an ejection systolic murmur over the pulmona...
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Subacute hypersensitivity pneumonitis

Subacute hypersensitivity pneumonitis develops when hypersensitivity pneumonitis continues beyond the acute phase (i.e. continues for weeks to months). While some publications suggest the disease to needs to prevail for between 1-4 months to fall into this category 6, it is important to realise ...
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Subacute invasive pulmonary aspergillosis

Subacute invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (previously known as chronic necrotising aspergillosis (CNA) or semi-invasive aspergillosis is subacute to chronic localised and indolent form of invasive aspergillosis. It is also sometimes grouped under the term chronic pulmonary aspergillosis. Epidem...
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Subcarinal air cyst

Subcarinal air cysts refer to small air cyst that can be detected on a CT scan. They are thought to represent small main bronchial diverticula although the former term is preferred 2. They may be associated with chronic airflow limitation. Clinical presenation Patients are asymptomatic and the...
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Subclavian artery

The subclavian arteries are asymmetric paired arteries that supply blood to the posterior cerebral circulation, cerebellum, posterior neck, upper limbs and the superior and anterior chest wall. Gross anatomy Origin Right and left subclavian arteries classically have different origins: right ...
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Subclavian vein

The subclavian vein (SCV) is the major venous channel that drains the upper limb. Gross anatomy Origin and course The subclavian vein starts at the crossing of the lateral border of the 1st rib. It then arches cephalad, posterior to the medial clavicle before curving caudally and receiving it...
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Subcostal muscle

The subcostal muscle has variable anatomy and forms part of the intercostal muscle group. It lies on the deep surface of the innermost intercostal muscle in the posterior chest, near the angles of the ribs, usually running over 2-3 intercostal spaces. It is most common in the upper (1-4) and low...
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Subcostal nerve

The subcostal nerve can also be considered as the twelfth intercostal nerve. Some authors describe it as the first branch of the lumbar plexus. Gross anatomy The anterior division of the twelfth thoracic nerve, called the subcostal nerve, is larger than the other intercostal nerves. It runs al...
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Subcutaneous emphysema

Subcutaneous emphysema (or less correctly surgical emphysema), strictly speaking, refers to gas in the subcutaneous tissues. But the term is generally used to describe any soft tissue emphysema of the body wall or limbs since the gas often dissects into the deeper soft tissues and musculature al...
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Subpleural line

Subpleural line refers to a thin curvilinear opacity, 1-3 mm in thickness, lying less than 1 cm from and parallel to the pleural surface. It corresponds to: atelectasis of normal lung if seen in the dependent posteroinferior portion of lung of a patient in the supine position (disappears if pro...
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Subpleural pulmonary bullae

Subpleural pulmonary bullae are a location-specific descriptive term to describe pulmonary bullae occurring in subpleural locations. Many are considered to represent regions of paraseptal emphysema where the emphysematous spaces are greater than 1cm in diameter 1. They may or may not contain sep...
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Subpleural reticulation

Subpleural reticulation is a type of reticular interstitial pattern where the changes are typically in a peripheral subpleural distribution (i.e. adjacent to costal pleural surfaces, located ≤1 cm from the pleura according to some publications 4). Pathology It can arise in a number of patholog...
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Subpleural sparing

Subpleural sparing in thoracic radiology is a imaging descriptor usually used on cross sectional imaging (mainly CT) where the pathology that affects the lungs spares the extreme peripheral lung margin abutting the pleura - chest wall. It can be seen in a number of situations non specific inte...
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Subpulmonic effusion

Subpulmonic effusions are a pleural effusion that can be seen only on an erect projection. Rather than layering laterally and blunting the costophrenic angle, the pleural fluid lies almost exclusively between the lung base and the diaphragm. Radiographic features Plain radiograph The fluid ca...
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Subsegmental atelectasis

Subsegmental atelectasis is a descriptive term for a minor peripheral form of lung atelectasis. Terminology Some authors also term it discoid atelectasis or plate-like atelectasis due to its appearance. Pathology It is usually due to a lack of adequate inspiration, and not due to any underly...
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Superficial endobronchial carcinoma

A superficial endobronchial lung cancer may be defined as a bronchogenic tumour of any size with its invasive component limited to the bronchial wall. It may extend into the proximal bronchus and is often classified as T1 at TNM staging. It is one of the causes of more focal bronchial wall thick...
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Superior accessory fissure

The superior accessory fissure is present in around 5% of individuals examined with CT 4.  Gross anatomy The superior accessory fissure of the right lower lobe is located in the same plane and posterior to the right minor fissure. It separates the right lower lobe into superior and basal segme...
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Superior mediastinum

Superior mediastinum is an artificially divided wedge-shaped compartment of the mediastinum located between the thoracic plane inferiorly and the thoracic inlet superiorly. The inferior mediastinum, comprising of the anterior, middle and posterior parts, lies inferiorly. Gross anatomy Boundari...
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Superior pulmonary sulcus

The superior pulmonary sulcus (or just the superior sulcus) refers to an apical pleuro-pulmonary groove formed by the subclavian artery as it curves in front of the pleura runs upward and lateral immediately below the apex. It is a typical location for Pancoast tumours (also known as superior su...
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Superior thoracic aperture

The superior thoracic aperture, also known as the thoracic inlet or outlet, connects the root of the neck with the thorax.  Gross anatomy The superior thoracic aperture is kidney-shaped and lies in an oblique transverse plane, tilted anteroinferiorly to posterosuperiorly.  Boundaries posteri...
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Superior vena cava

The superior vena cava (SVC) is a large valveless venous channel formed by the union of the brachiocephalic veins. It receives blood from the upper half of the body (except the heart) and returns it to the right atrium. Gross anatomy The SVC begins behind the lower border of the first right co...
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Superior vena caval duplication

Superior vena caval (SVC) duplication is the most common form of a left-sided SVC, where the normal right-sided SVC remains. The right SVC, however, can be smaller in approximately two-thirds of such cases 3. Pathology Results from failure of the embryonic left anterior cardiac vein to regress...
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Superior vena cava obstruction

Superior vena cava (SVC) obstruction can occur from extrinsic compression, intrinsic stenosis or thrombosis. Malignancies are the main cause and are considered an oncologic emergency. Superior vena cava syndrome (SVCS) refers to the clinical syndrome with symptoms that results from this obstruct...
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Suprapleural membrane

The suprapleural membrane, also known as Sibson fascia, is a dense fascial layer that is attached to the inner border of the first rib and costal cartilage anteriorly, C7 transverse process posteriorly and to the mediastinal pleura medially. It is flat and lies in the oblique plane of the thora...
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Suprascapular artery

The suprascapular artery is 1 of the 4 branches of the thyrocervical trunk (off the first part of the subclavian artery). It traverses inferiorly and laterally in the lower anterior neck superficial to the anterior scalene muscle and phrenic nerve before crossing the third part of the subclavia...
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Supreme intercostal arteries

The supreme intercostal arteries, or superior intercostal arteries, are formed as a direct result of the embryological development of the intersegmental arteries. These arteries are paired structures of the upper thorax which normally form to provide blood flow to the first and second intercosta...
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Surgical emphysema (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Surgical emphysema (or subcutaneous emphysema) occurs when air/gas is located in the subcutaneous tissues (the layer under the skin). This usually occurs in the chest, face or neck. Reference article This is a summary art...
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Swiss cheese sign (lungs)

The Swiss cheese sign has been used for the appearance on CT of fluid-containing pneumatocoeles, that typically occur following pulmonary lacerations 1. The pneumatocoeles appear as 'holes' in the lung parenchyma and hence the description with respect to Swiss-style cheeses (e.g. Emmental), whi...
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Swyer-James syndrome

Swyer-James syndrome (SJS), also known as Swyer-James-MacLeod syndrome and Bret syndrome, is a rare lung condition that manifests as unilateral hemithorax lucency as a result of postinfectious obliterative bronchiolitis.  Epidemiology The condition typically follows a viral respiratory infecti...
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Symptomatic pneumothorax (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Pneumothoraces (singular: pneumothorax) are collections of gas within the pleural space. If the pneumothorax is under pressure, it is called a tension pneumothorax. Reference article This is a summary article; read more i...
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Synchronous primary lung carcinoma

Synchronous primary lung carcinoma (SPLC) is a term given to the occurrence of two or more primary lung carcinomas within different portions of the lung in the same time period. They are thought to the carry the same pathophysiological mechanism as metachronous lung carcinoma (i.e. two or more ...
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Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion

Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH or SIAD) was described in patients with lung cancer who developed hyponatraemia associated with continued urinary sodium loss. The result is often dilutional hyponatremia in which the sodium remains normal but total body fluid incre...
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Systematic chest radiograph assessment (approach)

One approach to a systematic chest radiograph assessment is as follows: projection assessment of the technical adequacy tubes and lines cardiomediastinal contours hila airways, lungs and pleura bones and soft tissue review areas Following a systematic approach on every chest radiograph ...
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Systemic lupus erythematosus

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a complex autoimmune disease with multisystem involvement. It is also sometimes classified as a vasculitis.  Epidemiology There is an overall increased female predilection. In adults, women are affected 9-13 times more than males. In children, this ratio i...
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Systemic lupus erythematosus (thoracic manifestations)

Thoracic manifestations of systemic lupus erythematosus can be variable.  For a general discussion, and for links to other system specific manifestations, please refer to the article on systemic lupus erythematosus.  Pathology Pleuropulmonary manifestations pleuritis: considered one of the c...
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Takayasu arteritis

Takayasu arteritis (TA), also known as idiopathic medial aortopathy or pulseless disease, is a granulomatous large vessel vasculitis that predominantly affects the aorta and its major branches. It may also affect the pulmonary arteries. The exact cause is not well known but the pathology is thou...
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Takeuchi procedure

The Takeuchi procedure refers to a direct anastomosis of the anomalous left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery directly to the aorta was described in the 1970s and currently remains the procedure of choice. An intrapulmonary aortocoronary tunnel or baffle was performed by Takeuchi prior ...
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Talc induced lung disease

Talc induced lung disease comprises of a group of pathologies that can occur related to talc (Magnesium silicate) Four types of pulmonary disease secondary to talc exposure have been defined these include: talco-silicosis - associated with occupational exposure talco-asbestosis - associated w...
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Talcosis

Talcosis is a type of pneumoconiosis and can be prevalent in intravenous drug users. It is one of the four recognised types talc induced lung disease. Pathology Talc (magnesium silicate) is used in the preparation of tablets intended for oral use, where it acts as a 'filler' and lubricant. Whe...
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Talc pleurodesis

Talc pleurodesis is one of the chemical methods of pleurodesis which is a procedure performed to prevent recurrence of a pneumothorax or recurrent pleural effusion in benign or malignant conditions. It involves achieving an area of adhesion between the parietal and visceral layers of the pleura....
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Talc pulmonary embolism

Talc (magnesium trisilicate) pulmonary embolism is a rare cause of non thrombotic pulmonary embolism. It tends to be more prevalent in patients with narcotic abuse. Clinical presentation Most patients are asymptomatic although dyspnea and persistent cough occur with severe talc exposure. Clini...
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Tc-99m DTPA (aerosol)

Tc-99m DTPA (diethylenetriamine-pentaacetic acid) (aerosol) is one of the technetium agents and is used in VQ imaging. Characteristics photon energy: 140 KeV physical half life: 6 hours biological half life: 1 hour normal distribution: lungs pharmacokinetics: aerosol deposited in bronhoal...
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Tc-99m MAA

Tc-99m MAA (macroaggregated albumin) is one of the technetium radiopharmaceuticals used in lung perfusion imaging. Characteristics photon energy: 140 KeV physical half life: 6 hours biological half life: 2-3 hours normal distribution: lungs, liver, spleen, kidneys pharmacokinetics: >90% p...
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Technetium agents

Technetium agents based on the technetium-99m (Tc-99m) radioisotope are frequently used agents in medical imaging. The radioactive technetium radiotracer can be chelated to a number of different compounds to create specific radiopharmaceuticals and optimise the functional imaging of various stru...
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Tension gastrothorax

Tension gastrothorax describes a rare life-threatening condition caused by mediastinal shift due to a distended stomach herniating into the thorax through a diaphragmatic defect.  Clinical presentation Presentation is generally with acute and severe respiratory failure, with clinical features ...
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Tension pneumothorax

Tension pneumothoraces occur when intrapleural air accumulates progressively in such a way as to exert positive pressure on mediastinal and intrathoracic structures. It is a life-threatening occurrence requiring both rapid recognition and prompt treatment to avoid a cardiorespiratory arrest. Fo...
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Tension pneumothorax (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Tension pneumothoraces are pneumothoraces under pressure. If the pressure gets high enough, the pneumothorax can compress the heart and great vessels, and even cause cardiac arrest. Clinical presentation Presentation is u...
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Terminal bronchiole

The terminal bronchioles are a continuation of the bronchi and are the last divisions of the conducting airways.   Gross Anatomy Terminal bronchioles, are confusingly named, as they not the final branches but rather the distal bronchioles that do not bear alveoli.  The first 19 divisions from ...
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Thalassaemia

Thalassaemia is an autosomal recessive haemoglobinopathy that originated in the Mediterranean region. The genetic defect causes a reduction in the rate of globin chain synthesis which causes the formation of abnormal haemoglobin molecules. The resultant microcytic anaemia is the characteristic p...
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Thickening of bronchovascular bundles

Thickening of bronchovascular bundles is a chest CT imaging feature that can be observed in a number of entities.  Pathology Causes Conditions that can result in bronchovascular bundle thickening include: sarcoidosis - see pulmonary manifestations of sarcoidosis 1 classical condition to giv...
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Third mogul sign

The third mogul sign can be seen on frontal chest radiograph in the presence of left atrial enlargement. It refers to an extra mogul or bump along the upper left cardiac silhouette just below the left main bronchus. The third mogul sign commonly represents the enlarged left atrial appendage, pa...
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Thoracentesis

Thoracentesis, commonly known as a pleural tap or chest tap, is a procedure where excess pleural fluid is drained from the pleural space for diagnostic and/or therapeutic reasons. Ultrasound-guided thoracentesis performed by radiologists has been shown to have fewer complications than blind thor...
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Thoracic actinomycosis infection

Thoracic actinomycosis refers to an uncommon indolent infection caused principally by the genus Actinomyces (higher prokaryotic bacteria belonging to the family Actinomyceataceae). Epidemiology While it is rare in general, the thoracic form actinomycosis constitutes ∼15% of the total burden of...
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Thoracic air leak syndrome

Thoracic air leak syndrome (TALS) is an uncommon late complication in haematopoetic stem cell transplant recipients with chronic graft verses host disease. These patient led to develop features of thoracic air-leakage (i.e. spontaneous pneumomediastinum, spontaneous pneumothorax, pneumopericardi...
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Thoracic anatomy

Thoracic anatomy encompasses the anatomy of all structures of the thoracic cavity. This anatomy section promotes the use of the Terminologia Anatomica, the global standard for correct gross anatomical nomenclature. 
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Thoracic aortic aneurysm

Thoracic aortic aneurysms are relatively uncommon compared to abdominal aortic aneurysms. There is a wide range of causes, and the ascending aorta is most commonly affected. CTA and MRA are the modalities of choice to image this condition. Terminology The normal aortic diameter varies based on...
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Thoracic aortic dilatation (differential)

There are a number of causes and mimics of thoracic aortic dilatation. Differential diagnosis senile ectasia hypertension post-stenotic dilatation, e.g. bicuspid aortic valve thoracic aortic aneurysm atherosclerosis (usually descending thoracic aorta) collagen disorders Marfan syndrome ...
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Thoracic aortic injury

Thoracic aortic injury is the most common type of traumatic aortic injury and is a critical life-threatening, and often life ending event.  Clinical presentation Approximately 80% of patients with thoracic aortic injury die at the scene of the trauma. In those who make it to hospital, clinical...
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Thoracic aortic stenosis (differential)

The differential for thoracic aortic stenosis includes: atherosclerosis aortitis (especially Takayasu arteritis) radiation coarctation pseudocoarctation Williams syndrome: supravalvular aortic stenosis congenital rubella syndrome: supravalvular aortic stenosis
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Thoracic cage

The thoracic cage refers to the skeleton of the thorax: thoracic vertebral column 12 pairs of ribs costal cartilages sternum
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Thoracic duct

The thoracic duct is the main lymphatic channel for the return of chyle to the venous system. It drains lymph from both lower limbs, abdomen (except the convex area of the liver), left hemithorax, left upper limb and left face and neck.  Gross anatomy The thoracic duct is the superior continua...
Article

Thoracic empyema

Pleural-thoracic empyema (commonly referred simply as an empyema) or pyothorax refers to an infected purulent and often loculated pleural effusion, and is a cause of a large unilateral pleural collection. It is a potentially life-threatening condition requiring prompt diagnosis and treatment. E...
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Thoracic endometriosis

Thoracic endometriosis is an uncommon location for endometriosis and the main cause of catamenial pneumothorax.  Epidemiology Most often occurs in the third and fourth decades of life 3. Clinical presentation Symptoms may include: catamenial pleuritic chest pain catamenial haemoptysis: whe...
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Thoracic histoplasmosis

Thoracic (or pulmonary) histoplasmosis refers to pulmonary manifestations from infection with the organism Histoplasma capsulatum which is an organism endemic to El Salvador but can be found widely in other parts of North, Central and South America. It can have variable clinical and radiographic...
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Thoracic HRCT terminology

High resolution CT (HRCT) of the lungs has specific terminology relating to pulmonary anatomy with which one needs to be comfortable.  Terms include:  secondary pulmonary lobule pulmonary acinus interlobular septa interlobular septal thickening intralobular septa centrilobular region per...
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Thoracic lymph node stations

Thoracic lymph nodes are divided into 14 stations as defined by the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC) 1, principally in the context of oncologic staging. For the purpose of prognostication, the stations may be grouped into 7 zones. Supraclavicular zone Station 1 (l...
Article

Thoracic myelolipoma

Thoracic myelolipomas are extremely rare entities; only ~3% of myelolipomas are thought to occur in the thorax. When do occur in the thorax they can manifest as mediastinal myelolipoma: most occur in the posterior mediastinum intrapulmonary myelolipoma (much less common) Pathology As with my...
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Thoracic outlet syndrome

Thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS) refers to a group of clinical syndromes caused by congenital or acquired compression of the brachial plexus or subclavian vessels as they pass through the superior thoracic aperture.  Clinical presentation Clinical presentation will depend on the structure compre...
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Thoracic plane

The thoracic plane, also known as the transthoracic plane or the plane of Ludwig is an artificial horizontal plane used to divide the mediastinum into the superior mediastinum and the inferior mediastinum. It is defined as a horizontal line that runs from the manubriosternal joint (sternal angl...
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Thoracic plane (mnemonic)

A handy mnemonic to remember the structures found at the level of the thoracic plane (also known as the plane of Ludwig) is: CLAPTRAP RAT PLANT Mnemonic CLAPTRAP C: cardiac plexus L: ligamentum arteriosum A: aortic arch (inner concavity) P: pulmonary trunk T: tracheal bifurcation (carin...
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Thoracic spine sign (ultrasound)

The thoracic spine sign on lung ultrasound is an indirect indicator of the presence of a pleural effusion or haemothorax. It represents the visualisation of the vertebral bodies in the thoracic cavity above the diaphragm which are usually not seen unless there is a fluid collection.  Radiograph...
Article

Thoracic splenosis

Thoracic splenosis refers to autotransplantation of splenic tissue into the pleural space which typically occurs after trauma. It may occur in approximately 18% of patients with combined diaphragmatic and splenic injuries and is more common after penetrating injuries. Pathology Splenic tissue ...
Article

Thoracoabdominal sign

Thoracoabdominal sign, a variation of the silhouette sign, is a frontal chest radiograph sign which helps to localize a thoracic lesion. Since the posterior costophrenic sulcus is more caudal than the anterior lung, a thoracic lesion must be posterior if its caudal end is visible below the dome...
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Thoracoepigastric vein

The thoracoepigastric vein provides a communication between the superficial epigastric vein and the lateral thoracic vein as it ascends superficially on anterolateral chest and abdominal wall. It, therefore, drains into both the superior vena cava via the axillary vein and the inferior vena cava...
Article

Thoracolith

Thoracoliths are rare, calcified pleural-based nodules that are almost always incidental findings. They are usually considered mobile, and more common on the left. Pathology The exact aetiology is unknown and theories include 1,2: calcified fibrin body degenerated pleural lipoma old tubercu...
Article

Thoracoplasty

Thoracoplasty is a surgical procedure that was originally designed to permanently collapse the cavities of pulmonary tuberculosis by removing the ribs from the chest wall 1-3 . The resection of multiple ribs, allows the apposition of parietal to the visceral or mediastinal pleura. Until supplant...
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Thymic carcinoid tumour

Thymic carcinoid tumour refers to a carcinoid tumour arising in the thymus. It is the most common histologic type for a neuroendocrine tumour of the thymus. Epidemiology Affected patients are typically in the fourth or fifth decades of life. There is a recognised male predominance with M:F rat...

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