Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

1,371 results found
Article

Inferior mediastinum

The inferior mediastinum is the box-shaped space in the mediastinum below the transthoracic plane of Ludwig between the wedge-shaped superior mediastinum above and the diaphragm and inferior thoracic aperture below. There are no physical structures that divide the superior and inferior mediastin...
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Inferior pulmonary ligament

The inferior pulmonary ligament (or just the pulmonary ligament) is a normal anatomical structure that is often seen on chest x-ray and CT chest.  Gross anatomy The inferior pulmonary ligament is a fused triangular-shaped sheet of parietal and visceral pleura that extends from the hilum to the...
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Inferior thoracic aperture

The inferior thoracic aperture connects the thorax with the abdomen. Gross anatomy The inferior thoracic aperture is irregular in shape and is more oblique and much larger than the superior thoracic aperture. The diaphragm occupies and closes the inferior thoracic aperture, thereby separating ...
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Inflammatory bowel disease (thoracic manifestations)

Thoracic manifestations of both ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease can be variable and can't be used to differentiate between these entities. They can develop at any time with respect to the clinical onset of the underlying disease. Actually, they can also predate the colonic disease or dev...
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Inflammatory bronchiolitis

While the term bronchiolitis in itself implies "inflammation" of the bronchioles by definition, some authors group the term inflammatory bronchiolitis as a specific group in terms of imaging as distinct from the more fibrotic - constrictive type 1. Conditions that are described under this inclu...
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Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumour

Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumours (IMT), also known as plasma cell granulomas, are rare neoplasms that have a diverse spectrum of biological behaviour.  Epidemiology It can occur at any age and there is currently no recognised gender predilection. Pathology Composed of spindle cells (key ...
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Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumour of the lung

Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumours of the lungs are a location specific type of inflammatory myofibroblastic tumours. Epidemiology They are very rare with their incidence reported at approximately 0.04-1% of all the pulmonary neoplasms 1. While it can affect any age group, around 25% of case...
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Infusothorax

Infusothorax is a complication of central venous catheter malposition where the catheter tip is located in the pleural space and the infusion of the fluid collects inadvertantly in the pleural space in the form of a pleural effusion. Longer term complications depend on the fluid being infused.
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Innermost intercostal muscles

The innermost intercostal muscles are muscles of respiration. They are the deepest intercostal muscles located in the intercostal spaces, and contract along with the internal intercostal muscles to reduce the transverse dimension of the thoracic cavity during expiration. Gross anatomy The inne...
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Innominate artery compression syndrome

Innominate artery compression syndrome, also known as brachiocephalic artery compression syndrome, is a rare cause of tracheal stenosis that occurs in the paediatric population. Pathology It can only occur in the presence of an aberrantly positioned thymus that forces the aortic arch or innomi...
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Inorganic dust

Inorganic dust types are derived from mineral rather than biological elements (organic compounds). Inhalation of these dusts may result in lung disease (pneumoconiosis), often after years of cumulative exposure. The commonest inhaled dusts that cause disease are asbestos, silica and coal dust. ...
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Intercostal lung hernia

Intercostal lung hernia is defined as protrusion of the lung beyond the confines of the thoracic cage. It is an uncommon entity. Clinical presentation Hernias which are symptomatic may cause dyspnoea, chest wall pain or a visible or palpable chest bulge (most common in intercostal lung hernias...
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Intercostal muscles

The intercostal muscles are an important group of muscles in the intercostal spaces (between the ribs) that contract during respiration. Three muscles are classically described, from superficial to deep: external intercostal muscles internal intercostal muscles innermost intercostal muscles ...
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Intercostal nerve

The intercostal nerves are the somatic nerves that arise from the anterior divisions of the thoracic spinal nerves from T1 to T11. These nerves in addition to supplying the thoracic wall also supply the pleura and peritoneum. Gross anatomy Intercostal nerves can be divided into atypical and ty...
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Intercostal nerve neurilemmoma

Intercostal nerve neurilemmomas, also known as intercostal nerve schwannoma or neurinoma, are nerve sheaths encapsulated tumours affecting intercostal nerves.   Please refer to the article on schwannomas for a broad discussion about these tumours.  Epidemiology They account for less than 10% ...
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Intercostal spaces

The intercostal spaces are the space between the ribs. There are 11 spaces on each side and they are numbered according to the rib which is the superior border of the space.  Gross anatomy The intercostal spaces contain three layers of muscle: the external, internal and innermost layers with t...
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Interface sign (HRCT chest)

The interface sign is a feature seen on HRCT chest imaging and refers to the presence of irregular interfaces at the margins of pulmonary parenchymal structures or the pleural surface of the lung. It suggests interstitial thickening.
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Interlobular septa

The interlobular septa (sing: septum) are located between the secondary pulmonary lobules and are continuous with both the subpleural interstitium (peripheral connective tissue) and the peribronchovascular interstitium (axial connective tissue) as well as the more delicate intralobular septa. T...
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Interlobular septal thickening

There are many causes of interlobular septal thickening, and this should be distinguished from intralobular septal thickening. Thickening of the interlobular septa can be smooth, nodular or irregular, with many entities able to cause more than one pattern. Pathology Causes of septal thickening...
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Internal intercostal muscle

The internal intercostal muscles are important muscles of respiration. They number eleven on each side and are located in the intercostal spaces, reducing the transverse dimension of the thoracic cavity during expiration. Gross anatomy The internal intercostal muscles are the middle muscle of ...
Article

Internal thoracic artery

The internal thoracic artery (previously called the internal mammary artery) supplies the anterior body wall and its associated structures from the clavicles to the umbilicus.  Gross anatomy Origin The internal thoracic artery arises from the first part of the subclavian artery in the base of...
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Interstitial lung disease

Diffuse interstitial lung disease encompasses a large number of disorders that are characterised by cellular infiltrates in a periacinar location. While some disease processes may cause significant injury to the underlying lung parenchyma (e.g. usual interstitial pneumonia), some do not (e.g. pu...
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Interstitial lung pattern

An interstitial lung pattern is a regular descriptive term used when reporting a plain chest radiograph.  It is the result of the age-old attempt to make the distinction between an interstitial and airspace (alveolar) process to narrow the differential diagnosis. A re-read of the timeless work ...
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Interstitial thickening

Interstitial thickening is pathological thickening of the pulmonary interstitium and can be divided into: interlobular septal thickening intralobular septal thickening See also Interlobular septa secondary pulmonary lobules HRCT terminology
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Intra-thoracic sarcoma

Sarcomatoid neoplasms involving the chest comprise of a broad group of tumours that occur in the lung, mediastinum, pleura, and chest wall. These tumours have mesenchymal component. They include primary sarcomatoid tumours of the chest usually arising from the chest wall Ewing sarcoma of the...
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Intralobular septa

The intralobular septa (sing: septum) are delicate strands of connective tissue separating adjacent pulmonary acini and primary pulmonary lobules. They are continuous with the interlobular septa which surround and define the secondary pulmonary lobules.  See also HRCT terminology
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Intrapleural space

The intrapleural or pleural space is the fluid-filled space in between the parietal and visceral layers of the pleura. In normal conditions it contains only a small amount of serous pleural fluid. Related pathology A pleural effusion is the pathological accumulation of pleural fluid, and when ...
Article

Intrapulmonary lipoma

Intrapulmonary lipomas are rare fat containing benign lung lesions. Epidemiology They mostly occur in the adult population, with occurence in the paediatric population is extremely rare. Pathology As with all lipomas they are composed of adipose tissue. The origin of the peripheral intrapulm...
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Intrapulmonary lymph nodes

Intrapulmonary lymph nodes are a type of intrathoracic lymph nodes. They can be quite common on routine CT examinations of healthy patients. Subtypes perifissural lung nodules 2 Radiographic features CT: HRCT chest around 6 mm in size (usually reported range around 3-8.5 mm) 1 most tend to...
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Invasive aspergillosis

Invasive aspergillosis is a form of pulmonary aspergillosis seen in patients with decreased immunity. It comprises a number of entities that are discussed individually: chronic necrotising aspergillosis (CNA) (or semi-invasive aspergillosis) airway invasive aspergillosis (or bronchopneumonic a...
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Invasive mucinous adenocarcinoma of lung

Invasive mucinous adenocarcinoma of lung is a subtype of invasive adenocarcinoma of the lung. It was formerly known as mucinous bronchoalveolar carcinoma. Pathology Mucinous carcinomas originate from columnar mucus-containing cells (c.f. non-mucinous tumours which arise from Clara cells or typ...
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Isolated unilateral absence of pulmonary artery

Isolated unilateral absence of the pulmonary artery (IUAPA) is the congenital absence of the left or right pulmonary artery.  When found in combination with other congenital vascular abnormalities it is known as unilateral absence of the pulmonary artery (UAPA). Epidemiology Unilateral absence...
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Isomerism

Isomerism is a term which in general means 'mirror-image'. It is used in the context of heterotaxy and is of two types: left isomerism right isomerism Left isomerism Mirror image of the structures on the left side of the chest along the left-right axis of the body, i.e. patients with isomeri...
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Juxtaphrenic peak sign

The juxtaphrenic peak sign or diaphragmatic tenting refers to the peaked or tented appearance of a hemidiaphragm which can occur in the setting of lobar collapse. It is caused by retraction of the lower end of diaphragm at an inferior accessory fissure (most common 1), major fissure or inferior ...
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Kaposi sarcoma

Kaposi sarcoma (KS) is a low-to-intermediate grade mesenchymal tumour that involves the lymphovascular system. The tumour can involve the pulmonary, gastrointestinal, cutaneous and musculoskeletal systems. Pathology There are four recognised variants 1: classic (chronic): multiple distal lowe...
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Kartagener syndrome

Kartagener syndrome is a subset of primary ciliary dyskinesia, an autosomal recessive condition characterised by an abnormal ciliary structure or function, leading to impaired mucociliary clearance.  Epidemiology The prevalence of primary ciliary dyskinesia is approximately 1 in 12,000-60,000 ...
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Kerley lines in the exam

Getting a film with Kerley lines in the exam is one of the many exam set-pieces that can be prepared for. The film goes up and after a couple of seconds pause, you need to start talking: CXR There are bilateral basal interstitial lines that extend to the pleural surface - these are Kerley B l...
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Kirklin sign

The Kirklin sign refers to a deformity of the normal gastric air bubble on an upright chest radiograph due to a mass lesion of the gastric cardia or fundus. The differential for a Kirklin sign includes gastric tumour gastric carcinoma oesophageal carcinoma gastrointestinal stromal tumour (G...
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Klebsiella pneumonia

Klebsiella pneumonia refers to pneumonia resulting from an infection from the organism Klebsiella pneumoniae.  Epidemiology There tends to be a higher prevalence in older patients with alcoholism and debilitated hospitalised patients 3. Pathology Klebsiella pneumoniae is amongst the most com...
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Knuckle sign (pulmonary embolism)

Knuckle sign refers to the abrupt tapering or cutoff of a pulmonary artery secondary to embolus. It is better visualised on CT pulmonary angiography scan than chest x-ray. This is an important ancillary finding in pulmonary embolism (PE), and often associated with the Fleischner sign of dilated ...
Article

Kveim Stilzbach skin test

The Kveim Stilzbach skin test is a sensitive and specific test for sarcoidosis, requiring the intradermal injection of homogenized spleen or liver material from a patient with known sarcoidosis. In patients with sarcoidosis, a typical sarcoid granuloma will develop at the injection site within 4...
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Kyste hydatique

This originally French article needs further translation and merging with the existing English article on hydatid disease. Le kyste hydatique est une affection parasitaire due au taenia granulosis, considérée comme une zoonose atteignant aussi bien l'homme que les animaux, notamment les carnivo...
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Lady Windermere syndrome

Lady Windermere syndrome refers to a pattern of pulmonary Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection seen typically in elderly white women who chronically suppress the normal cough reflex. A fastidious nature and a reticence to expectorate are believed to predispose such persons to infections w...
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Lambda sign

There are a number of lambda signs: lambda sign of twin pregnancy lambda sign of sarcoidosis
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Lambda sign (sarcoidosis)

The lambda sign is seen on gallium-67 scans in the setting of thoracic sarcoidosis. Bilateral hilar and right paratracheal lymph nodes are typically involved which can resemble the lambda symbol (λ). See also lambda sign of twin pregnancy
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Lane-Hamilton syndrome

Lane-Hamilton syndrome (LHS) refers to the rare concurrent association of idiopathic pulmonary haemosiderosis and coeliac disease 1. Epidemiology It is typically seen in children under the age of 15 but can occasionally be seen in adults. History and etymology It was originally described by ...
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Langerhans cell

Langerhans cells are dendritic cells of monocyte-macrophage lineage, containing large granules called Birbeck granules. They are normally found in epithelial surfaces, lymph nodes and other organs, and can also be found elsewhere, particularly in association with Langerhans cell histiocytosis. ...
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Langerhans cell histiocytosis

Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare multi-system disease with a wide and heterogeneous clinical spectrum and variable extent of involvement.  Epidemiology The disease is more common in the paediatric population, with a peak incidence between one and three years of age 5. Incidence is...
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Large cell carcinoma of the lung

Large cell carcinoma of the lung is one of the histological types of non-small cell carcinomas of the lung. Epidemiology It is thought to account for approximately 10% of bronchogenic carcinoma 1. Clinical presentation Patient presents with dyspnea, chronic cough and haemoptysis. Pathology ...
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Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the lung

Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) of the lung is classified as a subtype of large cell carcinoma of the lung. It is also classified as a pulmonary neuroendocrine tumour. Epidemiology The incidence peaks around the 6th decade 6. There is an increased male predilection 7. Pathology L...
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Large unilateral pleural effusion

When a pleural effusion is large and unilateral, concern for an underlying abnormality should be raised. Causes include: tumour bronchogenic carcinoma mesothelioma pleural metastases lymphoma infection parapneumonic effusion empyema extension from sub-diaphragmatic primary infection ch...
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Leaky lung syndrome

Leaky lung syndrome (LLS) refers to a form of non-cardiogenic pulmonary oedema. Pathophysiology  Pulmonary oedema due to increased capillary permeability.   Radiographic findings LLS is considered as mild form of a part of spectrum of acute lung injury with ARDS at the other end of spectrum ...
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Leflunomide induced acute interstitial pneumonia

Leflunomide induced acute interstitial pneumonia is a form of drug induced interstitial lung disease. The precipitation of radiological evidence of pulmonary infiltrates, clinical acute respiratory illness in the context of a good temporal relationship with commencement of the agent and no clear...
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Left atrial appendage closure devices

Left atrial appendage (LAA) closure devices refers to a device placed in the LAA in patients with atrial fibrillation who cannot be anticoagulated pharmaceutically to prevent thromboembolic events. It is placed percutaneously via the femoral vein to right atrium to left atrium by forming a punct...
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Left atrial enlargement

Left atrial enlargement may result from many conditions, either congenital or acquired. It has some characteristic findings on a frontal chest radiograph. CT or MRI may also be used for diagnosis. Pathology Broadly speaking, the causes of left atrial enlargement can be divided into congenital ...
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Left atrium

The left atrium is one of the four chambers of the heart. It receives oxygenated blood from the pulmonary circulation that is then delivered to the left ventricle and then into the systemic circulation. Gross anatomy The left atrium is grossly cuboidal, and like the right atrium has an appenda...
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Left horizontal fissure

The left horizontal (or minor) fissure is an accessory fissure found in around 8% of individuals examined with CT 3. In a prospective study of 2,000 consecutive normal chest X-rays (AP and lateral), a definite left horizontal fissure was identified in 1.6% of the subjects 1. Gross anatomy The ...
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Left lower lobe

The left lower lobe (LLL) is one of two lobes in the left lung. It is separated from the left upper lobe by the left oblique fissure and subdivided into four bronchopulmonary segments. Gross anatomy Location and structure The LLL lies in the posterior and lower aspect of the left hemithorax a...
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Left lower lobe anteromedial segment

The left lower lobe anteromedial segment (or cardiac segment) is one of the bronchopulmonary segments of the left lower lobe. It is the most anteromedial of the segments within the base of the left upper lobe. It is the equivalent segment merger of the anterior and medial segments of the right ...
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Left lower lobe bronchus

The left main bronchus divides into the left lower lobe bronchus and the left upper lobe bronchus. It is one of the secondary lobar bronchi. Gross anatomy The left lower lobe bronchus is very short and divides immediately into the segmental bronchi.  There are usually 10 individual segmental b...
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Left lower lobe collapse

Left lower lobe collapse has distinctive features, and can be readily identified on frontal chest radiographs, provided attention is paid to the normal cardiomediastinal contours. However, the shadow cast by the heart does make it more difficult to see than the right lower lobe collapse. For a ...
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Left lower lobe lateral segment

The left lower lobe lateral or lateral basal segment is one of the four bronchopulmonary segments of the left lower lobe. It is the most inferolateral of the segments in the left lower lobe, below the superior segment.
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Left lower lobe posterior segment

The left lower lobe posterior or posterior basal segment is one of the four bronchopulmonary segments of the left lower lobe. It is the most inferoposterior of the segments in the left lower lobe, below the superior segment. Related pathology Due to its low and posterior position, pathology in...
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Left lower lobe superior segment

The left lower lobe superior or apical segment is one of the four bronchopulmonary segments of the left lower lobe. It is the most apical of the segments in the left lower lobe, posterior to the upper aspect of the oblique fissure and apicoposterior segment of the left upper lobe. Related patho...
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Left lung

The left lung is one of two lungs, located in the left hemithorax on the left of the heart and mediastinum.  There are a few differences between the two lungs: The left lung is smaller in volume than the right lung, with a smaller transverse dimension (due to the heart on the left) but a large...
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Left main bronchus

The trachea bifurcates into the right and left main bronchi at the level of the carina, supplying air to the right and left lungs respectively. Each main or primary bronchus enters the hilum of its lung and gives rise to secondary lobar bronchi, which further divide into tertiary segmental bronc...
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Left paramediastinal catheter position (differential)

When a central venous catheter that is supposed to project over the superior vena cava is abnormally located to the left of the mediastinum a limited differential of left paramediastinal catheter position should be considered 1: located within the vein left sided superior vena cava left inter...
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Left paraspinal line

The left paraspinal (paraspinous or paravertebral) line is a feature of frontal chest x-rays. It is formed by the interface between the left lung and the left posterior mediastinal soft tissues 1. It is more commonly seen than the right paraspinal line. Lateral displacement of the left paraspin...
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Left paratracheal stripe

The left paratracheal stripe is formed by the interface of the medial pleural surface of the left upper lobe and left lateral border of the trachea and/or or the fat adjacent 1 with air within each structure forming the outline. It may not be visible if the left upper lobe contacts the left subc...
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Left pulmonary artery

The left pulmonary artery (LPA) is one of the branches of the pulmonary trunk, branching at the level of the transthoracic plane of Ludwig. It is shorter than the right pulmonary artery and represents a direct posterior continuation of the pulmonary trunk. It arches posterosuperiorly over the su...
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Left superior intercostal vein

The left superior intercostal vein drains the left posterosuperior hemithorax and is considered to be part of the azygos venous system even though it does not directly drain into the azygos vein.  Gross anatomy Origin and course The left superior intercostal vein forms by the union of the 2nd...
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Left upper lobe

The left upper lobe (LUL) is one of two lobes in the left lung. It is separated from the left lower lobe by the left oblique fissure and subdivided into four bronchopulmonary segments, two of which represent the lingula. Gross anatomy Location and structure The left upper lobe lies in the upp...
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Left upper lobe anterior segment

The left upper lobe anterior segment is one of the four bronchopulmonary segments of the left upper lobe. It is the most anterior of the segments in the left upper lobe lying below and anterior to the apicoposterior segment and above the oblique fissure.
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Left upper lobe apicoposterior segment

The left upper lobe apicoposterior segment is one of the bronchopulmonary segments of the left upper lobe. As its name suggests, it is the most apical and posterior of the segments within the left upper lobe and is supplied by the left apicoposterior segmental bronchus. It is the equivalent seg...
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Left upper lobe bronchus

The left main bronchus divides into the left upper lobe bronchus and the left lower lobe bronchus. It is one of the secondary lobar bronchi. Gross Anatomy The left upper lobe bronchus is very short and divides immediately into the segmental bronchi.  There are usually 10 individual segmental b...
Article

Left upper lobe collapse

Left upper lobe collapse has distinctive features but can be challenging to identify on chest radiographs by the uninitiated. For a general discussion refer to the article on lobar collapse. Radiographic features Plain radiograph The left upper lobe collapses anteriorly becoming a thin sheet...
Article

Left upper lobe collapse in the exam

Getting a film with left upper lobe collapse in the exam is one of the many exam set-pieces that can be prepared for. Description This frontal chest radiograph shows a hazy (or veil-like*) opacification of the left hemithorax that is associated with superior displacement left hilum and horizon...
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Left upper lobe inferior lingular segment

The left upper lobe inferior lingular segment is one of the four bronchopulmonary segments of the left upper lobe. It lies below the superior lingular segment of the left upper lobe.
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Left upper lobe superior lingular segment

The left upper lobe superior lingular segment is one of the four bronchopulmonary segments of the left upper lobe. It lies below the apicoposterior and anterior segments of the left upper lobe.
Article

Left ventricle

The left ventricle is one of four heart chambers. It receives oxygenated blood from the left atrium and pumps it into the systemic circulation via the aorta. Gross anatomy The left ventricle is conical in shape with an anteroinferiorly projecting apex and is longer with thicker walls than the ...
Article

Legionella pneumonia

Legionella pneumonia, also known as Legionnaires' disease, refers to pulmonary infection primarily with the organism Legionella pneumophila. It is sometimes classified as atypical pneumonia.  Epidemiology Legionella pneumonia tends to be more prevalent amongst immunocompromised patients. Legio...
Article

Leptospirosis

Leptospirosis results from infection of the zoonoses Leptospira sp. The condition can have multi-organ manifestations. Commonly affected organs include: lung: pulmonary leptospirosis liver: hepatic leptospirosis central nervous system: CNS leptospirosis skeletal muscle: muscular leptospirosi...
Article

Lesser diaphragmatic apertures

The lesser diaphragmatic apertures allow the passage of smaller structures from the thoracic cavity to abdominal cavity across the diaphragm. They are very much smaller than the other diaphragmatic apertures: two in the right crus of the diaphragm: transmit greater and lesser right splanchnic n...
Article

Ligamentum arteriosum

The ligamentum arteriosum (or arteriosus) is the small fibrous remnant of the fetal ductus arteriosum, located between and connecting the proximal left pulmonary artery and the undersurface of the junction of the aortic arch and descending aorta, at the aortic isthmus. The left recurrent larynge...
Article

Light chain deposition disease

Light chain deposition disease (LCDD) is a rare disease.  It can affect multiple organ systems.  renal manifestations of light chain deposition disease - renal involvement is a constant feature, resulting in proteinuria with or without nephrotic syndrome and renal failure.  hepatic manifestat...
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Light chain deposition disease (pulmonary manifestations)

Pulmonary manifestations of light chain deposition disease are rare when considering the full disease spectrum of light chain deposition disease. Pathology The light chains are secreted by a plasma clone and deposit in the alveolar walls, small airways, and vessels.  Radiographic features CT...
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Lines and tubes (chest radiograph)

Lines and tubes are important components in chest radiographic evaluation. Nasogastric (NG) tube See: nasogastric tube positioning.  Correct position NG tube tip ≥10 cm distal to the gastro-oesophageal junction i.e. below the left hemidiaphragm Complications insertion into trachea or bron...
Article

Lingula (disambiguation)

Lingula can refer to a number of different anatomical structures: lingula (mandible) lingula (lung)
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Lingula (lung)

The lingula is a combined term for the two lingular bronchopulmonary segments of the left upper lobe: superior lingular segment inferior lingular segment The two lingular segments are the most anterior of the segments in the left upper lobe lying below the apicoposterior and anterior segments...
Article

Lipoblastoma of lung

Lipoblastoma of the lung is a fat derived thoracic tumour. Epidemiology They occur during infancy and early childhood. More than 90% of cases are diagnosed in children less than 3 years of age, with nearly 75% occurring before the age of 12 months Pathology Lipoblastomas are rare soft-tissue...
Article

Lipoid pneumonia

Lipoid pneumonia can either result from aspiration of oily substances (exogenous lipoid pneumonia) or endogenous accumulation of lipid substances in the alveoli (endogenous lipoid pneumonia). Clinical presentation Most patients are asymptomatic and often discovered incidentally. Pathology Li...
Article

Lipomatosis

Lipomatosis is a condition where there is diffuse excessive fat deposition within the body. This can especially affect certain regions. neck and upper region of trunk Madelung disease mediastinal lipomatosis heart lipomatous hypertrophy of the interatrial septum lipomatous metaplasia of th...
Article

Liquefactive necrosis

Liquefactive necrosis is a form of necrosis where there is transformation of the tissue into a liquid viscous mass. Pathology In liquefactive necrosis, the affected cell is completely digested by hydrolytic enzymes leading to a soft, circumscribed lesion which can consist fluid with remains of...

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