Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

1,311 results found
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Superior mesenteric artery compression disorders

There are two distinct vascular compression disorders due to compression of another structure by the superior mesenteric artery. The terminology is sometimes confusing and they can occur in association.   superior mesenteric artery syndrome (Wilkie syndrome): compression of the third part of th...
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Superior mesenteric artery syndrome

Superior mesenteric artery (SMA) syndrome, also known as Wilkie syndrome or cast syndrome or aortomesentric duodenal compression syndrome, is a rare acquired vascular compression disorder in which acute angulation of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) results in compression of the third part o...
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Superior mesenteric vein

The superior mesenteric vein (SMV) accompanies the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) and drains the midgut to the portal venous system. Gross anatomy Origin and course Mesenteric venous arcades, which accompany the arteries, unite to form the jejunal and ileal veins in the small bowel mesenter...
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Superior mesenteric venous thrombosis

Superior mesenteric venous thrombosis can result from number of conditions. It can account for around 5-15% of all mesenteric ischemic events. It can be classified in various ways: acute: acute superior mesenteric venous thrombosis chronic: chronic superior mesenteric venous thrombosis or as...
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Superior pancreaticoduodenal artery

The superior pancreaticoduodenal artery is a branch of gastroduodenal artery that supplies the duodenum and pancreas. Gross anatomy Superior pancreaticoduodenal artery arises after branching off from gastroduodenal artery. It divides into anterior and posterior divisions which supply the pylor...
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Superior rectal artery

The superior rectal artery is an artery that supplies bloods to the rectum down to the level of the levator ani 2. Summary origin: the terminal branch of the inferior mesenteric artery is the superior rectal artery course: descends into the pelvic cavity in the sigmoid mesocolon, crossing the...
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Superior rectal artery embolization

Superior rectal artery embolization is a minimally invasive endovascular technique which has a role in the management of acute lower gastrointestinal bleeding and has recently re-emerged as a potential option for the treatment of symptomatic hemorrhoidal disease, this article will focus on the l...
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Supraduodenal artery

The supraduodenal artery (SDA) is a branch of the gastroduodenal artery (GDA). It arises soon after the origin of the GDA posterior to the first part of the duodenum and supplies the anterosuperior part of the first and second parts of the duodenum, contributing to the rich arterial anastomotic ...
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Supramesocolic space

The supramesocolic space is the peritoneal space above the root of the transverse mesocolon. The inframesocolic space lies below the root of the transverse mesocolon. It can be arbitrarily divided into right and left supramesocolic spaces and subspaces. These are normally in communication with ...
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Supravesical fossa

The supravesical fossae are concave depressions of peritoneum in the paravesical space bounded by the median umbilical fold and the medial umbilical folds. It partially overlies the inguinal (Hesselbach’s) triangle. The supravesical fossae are usually occupied by small bowel loops and the urinar...
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Supravesical hernia

Supravesical hernias (alternative plural: herniae) are a type of abdominal hernia in which viscera protrude through the supravesical fossa. Pathology Laxity with failure of the transversalis fascia and the transversus abdominis muscle are the main cause of supravesical hernias in virgin abdome...
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Surgical hemostatic material

Surgical hemostatic material is used to control bleeding intraoperatively and is hence frequently intentionally left in the operative bed, not to be confused with a gossypiboma which is caused by foreign material left behind in error. Its use has increased with the advent of minimally invasive s...
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Surgical positions

There are various classic surgical positions for patients to be placed in for procedures, which have been adopted/repurposed for interventional radiology and some diagnostic procedures: lithotomy position Trendelenburg position reverse Trendelenburg position lateral decubitus position Litho...
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Syphilis

Syphilis is the result of infection with the gram-negative spirochete Treponema pallidum, subspecies pallidum. It results in a heterogeneous spectrum of disease with many systems that can potentially be involved, which are discussed separately.  Epidemiology Despite the discovery of penicillin...
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Systemic lupus erythematosus

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a complex autoimmune disease with multisystem involvement. Although abnormalities in almost every aspect of the immune system have been found, the key defect is thought to result from a loss of self-tolerance to autoantigens. Epidemiology There is a strong...
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Systemic lupus erythematosus (gastrointestinal manifestations)

Gastrointestinal manifestations in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus are common and may involve any region of the gastrointestinal tract or visceral organs. Clinical presentation Patients with abdominal or gastrointestinal involvement by systemic lupus erythematosus may have a variety...
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Taeniae coli

The taeniae coli are the three outer muscular bands of the cecum, ascending colon, transverse colon, and descending colon. Gross anatomy They sit on top of the inner circumferential layer and result in the classical appearance of the colon: the haustral markings are interrupted unlike the valv...
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Tailgut duplication cyst

Tailgut duplication cysts, also known as retrorectal cystic hamartomas, are rare congenital lesions that are thought to arise from vestiges of the embryonic hindgut.  Epidemiology There is a recognized strong female predilection. While it can present at any age, presentation is usually at arou...
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Target sign (intussusception)

The target sign of intestinal intussusception, also known as the doughnut sign or bull's eye sign. The appearance is generated by concentric alternating echogenic and hypoechoic bands. The echogenic bands are formed by mucosa and muscularis whereas the submucosa is responsible fo the hypoechoi...
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Target sign (pyloric stenosis)

The target sign of pyloric stenosis is a sign seen due to hypertrophied hypoechoic muscle surrounding echogenic mucosa, seen in pyloric stenosis. This is likened to that of a target. See also antral nipple sign (pyloric stenosis) cervix sign (pyloric stenosis) shoulder sign (pyloric stenosis)
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Tc-99m pertechnetate

Tc-99m pertechnetate (Na+ 99mTc O4-) is one of the technetium radiopharmaceuticals used in imaging of thyroid, colon, bladder and stomach. Technetium (99mTc) has eight oxidation states 6, from -1 to +7; specifically, the oxidation state of technetium in the pertechnetate anion (99mTcO4-) is +7....
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Tc-99m sulfur colloid

Technetium-99m sulfur colloid is one of the technetium radiopharmaceuticals. Characteristics photon energy: 140 keV physical half-life: 6 hours biological half-life normal distribution: liver: 85% spleen: 10% bone marrow: 5% excretion: hepatic target organ: liver, spleen pharmacokinet...
Article

Teardrop sign (superior mesenteric vein)

The teardrop sign of the superior mesenteric vein is one of the important signs in the local staging of pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Its importance lies in its diagnostic, as well as prognostic, significance. This sign is used in assessing the resectability of pancreatic cancer. Radiographic feat...
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Telltale triangle sign

The telltale triangle sign, also known as the triangle sign or telltale triangle, is a radiographic sign seen on plain abdominal radiographs in a supine, cross table lateral or decubitus view that signifies presence of pneumoperitoneum, of any cause 1,2. It describes the appearance of a radiolu...
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Tenesmus

Tenesmus (also known as rectal tenesmus to differentiate from vesical tenesmus) is stated by patients as the unpleasant symptom that there remains something to evacuate from the rectum despite passing a stool. It is often - but not always - painful. Frequently there are actually no feces left in...
Article

Tension gastrothorax

Tension gastrothorax describes a rare life-threatening condition caused by mediastinal shift due to a distended stomach herniating into the thorax through a diaphragmatic defect.  Clinical presentation Presentation is generally with acute and severe respiratory failure, with clinical features ...
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Tension pneumoperitoneum

Tension pneumoperitoneum is a special and rare type of pneumoperitoneum, in which the free intra-abdominal peritoneal gas is under pressure. Pathology The mechanism is thought to be a ball-valve effect allowing the one-way accumulation of gas. This results in: elevation and splinting of the d...
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Terminal ileitis (differential)

The differential diagnosis for a terminal ileitis is quite extensive, and includes: inflammatory bowel disease Crohn disease (most common) backwash ileitis due to ulcerative colitis infectious colitis Yersinia spp.  Yersinia enterocolitica Yersinia pseudotuberculosis Salmonella spp. ​Sa...
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Terminal ileum

The terminal ileum (plural: ilea (rarely: ileums) is the most distal segment of small bowel. It immediately precedes the small bowel's connection with the colon through the ileocecal valve. It is of particular interest since a number of infectious and inflammatory processes preferentially involv...
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Terminology of rectal cancer staging

The terminology used in describing the stage and features of rectal cancer staging is based on using abbreviations and prefixes to denote the specific stage identifier, modality of assessment and the patient's position in the treatment journey 1. Terminology Abbreviations and letters used in s...
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Thumbprinting

Thumbprinting is a radiographic sign of large bowel wall thickening, usually caused by edema, related to an infective or inflammatory process (colitis). The normal haustra become thickened at regular intervals appearing like thumbprints projecting into the aerated lumen. Pathology Etiology Th...
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Tissue tropism

Tissue tropism is a phenomenon by which certain host tissues preferentially support the growth and proliferation of pathogens. This concept is central to the radiological evaluation of infectious disease.  Pathology As infections that display tissue tropism will thrive in certain tissue locati...
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Total pelvic exenteration

Total pelvic exenteration refers to extensive surgical resection of pelvic structures to treat locally advanced or recurrent pelvic malignancies. It is performed to obtain optimal excision of tumor radical margins which can be difficult in pelvis given proximity and often local invasion of adjac...
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Toxic megacolon

Toxic megacolon is an acute complication that can be seen in both types of inflammatory bowel disease, and less commonly in infectious colitis, as well as in some other types of colitis. It is due to fulminant colitis which causes loss of neurogenic tone of the colon leading to severe dilatation...
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Toxoplasmosis

Toxoplasmosis is a common worldwide parasitic disease caused by the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii. It is usually an asymptomatic infection, but it is related with several sequelae when acquired in-utero or related with cerebral abscesses due to its reactivation in immunocompromised patients (e.g. ...
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Tracheo-esophageal fistulation

Tracheo-esophageal fistula is a pathological communication between the trachea and esophagus. It can be broadly classified into two types: congenital tracheo-esophageal fistula acquired tracheo-esophageal fistula: from malignancy/tuberculosis
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Transanal endoscopic microsurgery

Transanal endoscopic microsurgery is a technique for resection of some focal T1 stage rectal cancers. Features of a rectal cancer that may make it a candidate for this approach well- or moderately-differentiated tumors that are T1 N0 M0 (confined to submucosa without spread) <3 cm within 8 c...
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Transhiatal esophagectomy

Transhiatal esophagectomy is a type of esophagectomy, a surgery that removes the distal esophagus, usually for esophageal carcinoma. Removal of the esophagus can be performed through the chest wall (a transthoracic esophagectomy), but the thoracotomy is a major component of patient pain and com...
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Transient intussusception

Transient (non-obstructing) intussusception without a lead point is known to occur in both adults and children and occurs more frequently than was previously reported. Most commonly, transient intussusception in adults is idiopathic, incidental, and of no clinical consequence 4. Uncommonly, tra...
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Transpyloric plane

The transpyloric plane, also known as Addison's plane, is an imaginary axial plane located midway between the jugular notch and superior border of pubic symphysis, at approximately the level of L1 vertebral body. It an important landmark as many key structures are visualized at this level, altho...
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Transverse colon

The transverse colon is the longest and most mobile part of the large intestine. It measures up to 45 cm in length.  Gross anatomy The transverse colon is the continuation of the ascending colon from the right colic flexure. It passes from the right to left hypochondrium in a downward convex p...
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Transverse mesocolon

The transverse mesocolon is a broad, meso-fold of peritoneum, which connects the transverse colon to the posterior wall of the abdomen. It is continuous with the two posterior layers of the greater omentum, which, after separating to surround the transverse colon, join behind it, and are contin...
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Traumatic abdominal wall hernia

Traumatic abdominal wall hernia describes the traumatic disruption of musculature and fascia of anterior abdominal wall without skin penetration. Clinical presentation Abdominal skin ecchymosis or abrasions may be seen. Pathology Traumatic abdominal wall hernia is caused by blunt trauma to t...
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Triple bubble sign

The triple bubble sign is the classic radiographic appearance observed in jejunal atresia 1,2. The appearance is due to a proximal obstruction caused by the atretric jejunum. It is equivalent to the double bubble sign, but a third bubble is seen because of proximal jejunal distention.
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Troisier sign

Troisier sign is the clinical finding of a hard and enlarged left supraclavicular node (Virchow node), and is considered a sign of metastatic abdominal malignancy. Terminology It is sometimes referred to as the Virchow node, which is the name given by Rudolf Virchow (1821-1902) 6, a German pat...
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Tropical pancreatitis

Tropical pancreatitis is a subtype of chronic pancreatitis associated with SPINK1 gene mutation, tropical countries, and the young age of onset. There are characteristic, large ductal calculi, which may measure up to a few centimeters in size. This is in contrast to the small, speckled calculi m...
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Tuberculous peritonitis

Tuberculous peritonitis is a form of extrapulmonary tuberculosis affecting the peritoneum. It is frequently seen in association with other forms of gastrointestinal tuberculosis 6. Epidemiology Tuberculosis is usually confined to the respiratory system but may involve any organ system 1. Extra...
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Tumor deposits

Tumor deposits (in the context of rectal cancer) are discrete nodules of tumor tissue within the mesorectum, often found along the path of draining vessels, and are distinct from lymph node metastases. They are found in >50% of MRI studies of patients with rectal cancer 1. Radiographic features...
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Tumors of the small intestine

The small intestine is rarely the site of malignant tumors, although it accounts for ~75% of the entire length of the GI tract and more than 90% of the mucosal surface. Approximately 40 different histologic tumor types have been described.  In this article, an overview will be given of the most...
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Tumor-to-tumor metastasis

A tumor-to-tumor metastasis, also known as a collision tumor, is a rare metastatic process in which a primary malignant tumor ('donor') metastasizes to another tumor ('recipient'), most commonly a benign tumor such as a meningioma. Epidemiology Tumor-to-tumor metastasis is considered very rare...
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Turcot syndrome

Turcot syndrome is one of the variations in polyposis syndromes. It is characterized by multiple colonic polyps and an increased risk of colon and primary brain cancers. Epidemiology Turcot syndrome is a rare disease. Patients typically present in the second decade 3. Pathology Turcot syndro...
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Twinkling artifact

Twinkling artifact is seen with color flow Doppler ultrasound 1. It occurs as a focus of alternating colors on Doppler signal behind a reflective object (such as a calculus), which gives the appearance of turbulent blood flow 2. It appears with or without an associated color comet-tail artifact ...
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Typhlitis

Typhlitis, also called cecitis or neutropenic colitis, is a necrotizing inflammatory condition which typically involves the cecum and, sometimes, can extend into the ascending colon, appendix or terminal ileum. Epidemiology Typhlitis was first described in children with leukemia and severe neu...
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Typhoid fever

Typhoid fever or just typhoid is an infectious disease caused by the Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi bacterium, usually spread by the orofecal route. The condition is characterized by severe fever, acute systemic symptoms, with occasionally serious enterocolic complications. Terminology Do n...
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Ulcerative colitis

Ulcerative colitis (UC) is an inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that not only predominantly affects the colon, but also has extraintestinal manifestations. Epidemiology Typically ulcerative colitis manifests in young adults (15-40 years of age) and is more prevalent in males but the onset of di...
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Ultrasound elastography

Ultrasound elastography, also called as sono-elastography, is a modern evolutionary method of sonographic imaging. Techniques include shear wave elastography (also known as transient elastography) and strain elastography (also known as static or compression elastography). These techniques utiliz...
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Ultrasound-guided biopsy

Ultrasound-guided biopsy is one form of image-guided biopsy, typically performed by a radiologist. It is the most common form of image-guided biopsy, offering convenience and real-time dynamic observation with echogenic markers on cannulae allowing for precise placement. It can potentially be u...
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Ultrasound guided percutaneous drainage

Ultrasound guided percutaneous drainage is one form of image guided procedure, allowing minimally invasive treatment of collections that are accessible by ultrasound study. It has several advantages and disadvantages over CT, which include: Advantages is a dynamic study, allowing greater prec...
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Umbilical folds

The umbilical folds are a series of 5 folds of parietal peritoneum on the deep surface of the anterior abdominal wall and consist of: a single midline median umbilical fold, bilateral medial umbilical folds, and bilateral lateral umbilical folds
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Umbilical hernia

Umbilical hernias (alternative plural: herniae) are the most common ventral abdominal wall hernia and occur in the midline through the umbilicus. Epidemiology Ten times more common in females 2 and represent ~5% of all abdominal hernias 4. Clinical presentation Umbilical hernias may present ...
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Umbilicus

The umbilicus is the fibrous remnant of the fetal attachment of the umbilical cord after birth. Gross anatomy All layers of the anterior abdominal wall fuse at the umbilical ring, a small round defect in the linea alba located just inferior to the midpoint between the xiphoid process of the st...
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Upper gastrointestinal bleeding

Upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) is defined as bleeding proximal to the ligament of Treitz. Epidemiology The incidence of acute upper GI bleeding is ~100 per 100,000 adults per year. Upper GI bleeding is twice as common in men as in women and increases in prevalence with age 5. The demog...
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Upper gastrointestinal bleeding (differential)

An upper gastrointestinal bleed usually refers to bleeding proximal to the ligament of Treitz. Pathology Causes peptic ulcer gastritis esophagitis duodenitis Mallory-Weiss tear varices tumor vascular abnormality vascular ectasia angiodysplasia Dieulafoy lesion vascular malformation...
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Upper GI study

Upper GI studies are a fluoroscopic evaluation of the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum.  Indications There are a number of indications for an upper GI study, including: upper abdominal pain with a possible gastric or duodenal origin ulcer gastritis or duodenitis gastric outlet obstruction ...
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Urachus sign

The urachus sign is a radiographic sign of pneumoperitoneum. It represents the outline of the median umbilical ligament with free abdominal gas in a supine patient, as seen on a plain abdominal radiograph.
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US abdomen (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Ultrasound abdomen is one of the tests that is commonly used in the assessment of patients with abdominal pain. It is particularly useful for the assessment of solid organs and fluid-filled structures. Reference article T...
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Valentino syndrome

Valentino syndrome, or Valentino appendix, refers to a clinical syndrome of right lower quadrant or right iliac fossa pain secondary to a perforated peptic ulcer. It is an important differential diagnosis for acute appendicitis. Epidemiology Although thought to be a very rare manifestation of ...
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Valvulae conniventes

The valvulae conniventes, also known as Kerckring folds/valves, plicae circulares or just small bowel folds, are the mucosal folds of the small intestine, starting from the second part of the duodenum, they are large and thick at the jejunum and considerably decrease in size distally in the ileu...
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Vascular Ehlers Danlos syndrome

Vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) or type IV Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS 4) is the most malignant form of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. This form is often accompanied by neurovascular complications secondary to vessel dissections and/or aneurysms. Epidemiology Vascular EDS represents about 4% of...
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Veiled right kidney sign

The veiled right kidney sign is a sonographic sign described in pneumoretroperitoneum, most commonly due to duodenal perforation. It refers to the appearance of the right kidney on transabdominal ultrasound 1-4. On ultrasound, there is difficulty in obtaining images of the right kidney due to i...
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Veno-occlusive mesenteric ischemia

Veno-occlusive mesenteric ischemia is most often the result of superior mesenteric vein (SMV) thrombosis and is a less common cause of acute mesenteric ischemia. Despite thrombosis of the SMV, small bowel necrosis often does not occur, presumably due to persistent arterial supply and some venous...
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Venous intravasation

Venous intravasation is the unintended introduction of radiographic contrast material into the local venous system. It is a well-recognized phenomenon during retrograde urethrograms 1,2 and hysterosalpingograms (HSG), although can occur with other invasive procedures in the vicinity of venous pl...
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Vertical-banded gastroplasty

Vertical-banded gastroplasty (VBG) is an older, purely restrictive procedure used to treat morbid obesity. Procedure It involves creating a small gastric pouch, based on the lesser curvature of the stomach (which is thicker and less resistant to stretching than the greater curvature), by using...
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Vestibule (disambiguation)

A vestibule is an anatomical term and refers to a small cavity at the proximal end of a tube. It may refer to: vestibule (aorta) vestibule (ear) vestibule (larynx) vestibule (mouth) vestibule (nose) vestibule (esophagus) vestibule (vulva) History and etymology Vestibule derives ultimate...
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Vicarious contrast media excretion

Vicarious contrast media excretion (VCME) is defined as excretion of intravascularly-administered water-soluble contrast media in a way other than via normal renal excretion. The most common vicarious excretion of water-soluble contrast material is via the liver, resulting in increased bile dens...
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Videofluoroscopic swallow study

Videofluoroscopic swallow studies (also often called modified barium swallow studies) are a variation on traditional barium swallow studies. Although typical barium swallow studies / esophagrams evaluate the pharynx, the goal in these studies is to even more closely evaluate the oral cavity, pha...
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VIPoma

VIPomas are a very rare type of pancreatic endocrine tumors that secrete, and get their name from, vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP). The clinical syndrome resulting from these tumors is commonly known as WDHA syndrome, as an acronym of the cardinal symptoms of watery diarrhea, hypokalemia, an...
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Virgin abdomen

Virgin abdomen is used to describe the abdomen of a patient who has never had any surgical procedure on their abdomen. It is usually used in the context of someone presenting with an acute small bowel obstruction and whether adhesions might be the underlying etiology. The conventional wisdom be...
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Viscera

The viscera (singular: viscus) refers to all the internal organs within the major cavities of the thorax, abdomen and pelvis. Therefore it does not include organs of the CNS, head and neck or musculoskeletal compartments nor does it encompass non-internal organs (e.g. the skin) 1. Splanchnology...
Article

Vitamin B3

Vitamin B3 (niacin or nicotinic acid) is a water-soluble vitamin, part of the vitamin B complex, that is an important part of the coenzyme nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) which is involved in many reactions of cellular metabolism. Related pathology pellagra is the clinical syndrome of...
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Von Hippel-Lindau disease

Von Hippel-Lindau (vHL) disease is characterized by the development of numerous benign and malignant tumors in different organs (at least 40 types 1) due to mutations in the VHL tumor suppressor gene on chromosome 3. Epidemiology The disease is rare with an estimated prevalence of 1:35,000-50,...
Article

Walled-off pancreatic necrosis

Walled-off pancreatic necrosis (WOPN) is a late complication of acute pancreatitis, although it can occur in chronic pancreatitis or as a result of pancreatic trauma. Differentiation of WOPN from pancreatic pseudocyst is essential because management differs. WOPN may need aggressive treatment to...
Article

Wandering spleen

Wandering spleen is a rare condition in which the spleen migrates from its usual anatomical position, commonly to the lower abdomen or pelvis. Epidemiology Wandering spleen is rare, with a reported incidence of <0.5%. Diagnosis is most commonly made between ages 20 and 40 years and is more co...
Article

Water siphon test

The water siphon test may be performed as part of a barium swallow to assess for gastro-esophageal reflux. It is performed in the supine RPO position with the patient drinking water continuously. The test is said to be positive if there is visible barium reflux in the esophagus, and is more sens...
Article

Weight loss

A clinical presentation of weight loss is extremely common and often a source of marked anxiety for the patient. The commonest cause of unintentional weight loss (UWI) is gastrointestinal tract disease, and not malignancy. Terminology The published literature lacks a consistent definition of w...
Article

Whipple disease

Whipple disease is a rare infectious multisystem disorder caused by the actinobacteria Tropheryma whipplei. Epidemiology The incidence of Whipple disease is not truly known, one Swiss study estimated it at approximately 1 per 1.5 million per year 7. The peak age for presentation is in the fif...
Article

Whipple disease (gastrointestinal manifestations)

Gastrointestinal manifestations are a key component of Whipple disease.  The gastrointestinal manifestations of Tropheryma whipplei are also known as intestinal lipodystrophy. Pathology Extensive infiltration of the lamina propria with large macrophages infected by intracellular T. whipplei ca...
Article

Whipple procedure

The Whipple procedure (or partial pancreaticoduodenectomy) is considered the definitive surgical operation to resect carcinoma of the head of the pancreas, periampullary carcinoma, or duodenal carcinoma 1. Procedure In the procedure, the head of the pancreas and adjacent duodenum is resected. ...
Article

Whipple triad

Whipple triad is the clinical presentation of pancreatic insulinoma and consists of: fasting hypoglycemia (<50 mg/dL) symptoms of hypoglycemia immediate relief of symptoms after the administration of IV glucose History and etymology The triad and also the Whipple procedure were both named a...
Article

Whirlpool sign (mesentery)

The whirlpool sign of the mesentery, also known as the whirl sign, is seen when the bowel rotates around its mesentery leading to whirls of the mesenteric vessels.  Terminology The term whirlpool sign is used in other contexts: see whirlpool sign (disambiguation). Radiographic features It is...
Article

WHO classification of anal canal tumors

The World Health Organization classifies anal canal neoplasms into intraepithelial neoplasms and invasive neoplasms which are further divided to epithelial and non-epithelial tumors and secondary lesions: Epithelial tumors squamous cell carcinoma of anal canal adenocarcinoma of anal canal mu...
Article

WHO classification of anal margin tumors

The WHO classification of anal margin tumors or perianal skin tumors is: intraepithelial tumors Bowen disease (precursor of squamous cell carcinoma) Paget disease (precursor of adenocarcinoma) invasive tumors squamous cell carcinoma adenocarcinoma basal cell carcinoma  verrucous carcinom...
Article

Widening of the presacral space (differential)

Widening of the presacral space is one of the diagnostic indicators of the diseases involving pelvic pathology and rectal involvement. It is ideally measured on barium studies at the level of S3/4 disc level on lateral radiographs and the normal value of the presacral space is <15 mm in adults.​...

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