Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

1,195 results found
Article

Carbolic acid poisoning symptoms (mnemonic)

The symptoms of carbolic acid poisoning can be recalled using the mnemonic: 5 Cs Mnemonic C: CNS depression C: constricted pupil C: carboluria (smoky urine) C: cartilage C: corneal deposition
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Carcinogens

Carcinogens are substances known to cause cancer. They include: Brain vinyl chloride Nasopharynx / nasal passage nickel wood dust chromium Thyroid ionizing radiation (not technically a substance) Skin arsenic coal tars polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) Lungs arsenic asbestos chloro...
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Carcinoid syndrome

Carcinoid syndrome refers to a spectrum of symptoms that result from excessive hormone (mainly serotonin) secretion.  Epidemiology Occurs equally between the sexes, most commonly in the 40-70 year age group 3. Clinical presentation Diarrhea is the most common and earliest symptom but others ...
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Carcinoid tumor

Carcinoid tumors are a type of neuroendocrine tumor that can occur in a number of locations. Carcinoid tumors arise from endocrine amine precursor uptake and decarboxylation (APUD) cells that can be found throughout the gastrointestinal tract as well as other organs (e.g. lung). In general, they...
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Carcinosarcoma

Carcinosarcomas are highly malignant biphasic tumors with both carcinomatous (epithelial) and sarcomatous (bone, cartilage, or skeletal muscle) components.  Pathology It can arise in many organs: lung 5: pulmonary carcinosarcoma esophagus 1: esophageal carcinosarcoma genitourinary tract 2 ...
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Carman meniscus sign

The Carman meniscus sign describes the lenticular shape of barium in cases of large and flat gastric ulcers, in which the inner margin is convex toward the lumen. It usually indicates a malignant ulcerated neoplasm; in cases of benign gastric ulcers, the inner margin is usually concave toward th...
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Carney-Stratakis syndrome

Carney-Stratakis syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant condition comprising of familial paraganglioma and gastric stromal sarcoma. Terminology It is considered to be distinct from, but perhaps related to, the Carney triad 1. Neither should be confused with the unrelated Carney complex. Histor...
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Carney triad

Carney triad is a rare syndrome defined by the coexistence of three tumors: extra-adrenal paraganglioma (e.g. spinal paraganglioma) initially, only functioning extra-adrenal paragangliomas were included, but subsequent work includes non-functioning extra-adrenal paragangliomas 1 gastric gastr...
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Cases in radiology (video tutorials)

The cases featured in these video lectures are specifically selected to teach important concepts in radiology over a broad range of topics. The tutorials vary in difficulty from basic to advanced. For maximum learning, try the cases for yourself in Radiopaedia quiz mode first.  We love this ser...
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Casoni skin test

The Casoni skin test is a hypersensitivity based skin test used to detect hydatid disease. Although once a major test in diagnosing hydatid disease it has largely been superseded by newer more sensitive, specific and safer serological tests. Technique Sterile fluid (0.25 mL) of hydatid cyst or...
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Castleman disease

Castleman disease, also known as angiofollicular lymph node hyperplasia or giant lymph node hyperplasia, is an uncommon benign B-cell lymphoproliferative condition. It can affect several regions of the body although commonly described as a solitary mediastinal mass. There are two distinct subty...
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Caterpillar sign

The caterpillar sign is a radiological sign described in pyloric stenosis. It refers to the appearance of the stomach on an upper gastrointestinal radiographic series or plain abdominal radiograph 1,2. On these imaging modalities in a patient with pyloric stenosis, the stomach appears distended...
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Causes of pancreatitis (mnemonic)

A catchy and early learnt mnemonic for recalling some of the causes of pancreatitis is: I GET SMASHED Mnemonic I: idiopathic G: gallstones, genetic - cystic fibrosis E: ethanol (alcohol) T: trauma S: steroids M: mumps (and other infections)/malignancy A: autoimmune S: scorpion stings/s...
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Cavernous venous malformation

Cavernous venous malformation, also traditionally referred to as a cavernous hemangioma (despite it not being a tumor) or cavernomas, are non-neoplastic slow flow venous malformations found in many parts of the body.  Terminology Despite the ubiquity of use of the traditional terms cavernoma, ...
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Cavitating mesenteric lymph node syndrome

Cavitary mesenteric lymph node syndrome is seen in association with celiac disease and is characterized by the triad of: splenic atrophy  low-attenuation lymphadenopathy that sometimes contains fat-fluid levels villous atrophy
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CEA

Serum CEA (carcinoembryonic antigen) is a cell-adhesive glycoprotein that was discovered in colorectal cancer in 1965, and is hence one of the oldest and most used tumor markers. Its name derives from its normal expression in fetoembryonic liver, gut and pancreas tissue. Normal range of CEA is ...
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CEC syndrome

CEC syndrome refers to the combination of celiac disease, epilepsy and bilateral occipital calcifications. This is also known as Gobbi syndrome. Patients with cerebral calcifications and celiac disease without epilepsy are considered as having an incomplete form of CEC syndrome 1. Epidemiology ...
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Centipede sign (mesentery)

The centipede sign is seen as engorged mesenteric vessels in cases of acute sigmoid diverticulitis which gives an appearance similar to a centipede 1.
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Cervix sign of pyloric stenosis

The cervix sign of pyloric stenosis describes indentation of the pylorus into the fluid-filled antrum, seen in pyloric stenosis on ultrasound examination. See also antral nipple sign target sign of pyloric stenosis
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Chagas disease

Chagas disease, also known as American trypanosomiasis (plural: trypanosomiases), is a tropical parasitic infection with a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations since it can virtually affect any organ, but there are characteristic radiological features. Epidemiology Chagas disease is endemi...
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Chalasia

Chalasia is a condition most commonly identified in infants and young children, and is related to congenital incompetence of the lower esophageal sphincter, allowing unrestricted reflux of gastric contents. This contrasts with achalasia, where there is restriction at the gastro-oesphageal juncti...
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Champagne sign (gallbladder)

The champagne sign (also known as the effervescent gallbladder sign) is a pathognomonic sonographic sign of gas in the gallbladder. The sign refers to multiple small echogenic foci which are seen to migrate from a dependent to non-dependent position within the gallbladder as the patient changes...
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Chilaiditi sign

Chilaiditi sign refers to the interposition of the bowel, usually colon, between the inferior surface of the right hemidiaphragm and the superior surface of the liver. It may be misinterpreted as a true pneumoperitoneum resulting in unnecessary further investigations and/or therapy (so-called ps...
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Chilaiditi syndrome

Chilaiditi syndrome is the anterior interposition of the colon to the liver reaching the under-surface of the right hemidiaphragm with associated upper abdominal pain; it is one of the causes of pseudopneumoperitoneum. Colonic gas in this position may be misinterpreted as true pneumoperitoneum ...
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Choi response criteria

The solitary use of the size of the tumor during evaluation for response to chemotherapy has some pitfalls and limitations, especially for specific tumors such as gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST). The Choi response criteria for GIST proposed that tumor attenuation could provide an addition...
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Cholecystoduodenal fistula

Cholecystoduodenal fistula refers to a fistulous connection between the gallbladder and the duodenum. It is considered the most common type of enterobiliary fistulation. Clinical presentation Can vary but some can present with Bouveret syndrome 3 or a gallstone ileus. Radiographic features C...
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Cholera

Cholera is an acute infective diarrheal illness caused by Vibrio cholerae. Severe cholera causes large volume liquid stools, which may rapidly lead to hypovolemic shock and death, unless intensive rehydration therapy is instituted. Prevention of cholera depends upon access to clean water and eff...
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Christmas inspired signs

There are many signs in radiology that are related to Christmas: snowcap sign in avascular necrosis snowman sign in total anomalous pulmonary venous return in pituitary macroadenomas snowstorm appearance in complete hydatidiform and testicular microlithiasis holly leaf sign in calcified pl...
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Chronic mesenteric ischemia

Chronic mesenteric ischemia is an uncommon type of intestinal ischemia usually affecting elderly patients as a result of significant stenosis of two or more mesenteric arteries. Epidemiology Normally seen in patients older than 60 years of age and is three times more common in women. Clinical...
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Chronic pancreatitis

Chronic pancreatitis represents the end result of a continuous, prolonged, inflammatory and fibrosing process that affects the pancreas. This results in irreversible morphologic changes and permanent endocrine and exocrine pancreatic dysfunction. Epidemiology The most common cause of chronic p...
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Chylous ascites

Chylous ascites (also known as chyloperitoneum) is defined as the abnormal intraperitoneal accumulation of milky lymphatic fluid with a triglyceride level >110 mg/dL 1. Etiologically it is due to a disruption of the lymphatic system, most commonly obstructive due to a mass or traumatic (which ma...
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Circumferential resection margin

The circumferential resection margin (CRM) is a term used in rectal carcinoma excision surgery (such as total mesorectal excision (TME)). Pathologic evaluation of the resection margin on the excised rectum has been considered important for determining the risk of local recurrence. A margin of ≤...
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Cloaca (urogenital)

The cloaca is the terminal portion of the hindgut. It is an embryonic structure (weeks 4-7) in which the distal ends of the gastrointestinal tract and urogenital system share a common channel. The most distal aspect of the cloaca is termed the cloacal membrane. The cloaca, or portions of it, ca...
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Closed loop obstruction

Closed loop obstruction is a specific type of bowel obstruction in which two points along the course of a bowel are obstructed, usually but not always with the transition points adjacent to each other at a single location. The closed loop refers to a segment of bowel without proximal or distal o...
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Clostridioides difficile colitis

Clostridioides difficile colitis, also known as pseudomembranous colitis and previously known as Clostridium difficile colitis 10, is a common cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea, and increasingly encountered in sick hospitalized patients. If undiagnosed and untreated, it continues to have h...
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Cobblestone appearance (hollow viscera)

Cobblestoning (having a cobblestone appearance) can occur in a number of hollow organs with mucosa, most commonly the bowel, in the setting of Crohn disease.  Longitudinal and circumferential fissures and ulcers separate islands of mucosa, giving it an appearance reminiscent of cobblestones.  ...
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Cockade sign (disambiguation)

There are several described cockade signs in radiology: cockade sign (intraosseous lipoma) cockade sign (aorto-left ventricular tunnel) 1 cockade sign (appendicitis) 2 cockade sign (hypertrophic pyloric stenosis) 3 cockade sign (GI tumors) 4
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Celiac artery

Celiac artery, also known as the celiac axis or celiac trunk, is a major visceral artery in the abdominal cavity supplying the foregut. It arises from the abdominal aorta and commonly gives rise to three branches: left gastric artery, splenic artery, and common hepatic artery.  Gross anatomy O...
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Celiac artery compression syndrome

Celiac artery compression syndrome, also known as median arcuate ligament syndrome, Dunbar syndrome, or Harjola-Marable syndrome, is a rare condition characterized by upper abdominal pain in the setting of compression of the celiac trunk by the diaphragmatic crurae. Although well-recognized as ...
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Celiac disease

Celiac disease, also known as non-tropical sprue, is the most common gluten-related disorder and is a T-cell mediated autoimmune chronic gluten intolerance condition characterized by a loss of villi in the proximal small bowel and gastrointestinal malabsorption (sprue). It should always be cons...
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Celiacomesenteric trunk

The celiacomesenteric trunk represents an uncommon vascular anatomical variant where both the celiac trunk and the superior mesenteric artery have a common origin from the abdominal aorta as a single trunk. Its frequency has been reported to occur in about 1.5% of the population 1,2. A celiac-b...
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Celiac plexus block

Celiac plexus block under image guidance is an easy and safe percutaneous procedure with good outcomes for pain palliation in patients who have chronic abdominal pain related to the celiac ganglia.  This usually includes patients with advanced cancers, especially from upper abdominal viscera, s...
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Coffee-bean sign (sigmoid colon)

The coffee-bean sign (also known as the kidney bean sign or bent inner tube sign 4) is a sign on an abdominal plain radiograph of a sigmoid volvulus although some authors have also used the term to refer to closed loop small bowel obstructions. Cecal volvulus may be mistaken with sigmoid volvulu...
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Collar sign in diaphragmatic rupture

The collar sign, also called the hourglass sign, is a helpful sign for diagnosis of diaphragmatic rupture on coronal or sagittal CT/ MR images and barium studies. It refers to a waist-like or collar-like appearance of herniated organs at the level of the diaphragm. See also dependent viscera s...
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Colo-enteric fistula

A colo-enteric fistula is a type of gastrointestinal fistulation wherein there is abnormal communication between the colon and the small bowel.  Pathology It can occur from a number of causes which include: Crohn disease - considered one of the commonest causes colorectal carcinoma prior su...
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Colon cut-off sign

The colon cut-off sign describes gaseous distension seen in proximal colon associated with abrupt termination of gas within the colon usually at the level of the splenic flexure and decompression of the more distal part of the colon. Though originally described in abdominal radiographs, this sig...
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Colonic anastomotic leak

Colonic anastomotic leaks occur in the early or late postoperative phase, in which the enteric anastomosis fails. This may be a small leak that can be managed conservatively or less commonly complete dehiscence requiring repeat surgery. Epidemiology In one large surgical series, the incidence ...
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Colonic diverticulitis

Colonic diverticulitis (plural diverticulitides), is a complication of colonic diverticulosis, and one of the presentations of diverticular disease. Differentiating one from the other is critical since uncomplicated diverticulosis is mostly asymptomatic and acute diverticulitis is a potentially ...
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Colonic diverticulosis

Colonic diverticulosis (plural diverticuloses) refers to the presence of multiple diverticula. It is quite distinct from diverticulitis which describes inflammation and infection of one or multiple diverticula. Epidemiology Diverticulosis is very common in westernised countries and is typicall...
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Colonic esophageal interposition

Colonic esophageal interposition is a now rarely performed upper gastrointestinal tract surgical procedure, in which colon is used to replace the distal esophagus. This was performed for long esophageal strictures or in some cases malignancy. The haustra of the colon are illustrated on plain r...
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Colonic pseudo-obstruction

Colonic pseudo-obstruction (also known as Ogilvie syndrome) is a potentially fatal condition leading to an acute colonic distention without an underlying mechanical obstruction. It is defined as an acute pseudo-obstruction and dilatation of the colon in the absence of any mechanical obstruction....
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Colonic stricture

Colonic strictures can be long (>10 cm) or short. Short scirrhous colorectal carcinoma (apple core sign) post surgical (anastamotic stricture) Long malignancy scirrhous colorectal carcinoma gastrointestinal lymphoma inflammatory bowel disease ulcerative colitis Crohn disease post radi...
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Colonic transit study

The colonic transit study is an older technique to estimate colonic transit time.  Indications In constipation, it can help distinguish between slow colonic transit and a defecation disorder. Procedure The patient ingests a number of radiopaque markers (plastic rings containing radiopaque ma...
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Colon polyp

Colon polyps are mucosal outgrowths of the colon wall. They are of interest to physicians and radiologists because of the accepted progression of adenomatous polyps to colon carcinoma. Pathology adenomatous colon polyps tubular polyps tubulovillous polyps villous colon polyps dysplastic co...
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Colorectal cancer (staging)

Colorectal carcinoma staging can be performed using two systems. The traditional Dukes staging system has largely been replaced by the TNM system but is nonetheless often used clinically. Staging Dukes (Astler-Coller modification) stage A: confined to mucosa stage B: through muscularis propr...
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Colorectal cancer (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Colorectal cancer, also called colorectal carcinoma (CRC), is the most common cancer of the gastrointestinal tract and the second most frequently diagnosed malignancy in adults. CT and MRI are the modalities most frequently...
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Colorectal carcinoma

Colorectal carcinoma (CRC) is the most common cancer of the gastrointestinal tract and the second most frequently diagnosed malignancy in adults. CT and MRI are the modalities most frequently used for staging. Surgical resection may be curative although five-year survival rate is 40-50%.  Epide...
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Colorectal villous polyps

Colorectal villous polyps refer to villous adenomas of the large intestine. They are most commonly found in the rectum and are the least common of all types of colon polyps. Epidemiology The prevalence of advanced polyps including villous polyps on screening colonography is ~5% (range 3-7%) 3,...
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Colovaginal fistula

Colovaginal fistula is one form of genitourinary fistula. It is also sometimes classed under a type of gastro-intestinal fistula. Pathology It refers to a communication between the colon (typically the rectum or sigmoid colon) with the vagina. At times, specific terms are used dependent on th...
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Colovesical fistula

Colovesical fistulas are communications between the lumen of the colon and that of the bladder, either directly or via an intervening abscess cavity (foyer intermediaire). When the communication is between the rectum and urinary bladder, the term rectovesical fistula is used. Epidemiology The ...
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Comb sign (mesentery)

The comb sign refers to the hypervascular appearance of the mesentery in active Crohn disease. Fibrofatty proliferation and perivascular inflammatory infiltration outline the distended intestinal arcades. This forms linear densities on the mesenteric side of the affected segments of small bowel,...
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Common bile duct

The common bile duct (CBD), which is sometimes simply known as the bile duct, is formed by the union of the cystic duct and common hepatic duct (CHD).  Terminology On ultrasound imaging, it is not always possible to confidently see where the cystic duct enters the common hepatic duct to form t...
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Common hepatic artery

The common hepatic artery (CHA) is one of the 3 branches of the celiac artery. Gross anatomy Origin and course The CHA is a terminal branch of the celiac arter. It passes over the top of the pancreas, and downwards to the right in the lesser sac towards the first part of duodenum. It gives of...
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Common hepatic duct

The common hepatic duct (CHD) is formed by the junction of the right and left hepatic ducts. It joins the cystic duct to form the common bile duct (CBD). It is approximately 4 cm long and 4 mm in diameter.  Together with the cystic duct (laterally) and cystic artery (superiorly), they form Calo...
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Complications following gastric banding

There are many complications that can occur following gastric banding. It is helpful to divide these into early and late post-surgical complications. Clinical presentation Although the exact mode of presentation can vary depending on the underlying complication common modes of presentation tha...
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Complications post optical colonoscopy

Complications post optical colonoscopy are most commonly assessed by CT if patients present with abdominal symptoms post colonoscopy. Complications include: bowel perforation (most common) pneumoperitoneum pneumoretroperitoneum pneumomediastinum pneumothorax lower gastrointestinal hemorrha...
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Computed tomographic (CT) colonography

Computed tomographic (CT) colonography, also called CTC, virtual colonoscopy (VC) or CT pneumocolon, is a powerful minimally invasive technique for colorectal cancer screening. Indications screening test for colorectal carcinoma colon evaluation after incomplete or unsuccessful conventional c...
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Computed tomographic (CT) gastrography

Computed tomographic (CT) gastrography, also called virtual gastroscopy (VG), is a noninvasive procedure for the detection of gastric abnormalities. Advantages rapid and noninvasive exam offers information about local tumor invasion, lymph node and distant metastasis in cases of gastric cance...
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Cone-shaped cecum (differential)

A cone-shaped cecum refers to a loss of the normal rounded appearance of the cecum, which instead becomes narrow and cone-shaped with the apex pointing towards the base of the appendix. It is encountered in a number of conditions including: inflammatory infective blastomycosis amoebiasis Ye...
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Congenital extrahepatic portosystemic shunt classification

This congenital extrahepatic portosystemic shunt classification was proposed by Morgan and Superina in 1994 1: type 1: complete diversion of portal blood into the inferior vena cava with congenital absence of the portal vein 1a: superior mesenteric vein and splenic vein do not join to form a c...
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Congenital intrahepatic portosystemic shunt classification

This congenital intrahepatic portosystemic shunt classification was proposed by Park et al. in 1990 1: type 1: single large vessel of constant diameter connecting the right portal vein to the inferior vena cava type 2: localized, peripheral shunt with one or more communications in a single hep...
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Congenital portosystemic shunt

​Congenital portosystemic shunts are rare, extrahepatic or intrahepatic, anatomical abnormalities shunting blood from the portal venous system to the systemic venous system and, thus, avoiding passage through the hepatic acinus. Terminology The term “portosystemic shunt” can be used to refer t...
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Congenital tracheo-esophageal fistula

Congenital tracheo-esophageal fistula is a congenital pathological communication between the trachea and esophagus.   Epidemiology Tracheo-esophageal fistula and esophageal atresia have a combined incidence of approximately 1 in 3500 live births 1-3,5. There is only a minimal hereditary/geneti...
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Conjoint tendon

The conjoint tendon forms when the medial fibers of the internal oblique aponeurosis unite with the deeper fibers of the transversus abdominis aponeurosis. The conjoint tendon then turns inferiorly and attaches onto the pubic crest and pecten pubis 1. It forms part of the posterior wall of the i...
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Corkscrew sign (disambiguation)

Corkscrew sign can refer to: corkscrew sign (midgut volvulus) corkscrew sign (tertiary esophageal contractions) corkscrew sign (corkscrew cochlea)
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Corkscrew sign (midgut volvulus)

The corkscrew sign describes the spiral appearance of the distal duodenum and proximal jejunum seen in midgut volvulus 1. In patients with malrotation and volvulus, the distal duodenum and proximal jejunum do not cross the midline and instead pass in an inferior direction. These loops twist on ...
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Cornual ectopic pregnancy

Cornual ectopic pregnancies are rare and represent a gestational sac within the cornua of a bicornuate or septate uterus.  Terminology Although sometimes interchangeably used with interstitial pregnancy, cornual pregnancy specifically refers to the presence of a gestational sac within a rudime...
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Corrosive esophagitis

Corrosive esophagitis usually occurs from accidental or suicidal ingestion of caustic substances (e.g. lye, household cleaners, bleaches, washing soda), and is harmful to the esophagus due to their alkali medium. The stomach is not affected as the gastric acid can neutralize these substances, ho...
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Cowden syndrome

Cowden syndrome, also known as multiple hamartoma syndrome, is characterized by multiple hamartomas throughout the body and increased risk of several cancers. Terminology Type 2 segmental Cowden syndrome is the association of Cowden syndrome with a Cowden nevus when it is considered a type of ...
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Crescent in a doughnut sign (intestinal intussusception)

The crescent in a doughnut sign refers to the transverse ultrasound appearance of intestinal intussusception, and is a variation of the target sign (which is also known as the doughnut sign) The doughnut is formed by concentric alternating echogenic and hypoechogenic bands. The echogenic bands ...
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Cricopharyngeal bar

Cricopharyngeal bar refers to the radiographic appearance of a prominent cricopharyngeus muscle contour on barium swallow. Terminology The terms cricopharyngeal bar and cricopharyngeal muscle spasm/achalasia are often used synonymously but this is incorrect because studies have demonstrated th...
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Cricopharyngeal muscle spasm

Cricopharyngeal muscle spasm is also known as cricopharyngeal achalasia, although some authors distinguish between these entities, and may present as a cause of dysphagia. Terminology There is confusing use of the terms cricopharyngeal muscle spasm, cricopharyngeal achalasia and cricopharyngea...
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Crohn disease

Crohn disease, also known as regional enteritis, is an idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease characterized by widespread discontinuous gastrointestinal tract inflammation. The terminal ileum and proximal colon are most often affected. Extraintestinal disease is common. Epidemiology The diagnos...
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Crohn disease (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember the radiological features of Crohn disease is: CROHNS Mnemonic C: cobblestone appearance of mucosa R: rose-thorn ulcers O: obstruction of bowel H: hyperplasia of mesenteric lymph nodes N: narrowing of intestinal lumen S: skip lesions
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Crohn disease vs ulcerative colitis

Due to the overlap in clinical presentation of Crohn disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), imaging often has a role to play in distinguishing the two. Distinguishing features include: bowel involved CD: small bowel 70-80%, only 15-20% have only colonic involvement UC: rectal involvement 9...
Article

Cronkhite-Canada syndrome

Cronkhite-Canada syndrome is a type of non-neoplastic, non-hereditary hamartomatous polyposis syndrome characterized by rash, alopecia, and watery diarrhea. Epidemiology There is a recognized male predilection. Patients typically are middle age (50-60 years of age) 1. Clinical presentation P...
Article

Crus (disambiguation)

A crus (plural: crura) is an anatomical term used for a structure which resembles a leg. crus (auricle) crus (cerebrum) crus (clitoris) crus (diaphragm) crus (fornix) crus (heart) crus (incus) crus (internal capsule) crus (nose) crus (penis) crus (semicircular duct) crus (stapes) cr...
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Cryptococcoma

Cryptococcomas are a rare complication of infection by the Cryptococcus genus of invasive fungi, where a discreet, encapsulated lesion of immune infiltrates and pathogen forms. Cryptococcus gattii is most often isolated but Cryptococcus neoformans may also form cryptococcomas. Epidemiology In ...
Article

CT abdomen (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists CT abdomen is an increasingly common investigation that is used to help make diagnoses of a broad range of pathologies. A CT abdomen in its simplest form is a CT from diaphragm to symphysis pubis performed 60 seconds after ...
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CT angiography of the splanchnic vessels

Multi-slice CT angiography of the splanchnic vessels is a powerful minimally invasive technique for evaluation of the splanchnic vascular system. Technique   The actual procedure will vary depending on institutional protocol/guidelines but below is a typical description 2, 4: patient receives...
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CT colonography - pitfalls

The interpretation of CT colonography can sometimes be difficult because of pitfalls, which may be a source of false negative and false positive findings. When suboptimal CT colonography techniques are applied, the number and severity of interpretive pitfalls can rapidly multiply. However, when ...
Article

CT colonography reporting and data system

CT colonography reporting and data system is a method devised to standardize CT colonography reporting. Classification It primarily classifies abnormalities into colonic (C) and extra-colonic (E). Colonic classification C0: inadequate study C1: normal colon/benign lesion: routine screening ...
Article

CT enteroclysis

Computed tomographic (CT) enteroclysis refers to a hybrid technique that combines the methods of fluoroscopic intubation-infusion small bowel examinations with that of abdominal CT 1. Indications CT enteroclysis is complementary to capsule endoscopy in the elective investigation of small-bowel...

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