Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

1,442 results found
Article

Bubbly consolidation

Bubbly consolidation describes internal or central lucencies which represent normal aerated lung lobule within infarcted, consolidated, lung parenchyma. It is one of the highly specific imaging appearances of focal pulmonary haemorrhage or possibly pulmonary infarct secondary to pulmonary emboli...
Article

Bulging fissure sign

The bulging fissure sign refers to lobar consolidation where the affected portion of the lung is expanded causing displacement of the adjacent fissure. Any type of pneumonia or space-occupying process can lead to bulging (sagging) fissure sign. Classically, it has been described in upper right l...
Article

Bunch of grapes sign (disambiguation)

Bunch of grapes sign refers to the ultrasound appearance of multiple cystic spaces or lesions and it has been described in a number of settings: within the uterus as a result of hydropic swelling of trophoblastic villi within a hydatidiform mole in bronchiectasis, where on a chest radiograph, ...
Article

Byssinosis

Byssinosis is a type of hypersensitivity pneumonitis which can result from exposure to cotton fibres 1. Other similiar textiles fibres such as jute, hemp and flax are also thought to cause similar lung pathology 2.
Article

Cabrol shunt

The Cabrol shunt or Cabrol fistula, also known as a perigraft-to-right atrial shunt, is a technique used for uncontrolled bleeding following aortic root operations. Rationale The Cabrol shunt is applied when bleeding from an aortic root reconstruction cannot be controlled by traditional means ...
Article

Calcified mediastinal lymph nodes (differential)

There are numerous causes of calcified mediastinal lymph nodes. Common causes include: infectious granulomatous diseases tuberculosis histoplasmosis sarcoidosis silicosis treated lymphoma Uncommon causes include: Pneumocystis jiroveci (PCP) pneumonia metastases thyroid carcinoma: papi...
Article

Calcified pulmonary densities (differential)

Calcified pulmonary (lung parenchymal) densities can occur in a number of conditions. Micronodules healed varicella pneumonia 1 pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis occupational lung diseases silicosis coal workers pneumoconiosis stannosis baritosis Large nodules or masses metastatic pulm...
Article

Calcified pulmonary embolus

Calcification associated with pulmonary emboli is usually associated with chronic pulmonary embolism. Calcification is occasionally related to prior congenital cardiac repairs 1. Differential diagnosis If it is purely high attenuating, consider polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) embolism into the ...
Article

Calcified pulmonary nodules

Calcified pulmonary nodules are a subset of hyperdense pulmonary nodules and a group of nodules with a relatively narrow differential. Pathology Aetiology The most common cause of nodule calcification is granuloma formation, usually in the response to healed infection.   healed infection ca...
Article

Calcifying fibrous pseudotumour of the lung

Calcifying fibrous pseudotumours (CFPT) of the lung are very rare, benign lesions of the lung.  Pathology They are composed of hyalinised collagen with psammomatous-dystrophic calcification and a typical pattern of lymphocytic inflammation.  CFPTs usually occur within soft tissues but have be...
Article

Calcifying pulmonary metastases

Calcifying pulmonary metastases are rare. These should not be confused with metastatic pulmonary calcification. Pathology Calcification in metastases can arise through a variety of mechanisms: bone formation in tumours osteoid origin, calcification and ossification of tumour cartilage, dystrop...
Article

Canals of Lambert

The canals of Lambert are microscopic collateral airways between the distal bronchiolar tree and adjacent alveoli. They are poorly formed in children, and along with poorly formed pores of Kohn, are thought to be responsible for the high frequency of round pneumonia in that age group.
Article

Candida pneumonia

Candida pneumonia is form of pulmonary candidiasis where there is air space opacification due opportunistic infection by the fungus Candida albicans. It typically occurs in immunocompromised patients. Due to the organism normally being present as part of oro-pharyngeal flora the diagnosis is oft...
Article

Cannonball metastases (lungs)

Cannonball metastases refer to large, well circumscribed, round pulmonary metastases that appear, well, like cannonballs. The French term "envolée de ballons" which translates to "balloons release" is also used to describe this same appearance. Metastases with such an appearance are classically...
Article

Caplan syndrome

Caplan syndrome, also known as rheumatoid pneumoconiosis, is the combination of seropositive rheumatoid arthritis and a characteristic pattern of fibrosis. Although first described in coal miners (coal workers' pneumoconiosis), it has subsequently been found in patients with a variety of pneumo...
Article

Capnothorax

A capnothorax, sometimes referred to as a carbon dioxide (CO2) pneumothorax, has been reported as a potential complication with laparoscopic surgeries. Epidemiology It has been reported with almost all laparoscopic surgeries and is more likely to occur with high CO2 pressures and prolonged sur...
Article

Carcinoid tumour

Carcinoid tumours are a type of neuroendocrine tumour that can occur in a number of locations. Carcinoid tumours arise from endocrine amine precursor uptake and decarboxylation (APUD) cells that can be found throughout the gastrointestinal tract as well as other organs (e.g. lung). In general, t...
Article

Carcinoid tumours of the lung

Carcinoid tumours of the lung are a subgroup of neuroendocrine tumours of the lung, of lower grade than small cell carcinoma of the lung and large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the lung.  For a general discussion, please refer to the article on carcinoid tumours. Pathology Classification ...
Article

Carcinosarcoma

Carcinosarcomas are highly malignant biphasic tumours with both carcinomatous (epithelial) and sarcomatous (bone, cartilage, or skeletal muscle) components.  Pathology It can arise in many organs: lung 5: pulmonary carcinosarcoma oesophagus 1: oesophageal carcinosarcoma genitourinary tract ...
Article

Cardiac bronchus

A cardiac bronchus is a rare anatomic variant of the tracheobronchial tree, arising from the medial aspect of the bronchus intermedius. Epidemiology This anomaly is rare and is reported in ~0.3% (range 0.09-0.5%) of individuals 3-5. There may be a predilection for males.  Clinical presentatio...
Article

Cardiac conduction devices

Implantable cardiac conduction devices (also known as cardiac implantable electronic devices or CIEDs) are a very common medical device of the thorax, with over one million implanted in the United States of America alone. There are two major types of cardiac conduction devices: pacemakers and a...
Article

Cardiac MRI

Cardiac MRI consists of using MRI to study heart anatomy, physiology and pathology. Advantages The main advantages of cardiac MRI in comparison with other techniques are: better definition of soft tissues use of different types of sequences improves diagnostic accuracy no ionising radiation...
Article

Cardiac plexus

The cardiac plexus is a plexus of nerves situated at the base of the heart. It is formed by cardiac branches derived from both the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems. Gross anatomy Sympathetic cardiac nerves are derived from T1 to T4 segments and partly from the T5 segment of the ...
Article

Cardiac silhouette

Cardiac silhouette refers to the outline of the heart as seen on frontal and lateral chest radiographs and forms part of the cardiomediastinal contour. The size and shape of the cardiac silhouette provide useful clues for underlying disease. Radiographic features From the frontal projection, t...
Article

Cardiophrenic angle lesions

The cardiophrenic space is usually filled with fat. However, lesions originating above or lower to the diaphragm can present as cardiophrenic angle lesions. The more common lesions encountered include: pericardial fat pad pericardial cyst pericardial fat necrosis Morgagni's hernia lymphade...
Article

Cardiophrenic angle mass (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic to remember the differential diagnoses of a cardiophrenic angle mass is: Fat PAD Mnemonic F: fat P: pericardial cyst A: aneurysm, adenopathy (lymph nodes) D: diaphragmatic hernia
Article

Cardiothoracic ratio

The cardiothoracic ratio (CTR) aids in the detection of enlargement of the cardiac silhouette, which is most commonly from cardiomegaly but can be due to other processes such as a pericardial effusion.  Terminology Some report CTR as a percentage, however this is incorrect, as it is a ratio. ...
Article

Carina

The carina is part of the trachea and is an important reference point in chest imaging. Gross anatomy The carina is found at the base of the trachea and it is formed as the main bronchi divide into right and left branches. The carina usually sits in the T4/T5 plane and is at the level of the ...
Article

Carney complex

Carney complex (not to be confused with the Carney triad) is a rare multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome, which is autosomal dominant and characterised by 1-4: cardiac myxoma often multiple seen in two-thirds of patients with Carney complex skin pigmentation (blue naevi): especially of the ...
Article

Carney triad

The Carney triad (not to be confused with the related Carney Stratakis syndrome, or the unrelated Carney complex) is a rare syndrome defined by the coexistence of three tumours: extra-adrenal paraganglioma (e.g. spinal paraganglioma) initially, only functioning extra-adrenal paragangliomas wer...
Article

Castleman disease

Castleman disease, also known as angiofollicular lymph node hyperplasia or giant lymph node hyperplasia, is an uncommon benign B-cell lymphoproliferative condition. It can affect several regions of the body although commonly described as a solitary mediastinal mass. There are two distinct subty...
Article

Catamenial pneumothorax

Catamenial pneumothorax is a rare type of pneumothorax and is characterised by the recurrent accumulation of air in the thoracic space related to menstruation. Epidemiology It may represent up to one-third of women with spontaneous pneumothoraces 1. Patient history may or may not be positive f...
Article

Causes of air trapping on high-resolution CT chest (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember the causes of air trapping on HRCT chest is: Once with HSBC, you are trapped with HSBC H: hypersensitivity pneumonitisS: sarcoidosisB: bronchiolitis obliteransC: cystic fibrosis / bronchiectasis
Article

Causes of ascending aorta calcification

There are relatively few causes of calcification of the ascending aorta 1-3: atherosclerosis (this usually spares the ascending aorta) aortitis syphilis Takayasu arteritis idiopathic
Article

Causes of perfusion defects on a VQ scan

There are several causes leading to a perfusion defect on a VQ scan with an acute pulmonary embolus being only one of them: Vascular causes acute pulmonary embolus previous pulmonary embolus (including fat embolism, thromboembolism, air embolism, tumour) vasculitides affecting the pulmonary ...
Article

Cavitary pulmonary infarction

Cavitation associated with pulmonary infarction is a rare event. According to autopsy series, the reported cavitation rates are around 4-5% pulmonary infarcts 2-3. They can represent either aseptic pulmonary cavitation or superimposed infection following cavitation. There may be an upper lobe pr...
Article

Cavitating pneumonia

Cavitating pneumonia is a complication that can occur with a severe necrotising pneumonia and in some publications it is used synonymously with the latter term 2.  It is a rare complication in both children and adults. Cavitation associated with Mycobacterium tuberculosis is separately discusse...
Article

Cavitating pulmonary metastases

Cavitating pulmonary metastases refer to pulmonary metastases which then tend to cavitate. The term is similar but may not be identical to cystic pulmonary metastases in which the wall of the former may be thicker. Epidemiology Cavitation is thought to occur in around 4% of lung metastases 2. ...
Article

Cavitatory pulmonary sarcoidosis

Cavitatory pulmonary sarcoidosis is a very uncommon pulmonary manifestation of sarcoidosis. It is usually reported in those with severe and active disease and its reported prevalence is around 2% of all pulmonary sarcoidosis 2.  Differential diagnosis Imaging differential considerations includ...
Article

Cavo-atrial junction

The superior cavo-atrial junction, generally referred to as simply the cavo-atrial junction (CAJ), is the junction of the right lateral border of the superior vena cava (SVC) and the superior border of the right atrium. It is an important landmark to recognise because it marks an optimum site f...
Article

Cellular nonspecific interstitial pneumonitis

Cellular non-specific interstitial pneumonia is one of the two histological subtypes of non-specific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP). It is less common compared with fibrotic NSIP but carries a much better prognosis.  Clinical presentation Symptoms are non-specific and include insidious onset of...
Article

Central bronchiectasis

Distribution of bronchiectasis can help in narrowing the differential diagnosis. Central bronchiectasis is typically seen in: allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) congenital tracheobronchomegaly (a.k.a. Mounier Kuhn syndrome) cystic fibrosis Williams Campbell syndrome (rare) See a...
Article

Central control of respiration

A number of cell groups in the reticular formation of the pons and medulla are responsible for the central control of the respiratory cycle: inspiratory centre (a.k.a. dorsal respiratory group) - bilateral groups of cells in the region of the nucleus of the tractus solitarius in the dorsum of t...
Article

Central tendon of diaphragm

The muscle fibres of the diaphragm converge and attach to the central tendon of the diaphragm.  It is a thin but strong layer of aponeurosis which forms an intergral part of respiration. Gross Anatomy The central tendon of the diaphragm is located near the centre of the diaphragmatic muscle bu...
Article

Centrilobular lung nodules

Centrilobular lung nodules refer to an HRCT chest imaging descriptor for small 5-10 mm lung nodules which are anatomically located centrally within secondary pulmonary lobules. The term is applied on the basis of location of the nodule and not its morphology that is they may be well defined or p...
Article

Centrilobular pulmonary emphysema

Centrilobular pulmonary emphysema is the most common morphological subtype of pulmonary emphysema. Epidemiology It may be found in up to one-half of adult smokers at autopsy 1. Pathology The pathological process of centrilobular emphysema typically begins near the centre of the secondary pul...
Article

Centrilobular region

The centrilobular region, in context of the lungs and HRCT, refers to the central portion of the secondary pulmonary lobule, around the central pulmonary artery and bronchiole.  See also HRCT terminology
Article

Cervical aortic arch

Cervical aortic arches are a rare aortic arch anomaly characterised by an elongated, high-lying aortic arch extending at or above the level of the medial ends of the clavicles. Clinical presentation Patients with cervical aortic arch are usually asymptomatic. Symptomatic patients may present w...
Article

Cervical rib

Cervical ribs are supernumerary or accessory ribs arising from the seventh cervical vertebra. They occur in ~0.5% of the population, are usually bilateral, but often asymmetric 2, and are more common in females.  Although cervical ribs are usually asymptomatic, they are the most important anato...
Article

Cervicothoracic sign

The cervicothoracic sign, a variation of the silhouette sign, helps to localize a mass in the superior mediastinum on frontal chest radiographs as either anterior or posterior.  As the anterior mediastinum ends at the level of the clavicles, the upper border of an anterior mediastinal lesion ca...
Article

Chang sign (pulmonary embolism)

The Chang sign refers to the dilatation and abrupt change in calibre of the main pulmonary artery due to pulmonary embolism 1. It is one of several described signs of pulmonary embolus on chest radiographs. History and etymology It is named after C. H. Joseph Chang, (July 7 1929 - November 15 ...
Article

Charcot-Leyden crystals

Charcot-Leyden crystals consist of collections of bipyramidal crystalloid made up of eosinophilic membrane proteins, which occur in:  asthma other eosinophilic lung disease 2 certain cases of sinusitis (e.g. allergic fungal sinusitis) They may be detected in the sputum or sinus secretions wi...
Article

Cheerio sign (pulmonary nodule)

Cheerio sign in thoracic imaging relates to pulmonary nodules with a central lucent cavity as seen on CT. It is due to proliferation of (malignant or non-malignant) cells around an airway. They are so named because of their resemblance to the breakfast cereal, Cheerios 1-2.  The Cheerio sign (p...
Article

Chest (AP erect view)

The erect anteroposterior chest view is performed with the x-ray tube anteriorly, firing photons through the patient to form the image on a detector positioned behind the patient. A detector can be positioned behind a relatively immobile patient. It is therefore an alternative to the PA view whe...
Article

Chest (AP lordotic view)

The AP lordotic chest radiograph (or AP axial chest radiograph) demonstrates areas of the lung apices that appear obscured on the PA/AP chest radiographic views. It is often used to evaluate suspicious areas within the lung apices that appeared obscured by overlying soft tissue, upper ribs or th...
Article

Chest curriculum

The chest curriculum is one of our curriculum articles and aims to be a collection of articles that represent the core chest knowledge. Definition Topics pertaining to the lungs, mediastinum, pleura, but excluding the skeletal structures (see musculoskeletal curriculum), heart (see cardiac cur...
Article

Chest (expiratory view)

An expiratory chest radiograph can be taken in either a PA or AP projection, and can also be taken with a mobile/portable unit. They are used to help detect small pneumothoraces (although sensitivity is not increased over inspiratory chest radiographs 1), and to assess for inhaled foreign bodies...
Article

Chest (lateral view)

The lateral chest view may be performed as an adjunct to a frontal chest radiograph in cases where there is diagnostic uncertainty. The lateral chest view examines the lungs, bony thoracic cavity, mediastinum, and great vessels. Lateral radiographs can be particularly useful in assessing the ret...
Article

Chest (PA view)

Posteroanterior (PA) chest view is the most common radiological investigation in the emergency department 1. The PA view examines the lungs, bony thoracic cavity, mediastinum and great vessels. The chest X-ray is frequently used to aid diagnosis of acute and chronic conditions.   Patient positi...
Article

Chest radiograph

The chest radiograph (CXR) is the most ubiquitous radiological investigation. Indications The chest radiograph is performed for a broad content of indications, including but not limited to 1-4: respiratory disease cardiac disease haemoptysis   suspected pulmonary embolism investigation of...
Article

Chest radiograph assessment using ABCDEFGHI

ABCDEFGHI can be used to guide a systematic interpretation of chest x-rays. Assessment of quality / Airway The quality of the image can be assessed using the mnemonic PIER: position: is this a supine AP file? PA? Lateral? inspiration: count the posterior ribs. You should see 10 to 11 ribs wi...
Article

Chest radiograph in the exam setting

A chest radiograph in the exam setting is something that is almost certainly going to play a large part in a radiology registrars training. It is worth thinking of chest radiographs broken down by patient age: adult chest radiograph in the exam setting paediatric chest radiograph in the exam ...
Article

Chest radiograph pre-interpretation (mnemonic)

A helpful mnemonic for chest radiograph pre-interpretation is: POPIRAM Mnemonic P: projection, PA or AP? left lateral or right lateral? O: orientation, determine left and right of the chest x-ray P: penetration (of the x-ray), under- or over-penetration? I: inspiration, poor or optimal ins...
Article

Chest radiograph zones

The chest radiograph zones are useful when describing the location of pathology on a frontal chest radiograph. The chest radiograph is a 2D representation of a 3D structure. Since the interfaces between the lobes are orientated obliquely, it is often not possible to determine which lobe patholo...
Article

Chest radiology: conditions (curriculum)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Chest radiology conditions are a group of heterogeneous conditions that are seen in GP practices, emergency departments, general medicine and chest departments. They may relate to the airways, blood vessels or lung parenchy...
Article

Chest radiology for students (curriculum)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Chest radiology for students curriculum represents a core set of common pathology seen on the wards, usually during medical, or elderly care blocks. In chest radiology, the most important imaging tests to know about are: ...
Article

Chest radiology: imaging (curriculum)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Chest radiology imaging is dominated by the chest radiograph. So, it is important that you are able to review a chest x-ray as well as being able to identify the common lines and tubes that are reviewed on a CXR. In additi...
Article

Chest radiology: key findings (curriculum)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Chest radiology key findings are a set of radiological findings that help to make diagnoses in chest radiology. These include findings that can point to underlying infection, pneumothorax or heart disease.
Article

Chest radiology: presentations (curriculum)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Chest radiology presentations are broad and varied, ranging from breathlessness to cough, and pain to collapse. There is crossover between chest and cardiac presentations.
Article

Chest (supine view)

The supine anteroposterior chest view is the alternative to the PA view and the AP erect view when the patient is generally too unwell to tolerate standing leaving the bed, or sitting 1. The supine view examines the lungs, bony thoracic cavity mediastinum and great vessels. This particular ches...
Article

Chest x-ray: ABCDE (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Chest x-ray review is a key competency for medical students, junior doctors and other allied health professionals. Using A, B, C, D, E is a helpful and systematic method for chest x-ray review: A: airways B: breathing (th...
Article

Chest x-ray airway (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Chest x-ray review is a key competency for medical students, junior doctors and other allied health professionals. Using A, B, C, D, E is a helpful and systematic method for chest x-ray review where A refers to the assessme...
Article

Chest x-ray - an approach (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Chest x-ray review is a key competency for medical students, junior doctors and other allied health professionals. Chest radiographs are frequently performed and a fantastic tool for making diagnoses of acute and chronic co...
Article

Chest x-ray: breathing (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Chest x-ray review is a key competency for medical students, junior doctors and other allied health professionals. Using A, B, C, D, E is a helpful and systematic method for chest x-ray review where B refers to breathing an...
Article

Chest x-ray: circulation (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Chest x-ray review is a key competency for medical students, junior doctors and other allied health professionals. Using A, B, C, D, E is a helpful and systematic method for chest x-ray review where C refers to circulation ...
Article

Chest x-ray: disability (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Chest x-ray review is a key competency for medical students, junior doctors and other allied health professionals. Using A, B, C, D, E is a helpful and systematic method for chest x-ray review where D refers to disability a...
Article

Chest x-ray: ET tube position (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Chest x-ray ET (endotracheal) tube position should be assessed following initial placement and on subsequent radiographs. Reference article This is a summary article; we have a more in-depth reference article, see ETT. S...
Article

Chest x-ray (exposure summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Chest x-ray review is a key competency for medical students, junior doctors and other allied health professionals. Using A, B, C, D, E is a helpful and systematic method for chest x-ray review where E refers to "everything ...
Article

Chest x-ray: initial review (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Chest x-ray review is a key competency for medical students, junior doctors and other allied health professionals. Using A, B, C, D, E is a helpful and systematic method for approaching a chest x-ray. However, before jumpin...
Article

Chest x-ray lines and stripes

Chest x-ray lines and stripes are important to recognise on chest radiographs.  Lines are usually less than 1mm in width and are comprised of tissue outlined on either side by air and typically represent pleural-covered structures within the middle and superior mediastinum 1, 2: anterior junct...
Article

Chest x-ray: lines and tubes (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Chest x-ray lines and tubes can be easily assessed and should be the first thing that you look at when reviewing a chest x-ray. Assessment of their position is important, but they also give you an idea about how sick the pa...
Article

Chest x-ray: PICC position (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Chest x-ray PICC (peripherally inserted central catheter) position should be assessed following initial placement and on subsequent radiographs. Reference article This is a summary article; we do have a more in-depth refe...
Article

Chest x-ray (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Chest x-rays are performed frequently in the assessment of a vast number of sick (and potentially very sick) patients.  A chest x-ray can be performed in the radiology department (usually with the patient standing up) or b...
Article

Chlamydia pneumonia

Chlamydia pneumonia is a form of atypical pneumonia.  Pathology It is caused be the organism Chlamydophila pneumoniae (a species of Chlamydophila) which is  an obligate intracellular bacterium that infects humans. Radiographic features CT chest Non specific with overlap of features with pne...
Article

Chrispin-Norman scoring system for cystic fibrosis

The Chrispin-Norman score is used to provide a summative assessment of structural lung changes in patients with cystic fibrosis on plain chest radiographs. It is useful to monitor disease progression or treatment response and can be used to compare between different patients in research studies...
Article

Christmas inspired signs

There are many signs in radiology that are related to Christmas: snowcap sign in avascular necrosis snowman sign in total anomalous pulmonary venous return in pituitary macroadenomas snowstorm appearance in complete hydatidiform and testicular microlithiasis holly leaf sign in calcified pl...
Article

Chronic aspiration pneumonia

Chronic aspiration pneumonia is a form of aspiration pneumonia according time of onset. This can include changes caused by microaspiration or macroaspiration of oro-gastric content through time. Pathology This results from repeated passage of food material, gastro-oesophageal reflux content an...
Article

Chronic beryllium lung disease

Chronic beryllium lung disease (CBD) or sometimes just simply known as berylliosis refers to lung changes that can be seen with prolonged exposure to beryllium which is an alkaline earth metal that is used in many different industrial applications. Epidemiology It is reported to occur in 2-5% ...
Article

Chronic bilateral airspace opacification (differential)

Chronic bilateral airspace opacification is a subset of the differential diagnosis for airspace opacification. An exhaustive list of all possible causes of chronic bilateral airspace opacities is long, but a useful framework is as follows: inflammatory sarcoidosis granulomatosis with polyangi...
Article

Chronic bronchitis

Chronic bronchitis (CB) is most commonly defined as the presence of productive cough for three months in two successive years in a patient in whom other causes of chronic cough, such as tuberculosis, lung cancer and heart failure, have been excluded. It can be an important pathological component...
Article

Chronic cavitary pulmonary aspergillosis

Chronic cavitary pulmonary aspergillosis (CCPA) is considered the most common form of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis. In untreated cases, this may progress to chronic fibrosing pulmonary aspergillosis.​
Article

Chronic eosinophilic pneumonia

Chronic eosinophilic pneumonia (CEP) is an idiopathic condition characterised by the alveoli filling with an inflammatory, eosinophil-rich infiltrate. Classically on imaging, it appears as chronic consolidation with upper zone and peripheral predominance. Epidemiology Most patients are middle ...
Article

Chronic granulomatous disease

Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) refers to heterogeneous group of inherited immune deficiency disorders characterised by the inability to destroy phagocyted catalase positive bacteria due to lack of NADPH oxidase which results in formation of granulomas in different tissues. Epidemiology It...

Updating… Please wait.
Loadinganimation

Alert accept

Error Unable to process the form. Check for errors and try again.

Alert accept Thank you for updating your details.