Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

1,382 results found
Article

Miliary sarcoidosis

Miliary sarcoidosis is a rare thoracic manifesation of sarcoidosis where there a numerous miliary like nodule scattered throughout the lungs. It is thought to represent less than1% of cases.  Epidemiology From the limited case reports available, there is some suggestion that this form may occu...
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Miliary tuberculosis

Miliary tuberculosis is an uncommon pulmonary manifestation of tuberculosis. It represents haematogeneous dissemination of uncontrolled tuberculous infection and carries a relatively poor prognosis. It is seen both in primary and post-primary tuberculosis and may be associated with tuberculous ...
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Minimal aortic injury

Minimal aortic injuries are traumatic aortic lesions that usually involve the intima and are recognised more frequently due to the use of high-resolution imaging. Epidemiology Minimal aortic injuries account for 10-28% of all blunt traumatic aortic injuries 1,6,7. The proportion of this type o...
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Minimally invasive adenocarcinoma of lung

Minimally invasive adenocarcinoma of the lung is a relatively new category in the classification for adenocarcinoma of the lung. Lesions that fall into this category refer to small solitary adenocarcinomas < 3 cm with either pure lepidic growth or predominant lepidic growth with ≤ 5 mm of stroma...
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Minimum intensity projection (MinIP)

Minimum intensity projection (MinIP) is a data visualization method that enables detection of low-density structures in a given volume. The algorithm uses all the data in a volume of interest to generate a single bidimensional image, in other words, its consists of projecting the voxel with the ...
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Misplaced endotracheal tube

A misplaced or malpositioned endotracheal tube is a relatively common complication that is detected on post-intubation radiographs. Complications if the ETT is too high it can rub against the vocal cords and cause cord trauma if the ETT is too low it can selectively intubate the right or left...
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Mitral annular calcification

Mitral annular calcification (MAC) refers to deposition of calcium (along with lipid) in the annular fibrosa of the mitral valve. Epidemiology Annular calcification is seen in up to 35% of elderly patients. It is common in females over 65 years, in those with myxtomatous degeneration of the mi...
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Mixed connective tissue disease

Mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD) is a type of connective tissue disease. With regards to clinical and imaging features, it can have significant overlap with other connective tissue disease such as systemic lupus erythematosus and scleroderma 1. It therefore classified as a type of overlap ...
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Mixed connective tissue disease (pulmonary manifestations)

Pulmonary manifestations of mixed connective tissue disease can be seen in a wide range (20-85%) of those of mixed connective tissue disease. It can have multiple manifestations.  More commonly described features include: an interstitial pneumonitis: 20-65% pulmonary fibrosis: 20-65% pulmona...
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Mixed dust pneumoconiosis

Mixed dust pneumoconiosis (MDP) is classified as a type of pneumoconiosis. It is sometimes classified pathologically as a pneumoconiosis showing dust macules or mixed-dust fibrotic nodules, with or without silicotic nodules, in an individual with a history of exposure to mixed dust 2.
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Modified PIOPED criteria for diagnosis of pulmonary embolus

The modified PIOPED criteria for the diagnosis of pulmonary embolus (PE) determine the probability of pulmonary emboli following a VQ scan. Classification High probability two or more large mismatched segmental defects or equivalent moderate/large defects with a normal x-ray any perfusion de...
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Moguls of the heart

The 'moguls of the heart' refer to the bulges of the cardiomediastinal contour on frontal chest radiographs. The cardiomediastinal bulges are likened to skiing moguls (bumps of packed snow on a mountainside sculptured by turning skis). Awareness of their usual locations and aetiologies is helpfu...
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Monod sign (lungs)

Monod sign (often spelt Monad sign) simply describes air that surrounds a mycetoma (most commonly an aspergilloma) in a pre-existing pulmonary cavity 1-3. It should not be confused with the air crescent sign which is seen in recovering angioinvasive aspergillosis 4. The air crescent sign herald...
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More black sign

The more black sign is a normal finding in lateral chest x-ray, and refers to the gradual increased apparent radiolucency (blackness) of the vertebral bodies, when proceeding from upper to lower chest. This is due to the increased proportion of the chest comprised of air containing lungs over di...
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Mosaic attenuation pattern in lung

Mosaic attenuation is the description given to the appearance at CT where there is a patchwork of regions of differing attenuation.  It is a non-specific finding, which may be seen in any of the following: obstructive small airways disease: low attenuation regions are abnormal and reflect decre...
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Mounier-Kuhn syndrome

Mounier-Kuhn syndrome is a somewhat controversial entity and used synonymously with tracheobronchomegaly by most authors 7,8,9.  Epidemiology Mounier-Kuhn syndrome is most frequently seen in middle age men before the age of 50 1,6. Clinical presentation The anatomical and physiological chang...
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Mucoepidermoid carcinoma of lung

Mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) of the lung is a type of non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). It is classified under the group of lung carcinomas of the salivary gland type. Epidemiology Mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) is the most common of the SGTTLs 9. The tumour is thought to account for ~ 0.2...
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Mucoid impaction (lung)

Mucoid impaction, also referred to as mucus plugging or a bronchocele, is a commonly encountered pathological feature seen in chest radiography and thoracic CT scanning. It is usually defined as airway filling by mucoid secretions and can be obstructive or non-obstructive.  Pathology Aetiology...
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Multifocal micronodular pneumocyte hyperplasia

Multifocal micronodular pneumocyte hyperplasia (MMPH) is a rare benign hamartomatous proliferation of type II pneumocytes and is seen in association with tuberous sclerosis (TS). It can occur with or without concurrent lymphangiomyomatosis. Radiographic features HRCT / Contrast CT Chest Seen ...
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Multilobar pneumonia

Multilobar pneumonia, as the name suggests, is a lobar pneumonia affecting multiple lobes. Patients with community acquired multilobar pneumonia have a worse prognosis with longer admissions, more need for ventilatory support and more frequent treatment failure 1. 
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Multinodular goitre

Multinodular goitre (MNG) is defined as an enlarged thyroid gland (i.e. goitre) due to multiple nodules which may have normal, decreased or increased (toxic nodule) function. It is a slightly unhelpful term as some multinodular thyroids are not enlarged, resulting in the unwieldy term "multinodu...
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Musculophrenic artery

The musculophrenic artery is one of two terminal branches of the internal thoracic artery. Gross anatomy The musculophrenic artery runs along the costal slips of the diaphragm. It provides the lowest five paired anterior intercostal arteries as well as fine branches that supply the superior pa...
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Myasthenia gravis

Myasthenia gravis (MG) is the most common neuromuscular junction disease, and presents with increasing fatigue brought on by exertion.  Epidemiology Incidence is estimated at 15-20 per 100,000 1,2. Females are more affected (3:1) under the age of 40, but males are more affected over the age of...
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Mycetoma

Mycetoma refers to a chronic and progressively destructive granulomatous disease. The defining clinical triad comprises: localised mass-like soft tissue injury with  draining sinuses, that  discharge grains of contagious material It is one of the 17 neglected tropical diseases defined by WHO...
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Mycoplasma pneumonia

Mycoplasma pneumonia is a type of community-acquired pneumonia caused by the organism Mycoplasma pneumoniae.  Epidemiology It is relatively common in the paediatric population where it is considered the most common community-acquired pneumonia in 5 to 20-year-olds (may account for 40% of such ...
Article

Mycosis fungoides

Mycosis fungoides (MF), also known as cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, is a type of malignant T-cell lymphoma that primarily involves the skin.  Epidemiology In the United States, it is more common in males and African Americans. In Europe, it accounts for ~6% of all non-Hodgkin lymphomas. It is rar...
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Naclerio V sign

The Naclerio V sign is a sign described on the plain film in patients with a pneumomediastinum occurring often secondary to an oesophageal rupture.  It is seen as a V-shaped air collection. One limb of the V is produced by mediastinal gas outlining the left lower lateral mediastinal border. The...
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Nasogastric tube position on chest x-ray (summary)

Nasogastric (NG) tube position on chest x-ray should be assessed following initial placement and on subsequent radiographs. Reference article This is a summary article; we do not have a more in-depth reference article. Summary confirming position x-rays are only performed when the position ...
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Near drowning pulmonary oedema

Near drowning pulmonary oedema is considered an aetiological subtype of non cardiogenic pulmonary oedema. It can occur with both salt water and fresh water near-drowning. Pathology It is thought to result from the inhalation of either fresh water or sea water resulting in lung damage and a ven...
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Necrobiotic pulmonary nodules

Necrobiotic pulmonary nodules are sterile cavitating lung nodules associated with inflammatory bowel disease (more often with ulcerative colitis than with Crohn's disease) and rheumatoid arthritis.  Pathology Histologically, necrobiotic nodules consist of a core of fibrinoid necrosis and steri...
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Necrotising pneumonia

Necrotising pneumonia (NP) refers to a pneumonia characterised by the development of the necrosis within infected lung tissue. While the term has sometimes been used synonymously with a cavitating pneumonia in some publications 2, not all necrotising pulmonary infections may be complicated by ca...
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Necrotising sarcoid granulomatosis

Necrotising sarcoid granulomatosis (NSG) is a rare systemic disease, characterised by sarcoid-like granuloma formation, vasculitis and variable degrees of necrosis. It is sometimes classified under the group of pulmonary angiitis and granulomatois. Epidemiology It typically affects affecting m...
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Neonatal chest radiograph in the exam setting

The neonatal chest radiograph in the exam setting may strike fear into the heart of many radiology registrars, but it need not! There are only a limited number of diagnoses that will be presented on such films and they are often highlighted by the history. Gestation First of all, have a look ...
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Neonatal lines and tubes

Neonatal lines and tubes are widely used in the NICU (neonatal intensive care unit) in the management of critically ill neonates. Examples include: nasogastric (NG) tube endotracheal (ET) tube central venous line umbilical artery catheter umbilical vein catheter Nasogastric tube The NG tu...
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Neonatal pneumonia

Neonatal pneumonia refers to inflammatory changes of the respiratory system caused by neonatal infection. Epidemiology It is one of the leading causes of significant morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Neonatal pneumonia accounts for 10% of global child mortality. At the time of w...
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Neonatal pneumothorax

Neonatal pneumothorax describes pneumothoraces occurring in neonates. It is a life threatening condition, associated with high morbidity and mortality. The diagnosis is a challenge especially when the amount of air is small and may accumulate along the anterior or medial pleural space. Epidemio...
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Neonatal respiratory distress (causes)

Causes of neonatal distress can be broadly split into intrathoracic, extrathoracic and systemic: Intrathoracic Medical respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) transient tachypnoea of the newborn (TTN) meconium aspiration syndrome bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) patent ductus arteriosus (PDA)...
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Neurofibromatosis type 1 (thoracic manifestations)

Thoracic manifestations of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), or von Recklinghausen disease, are related to pulmonary and mediastinal features of this multisystem neurocutaneous disorder, which is the most common phakomatosis. For other thoracic manifestations as focal thoracic scoliosis, enlarged...
Article

Neurogenic pulmonary oedema

Neurogenic pulmonary oedema is an aetiological subtype of non-cardiogenic pulmonary oedema. The diagnosis of neurogenic pulmonary oedema is based on the occurrence of the oedema after a neurologic event/insult and the exclusion of other plausible causes. Pathology It characteristically presen...
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Neurogenic tumours

Neurogenic tumours are the cause of approximately 90% of posterior mediastinal masses. They can be subdivided into three groups by their location and involvement of peripheral nerves or sympathetic chain 1-3. peripheral nerve sheath tumours sympathetic ganglia tumours paragangliomas Peripher...
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NEXUS Chest

NEXUS Chest is a clinical decision rule that supports the appropriate use of thoracic imaging in trauma. There are seven criteria 1,2: >60 years old rapid deceleration defined as fall > 6 metres or motor vehicle crash >64 km/hour chest pain intoxication abnormal alertness or mental status ...
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Niemann-Pick disease

Niemann-Pick disease (NPD) is actually a collection of a number of distinct autosomal recessive lysosomal storage diseases.  deficiency of acid sphingomyelinase 1 Niemann-Pick disease type A (NPA) severe hepatosplenomegaly in infancy severe central nervous system involvement, with atrophy or...
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Niemann-Pick disease (type B)

Niemann-Pick type B disease (NPD-B), along with Niemann-Pick type A (NPD-A) disease, is one of the more common forms of this group of autosomal recessive disorders that share the feature of abnormal storage of sphingomyelin. Common manifestation include splenomegaly and variable neurologic defic...
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Nipple markers

Nipple markers can be a useful technique in the evaluation of densities overlying the expected position of the nipple on a chest radiograph. Not uncommonly a small round opacity projects over the lower thorax on a chest radiograph (see: solitary pulmonary nodule). Often, especially in women, th...
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Nipple shadows

Nipple shadows refer to the silhouettes of the nipples on frontal chest radiographs. Epidemiology Nipple shadows are apparent on ~7.5% (range 3.5-11%) of frontal chest x-rays 1. Pathology It has been proposed by Miller et al that solitary pulmonary nodules that reach some or all of the follo...
Article

Nodular bronchiectatic mycobacterium avium complex pulmonary disease

Nodular bronchiectatic mycobacterium avium complex pulmonary disease is a morphological from of pulmonary mycobacterium avium complex infection although it is worthwhile understanding that there can be spectrum of the disease with mixed forms.  Epidemiology This form may have greater predilect...
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Nodular opacification

Nodular opacification is one of the broad patterns of pulmonary opacification that can be described on a chest radiograph or chest CT. The others, linear opacification and airway opacification are discussed separately. Nodular opacification in the lung may be a pulmonary nodule airspace nodul...
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Nodular pleural thickening

Nodular pleural thickening is a form of pleural thickening. Pathology Aetiology Essentially all common causes of nodular pleural thickening are malignant and include: metastatic pleural disease, particularly from adenocarcinomas, e.g. bronchogenic adenocarcinoma breast cancer ovarian canc...
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Nodular pulmonary amyloidosis

Nodular pulmonary amyloidosis is a subtype of pulmonary amyloidosis. It is considered a limited form of amyloidosis characterized by one or more intrapulmonary nodules or masses (amyloidomas). Clinical presentation Patients are usually asymptomatic. Some may rarely present with a cough or shor...
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Non-calcified hyperdense pulmonary nodules

Non-calcified hyperdense pulmonary nodules are predominantly the result of inhalational exposure to substances, although embolisation of material may cause dense nodular opacification within the lung. inhalation disease, e.g. pneumoconioses pulmonary baritosis (barium dust) pulmonary siderosi...
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Non-cardiogenic pulmonary oedema (mnemonic)

The causes of non-cardiogenic pulmonary oedema can be recalled with the following mnemonic: NOT CARDIAC Mnemonic NOT CARDIAC N: near drowning O: O2 therapy/post-intubation pulmonary oedema T: trauma/transfusion (TRALI: transfusion-related acute lung injury) C: CNS: neurogenic pulmonary o...
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Non lymphomatous pulmonary lymphoid disorders

There are several non lymphomatous lymphoid disorders that can affect the lung. This implies that they comprise of lymphoid tissue but may not have progressed as far as an overt lymphoma. They include: Castleman disease plasma-cell granuloma lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia angioimmunoblas...
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Non small-cell lung cancer

Non small-cell lung cancer represents a heterogeneous group of lung cancers that do not have small-cells on histology. They are thus separated as small cell carcinoma of the lung has distinctive management implications. The major histological types include: adenocarcinoma of lung squamous cell...
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Non small cell lung cancer (IASLC 8th edition staging)

The IASLC (International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer) 8th edition lung cancer staging system was introduced in 2016 and supersedes the IASLC 7th edition.  It is as follows: TNM system T: primary tumour Tx: primary tumour cannot be assessed or tumour proven by presence of maligna...
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Non small cell lung cancer (staging) - 7th edition

Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) staging can be accomplished both by the TNM system or by the AJCC staging system. This staging has since been revised. See IASLC 8th edition staging. For a general discussion of these tumours please refer to the article on non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). ...
Article

Non-specific interstitial pneumonia

Non-specific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP) is the second most common morphological and pathological pattern of the interstitial lung diseases. NSIP has two main subtypes: fibrotic type: most common, having a more dismal outcome cellular type: less common, but carries a much better prognosis du...
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Normal chest imaging examples

This article lists examples of normal imaging of the chest and surrounding structures, divided by modality. Radiograph Adult examples chest radiograph PA adult male example 1 example 2: with inverted windows example 3 PA adult female example 1 example 2 example 3: with labels example...
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Normal contours of the cardiomediastinum on chest radiography

A detailed understanding of the structures that make up the normal contours of the heart and mediastinum (cardiomediastinal contour) on chest radiography is essential if abnormalities are to be detected.  Frontal view (PA/AP) Right cardiomediastinal contour From superior to inferior: right p...
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Normal position of diaphragms on chest radiography

As a result of the heart and sub-diaphragmatic organs, the hemidiaphragms are not at the same level on frontal erect inspiratory chest radiographs, but are usually within one rib intercostal space height (~2 cm) of each other. The left hemidiaphragm is usually lower than the right.  If the left...
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Nuss procedure

The Nuss procedure (also termed MIRPE - minimally invasive repair of pectus excavatum) is one of the operative treatments employed in patients with pectus excavatum. It involves inserting of one (or more) concave metal bars beneath the sternum in the anterior chest wall. It is significantly les...
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Oblique fissure

The oblique fissures (also called the major fissures or greater fissures) are bilateral structures in both lungs separating the lung lobes.  Gross anatomy Right oblique fissure The superior part of the right oblique fissure separates the right upper lobe from the right lower lobe and the infe...
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Obliteration of the retrosternal airspace

Obliteration of the retrosternal airspace is seen in any cause of an anterior mediastinal mass. 
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Obliterative bronchiolitis

Obliterative bronchiolitis (OB), also known as bronchiolitis obliterans or constrictive bronchiolitis, is a type of bronchiolitis and refers to bronchiolar inflammation with submucosal peribronchial fibrosis associated with luminal stenosis and occlusions. OB should not be confused with bronchio...
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Obliterative bronchiolitis (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember the causes of obliterative bronchiolitis is: CRITTS Mnemonic C: cryptogenic organising pneumonia (COP)/BOOP R: rheumatoid arthritis I: infectious: post-viral/post-atypical infection (e.g. Mycoplasma pneumonia) T: transplant: heart/lung/haematopoetic stem cell transpl...
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Obstructive bronchopulmonary aspergillosis

Obstructive bronchopulmonary aspergillosis is an uncommon manifestation of non-invasive aspergillosis seen in patients with AIDS. It is typically caused by Aspergillus fumigatus and represents marked overgrowth of intraluminal of the fungus. See also pulmonary aspergillosis: aspergilloma (sap...
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Octreotide scintigraphy

Octreotide scintigraphy uses 111In-labelled octreotide which is a somatostatin analog; it is also known as an OctreoscanTM, a brand name for 111In-labelled pentetreotide; pentetreotide is a DTPA-conjugated form of octreotide, originally manufactured by Mallinckrodt Nuclear Medicine LLC, which no...
Article

Oesophageal atresia (classification)

Oesophageal atresia is closely related to tracheo-oesophageal fistula and can be divided into1: type A: isolated oesophageal atresia (8%) type B: proximal fistula with distal atresia (1%) type C: proximal atresia with distal fistula (85%) type D: double fistula with intervening atresia (1%) ...
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Oesophageal bronchus

Oesophageal bronchus refers to the rare occurrence where a bronchus arises directly from the oesophagus. Epidemiology It is more common in females with a M:F of 1:2 2.  Gross anatomy Oesophageal bronchi may be the main bronchus, which gives rise to oesophageal lung, or may be a lobar bronchu...
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Oesophageal cancer (staging)

Oesophageal cancer staging can depend slightly on whether the tumour is squamous cell or adenocarcinoma subtype. Due to the lack of a serosal layer, oesophageal cancer often tends to have mediastinal spread at the time of diagnosis. Staging TNM staging T staging Tx: primary tumour cannot be...
Article

Oesophageal carcinoma

Oesophageal carcinoma is relatively uncommon. It tends to present with increasing dysphagia, initially to solids and progressing to liquids as the tumour increases in size, obstructing the lumen of the oesophagus. Epidemiology Oesophageal cancer is responsible for <1% of all cancers and 4-10% ...
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Oesophageal duplication

Duplication of the oesophagus has a range of macroscopic appearances, ranging from complete (which is very rare) to partial cystic duplication (oesophageal duplication cyst). It is the second most common gastrointestinal tract duplication after that of the ileum. Epidemiology A complete duplic...
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Oesophageal duplication cyst

Oesophageal duplication cysts are a type of congenital foregut duplication cyst. Epidemiology Less common compared to other foregut duplication cysts. There may be an increased male predilection 5. Clinical presentation Patients are generally asymptomatic but may complain of dysphagia due to...
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Oesophageal food impaction

Oesophageal food impaction (or steakhouse syndrome) refers to a food bolus acutely obstructing the oesophagus. Clinical presentation The main symptom is usually of acute dysphagia. Radiographic features Plain radiograph Depending on the composition of the ingested content, the bolus may be ...
Article

Oesophageal hiatus

The oesophageal hiatus is the opening in the diaphragm through which the oesophagus passes from the thoracic to abdominal cavity. It is one of three apertures in the diaphragm and is located in the right crus. It is situated in the muscular part of the diaphragm at the level of T10 and is ellip...
Article

Oesophageal leiomyoma

Oesophageal leiomyoma is a benign smooth-muscle neoplasm of the oesophagus. It is the most common benign tumour of the oesophagus. Epidemiology It is most frequently presents in young and middle age groups (20-50 years). The overall incidence is around 8-43 per 10,000 autopsy series 4. Clinic...
Article

Oesophageal leiomyomatosis

Oesophageal leiomyomatosis is rare benign condition. Epidemiology It usually presents at childhood. There is a recognised increased female predilection. Pathology It is considered a hamartomatous condition and is associated with abnormal diffuse proliferation of smooth muscle fibres in dista...
Article

Oesophageal lipoma

Oesophageal lipomas are rare fat containing intrathoracic lesion. Epidemiology They may account for approximately 0.4% of the benign tumours of the alimentary tract 1. There may be greater male predilection. The average age of presentation at around 50 years.  Pathology As with all lipomas, ...
Article

Oesophageal-pleural fistula

An oesophageal-pleural fistula refers to an abnormal connection between the oesophagus and pleura.  Pathology They can arise from a number of underlying pathologies which can result in an oesophageal rupture 3: post surgical endoscopic procedures post oesophageal dilatation secondary to a ...
Article

Oesophageal pseudodiverticulosis

Oesophageal intramural pseudodiverticulosis is an uncommon condition in which there are numerous small outpouchings within the oesophageal wall. Epidemiology It is a rare condition, found in <1% of oesophagrams. It may occur at any age, but is more common between ages  50 and 70. There is a sl...
Article

Oesophageal stricture

Oesophageal strictures refer to any persistent intrinsic narrowing of the oesophagus.  Pathology Aetiology The most common causes are fibrosis induced by inflammatory and neoplastic processes. Because radiographic findings are not reliable in differentiating benign from malignant strictures, ...
Article

Oesophageal web

Oesophageal webs refer to an oesophageal constriction caused by a thin mucosal membrane projecting into the lumen. Epidemiology Oesophageal webs tend to affect middle-aged females. Clinical presentation Patients are usually asymptomatic and the finding may be incidental and unimportant. Howe...
Article

Oesophagus

The oesophagus is a muscular tube that conveys food and fluids from the pharynx to the stomach. Gross anatomy The oesophagus is 23-37 cm long with a diameter of 1-2 cm and is divided into three parts: cervical: continuous with the hypopharynx, commences at the lower border of cricoid cartilag...
Article

Oleothorax

Oleothorax is a historical treatment method for cavitary tuberculosis of the upper lobes of the lungs. It was used prior to the introduction of effective antituberculous drugs and thus was generally discontinued after the 1950s. Technique Oleothorax is an intra- or extrapleural injection of oi...
Article

Onion peel sign

The onion peel sign (also called the cumbo sign) is a feature seen with complicated pulmonary hydatid cyst in which air lining between the endocyst and pericyst has the appearance of an onion peel. 
Article

Oreo cookie sign (heart)

The Oreo cookie sign refers to the appearance of a pericardial effusion on lateral radiographs of the chest. A vertical opaque line (pericardial fluid) separating a vertical lucent line directly behind sternum (pericardial fat) anteriorly from a similar lucent vertical lucent line (epicardial fa...
Article

Ortner syndrome

Ortner syndrome, also known as cardiovocal syndrome, is characterised by hoarse voice resulting from left recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy secondary to a cardiovascular disorder. Pathology Left recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy in this condition is due to traction or compression of the nerve betw...
Article

Ossifying pulmonary metastases

Ossifying pulmonary metastases are pulmonary metastases than contain bone forming (ossific) components. On imaging, they can be challenging to differentiate from calcifying pulmonary metastases.  Pathology They can arise from a range of primary tumours (some of which also cause calcifying pulm...
Article

Osteophyte induced adjacent pulmonary atelectasis and fibrosis

Osteophyte induced adjacent pulmonary atelectasis and fibrosis are typically seen as focal pulmonary interstitial opacities adjacent to thoracic spinal osteophytes. They can be a relatively common finding in thoracic CT imaging. They are more common in older individuals Pathology They are thou...
Article

Paediatric lung lesions

Pulmonary lung lesions are a heterogenous group of lung lesions: Parenchymal hypoplasia lung agenesis-hypoplasia complex bronchial atresia hypogenetic lung syndrome (Scimitar syndrome) Cystic lesions Paediatric cystic lung lesions: congenital lobar emphysema congenital cystic adenomatoid...
Article

Paediatric mediastinal masses

Paediatric mediastinal masses are the most common chest masses in children, with the anterior mediastinum being the most common site 1. As in adults, mediastinal masses are classified depending on anatomical sites: anterior mediastinal masses middle mediastinal masses posterior mediastinal m...
Article

Paget-Schrötter syndrome

Paget-Schrötter syndrome, alternatively spelled Paget-Schroetter syndrome and also known as effort thrombosis, refers to primary thrombosis of the axillary and/or subclavian vein. It can be thought of as a venous equivalent of thoracic outlet syndrome. Epidemiology It is associated with forced...
Article

Panbronchiolitis

The term panbronchiolitis refers to a bronchiolitis affecting throughout the lungs. Most radiological publications describe this as diffuse panbronchiolitis.
Article

Pancoast syndrome

Pancoast syndrome results from involvement of the brachial plexus and sympathetic chain by a Pancoast tumour, or less commonly from other tumours involving the superior pulmonary sulcus. The syndrome consists of: shoulder pain C8-T2 radicular pain Horner syndrome The classical syndrome is un...

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