Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

1,293 results found
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Brunner glands

Brunner glands are compound tubular submucosal glands found in the duodenum. They are only found proximal to the sphincter of Oddi. Related pathology Brunner gland hyperplasia Brunner gland adenoma
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Bucket handle mesenteric injury

Bucket handle mesenteric injuries are avulsions of the mesentery off a bowel segment (the handle) due to shearing forces in blunt trauma to the bowel and mesentery. Laceration of the mesenteric vessels results in intestinal ischemia. Clinical presentation The most common mechanism of injury in...
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Bulging duodenal papilla

Bulging duodenal papilla​ is a conical or cylindrical protuberance at the medial aspect of the descending or horizontal duodenum at the site of the sphincter of Oddi. It is a finding on small bowel follow-though (and endoscopy) and has a relatively long differential. On cross-sectional imaging, ...
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Buried bumper syndrome

Buried bumper syndrome (BBS) is a rare but important complication in patients with a percutaneous gastrostomy tube, occurring by migration of the internal bumper along its track. The tube may get lodged anywhere between the gastric wall and the skin and lead to life-threatening complications inc...
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Busoga hernia

Busoga hernias, also known as Gill-Ogilvie hernias in Europe 1 (alternative plural: herniae), are a variant of the direct inguinal hernia involving the conjoint tendon. Epidemiology Busoga herniae have been noted to occur most commonly in young, athletic men with a well-developed abdominal mus...
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CA 19-9

CA 19-9 (carbohydrate antigen 19-9 or cancer antigen 19-9) is a serum antigen (monosialoganglioside) that has increased diagnostic use in the management of several malignancies, mainly of hepatopancreaticobiliary origin. It is non-specific, however, and can rise in both malignant and non-maligna...
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Cecal bar sign (acute appendicitis)

The cecal bar sign is a secondary sign in acute appendicitis. It refers to the appearance of inflammatory soft tissue at the base of the appendix, separating the appendix from the contrast-filled cecum. See also arrowhead sign
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Cecal bascule

Cecal bascule is an uncommon type of cecal volvulus in which the cecum folds up over itself in an anteromedial orientation. In contrast to the more common forms of volvulus, there is no axial "twisting" component 4.  A cecal bascule may occur in the setting of a large and mobile cecum and can re...
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Cecal volvulus

Cecal volvulus describes torsion of the cecum around its mesentery which often results in obstruction. If unrecognised, it can result in bowel perforation and fecal peritonitis. Epidemiology Cecal volvulus accounts for ~10% of all intestinal volvuluses, and generally occur in somewhat younger ...
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Cecum

The cecum (plural: ceca or cecums) is the first part of the large bowel and lies in the right lower quadrant of the abdomen.  Gross anatomy Blind-ending sac of bowel that lies below the ileocecal valve, above which the large intestine continues as the ascending colon. The cecum measures 6 cm i...
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Candida esophagitis

Candida esophagitis is the most common cause of infectious esophagitis that commonly affects immunocompromised patients. On imaging, it is characterized by irregular plaque-like lesions separated by normal mucosa and small (<1 cm) ulcers, which are assessed on esophagogram studies.   Epidemiolo...
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Capsule endoscopy

Capsule endoscopy is a non-invasive means of investigating the small bowel, principally for identifying the underlying cause of occult gastrointestinal tract bleeding, such as due to arteriovenous malformations, small bowel tumors, and ulcers. It is also used for the detection of the earliest ma...
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Carbolic acid poisoning symptoms (mnemonic)

The symptoms of carbolic acid poisoning can be recalled using the mnemonic: 5 Cs Mnemonic C: CNS depression C: constricted pupil C: carboluria (smoky urine) C: cartilage C: corneal deposition
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Carcinogens

Carcinogens are substances known to cause cancer. They include: Brain vinyl chloride Nasopharynx / nasal passage nickel wood dust chromium Thyroid ionizing radiation (not technically a substance) Skin arsenic coal tars polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) Lungs arsenic asbestos chloro...
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Carcinoid syndrome

Carcinoid syndrome refers to a spectrum of symptoms that result from excessive hormone (mainly serotonin) secretion.  Epidemiology Occurs equally between the sexes, most commonly in the 40-70 year age group 3. Clinical presentation Diarrhea is the most common and earliest symptom but others ...
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Carcinoid tumor

Carcinoid tumors are a type of neuroendocrine tumor that can occur in a number of locations. Carcinoid tumors arise from endocrine amine precursor uptake and decarboxylation (APUD) cells that can be found throughout the gastrointestinal tract as well as other organs (e.g. lung). In general, they...
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Carcinosarcoma

Carcinosarcomas are highly malignant biphasic tumors with both carcinomatous (epithelial) and sarcomatous (bone, cartilage, or skeletal muscle) components.  Pathology It can arise in many organs: lung 5: pulmonary carcinosarcoma esophagus 1: esophageal carcinosarcoma genitourinary tract 2 ...
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Carman meniscus sign

The Carman meniscus sign describes the lenticular shape of barium in cases of large and flat gastric ulcers, in which the inner margin is convex toward the lumen. It usually indicates a malignant ulcerated neoplasm; in cases of benign gastric ulcers, the inner margin is usually concave toward th...
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Carney-Stratakis syndrome

Carney-Stratakis syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant condition comprising of familial paraganglioma and gastric stromal sarcoma. Terminology It is considered to be distinct from, but perhaps related to, the Carney triad 1. Neither should be confused with the unrelated Carney complex. Histor...
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Carney triad

Carney triad is a rare syndrome defined by the coexistence of three tumors: extra-adrenal paraganglioma (e.g. spinal paraganglioma) initially, only functioning extra-adrenal paragangliomas were included, but subsequent work includes non-functioning extra-adrenal paragangliomas 1 gastric gastr...
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Cases

Cases are your personal collection, shared with the greater Radiopaedia.org community. You retain ownership of the images you upload (see terms of use), but make them available for use by others under the Creative Commons NC-BY-SA license. Awesome cases will be selected by our editorial board t...
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Cases in radiology (video tutorials)

The cases featured in these video lectures are specifically selected to teach important concepts in radiology over a broad range of topics. The tutorials vary in difficulty from basic to advanced. For maximum learning, try the cases for yourself in Radiopaedia quiz mode first.  We love this ser...
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Casoni skin test

The Casoni skin test is a hypersensitivity based skin test used to detect hydatid disease. Although once a major test in diagnosing hydatid disease it has largely been superseded by newer more sensitive, specific and safer serological tests. Technique Sterile fluid (0.25 mL) of hydatid cyst or...
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Castleman disease

Castleman disease, also known as angiofollicular lymph node hyperplasia or giant lymph node hyperplasia, is an uncommon benign B-cell lymphoproliferative condition. It can affect several regions of the body but is commonly described as a solitary mediastinal mass. There are two distinct subtype...
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Caterpillar sign (pyloric stenosis)

The caterpillar sign is a radiological sign described in pyloric stenosis. It refers to the appearance of the stomach on an upper gastrointestinal radiographic series or plain abdominal radiograph 1,2. On these imaging modalities in a patient with pyloric stenosis, the stomach appears distended...
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Causes of pancreatitis (mnemonic)

A catchy and early learnt mnemonic for recalling some of the causes of pancreatitis is: I GET SMASHED Mnemonic I: idiopathic G: gallstones, genetic - cystic fibrosis E: ethanol (alcohol) T: trauma S: steroids M: mumps (and other infections)/malignancy A: autoimmune S: scorpion stings/s...
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Cavernous venous malformation

Cavernous venous malformation, also traditionally referred to as a cavernous hemangioma (despite it not being a tumor) or cavernomas, are non-neoplastic slow flow venous malformations found in many parts of the body.  Terminology Despite the ubiquity of use of the traditional terms cavernoma, ...
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Cavitating mesenteric lymph node syndrome

Cavitary mesenteric lymph node syndrome is seen in association with celiac disease and is characterized by the triad of: splenic atrophy  low-attenuation lymphadenopathy that sometimes contains fat-fluid levels villous atrophy
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CEA

Serum CEA (carcinoembryonic antigen) is a cell-adhesive glycoprotein that was discovered in colorectal cancer in 1965, and is hence one of the oldest and most used tumor markers. Its name derives from its normal expression in fetoembryonic liver, gut and pancreas tissue. Normal range of CEA is ...
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CEC syndrome

CEC syndrome refers to the combination of celiac disease, epilepsy and bilateral occipital calcifications. This is also known as Gobbi syndrome. Patients with cerebral calcifications and celiac disease without epilepsy are considered as having an incomplete form of CEC syndrome 1. Epidemiology ...
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Centipede sign (mesentery)

The centipede sign is seen as engorged mesenteric vessels in cases of acute sigmoid diverticulitis which gives an appearance similar to a centipede 1.
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Cervix sign (pyloric stenosis)

The cervix sign of pyloric stenosis describes the indentation of the pylorus into the fluid-filled antrum, seen in pyloric stenosis on ultrasound examination. See also antral nipple sign (pyloric stenosis) target sign (pyloric stenosis)
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Chagas disease

Chagas disease, also known as American trypanosomiasis (plural: trypanosomiases), is a tropical parasitic infection with a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations since it can virtually affect any organ, but there are characteristic radiological features. Epidemiology Chagas disease is endemi...
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Chalasia

Chalasia is a condition most commonly identified in infants and young children, and is related to congenital incompetence of the lower esophageal sphincter, allowing unrestricted reflux of gastric contents. This contrasts with achalasia, where there is restriction at the gastro-oesphageal juncti...
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Champagne sign (gallbladder)

The champagne sign (also known as the effervescent gallbladder sign) is a pathognomonic sonographic sign of gas in the gallbladder. The sign refers to multiple small echogenic foci which are seen to migrate from a dependent to non-dependent position within the gallbladder as the patient changes...
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Chemical shift artifact

Chemical shift artifact or misregistration is a type of MRI artifact. It is a common finding on some MRI sequences and used in MRS. This artifact occurs in the frequency-encoding direction and is due to spatial misregistration of fat and water molecules.  Chemical shift is due to the difference...
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Chicken intestine appearance

The chicken intestine is a term used to describe the appearance of a hypersegmented barium column. This appearance is characteristic of intestinal tuberculosis 1. Other radiographic findings such as accelerated intestinal transit, flocculation and dilution of the barium and, luminal stenosis wi...
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Chilaiditi sign

Chilaiditi sign refers to the interposition of the bowel, usually colon, between the inferior surface of the right hemidiaphragm and the superior surface of the liver. It may be misinterpreted as a true pneumoperitoneum resulting in unnecessary further investigations and/or therapy (so-called ps...
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Chilaiditi syndrome

Chilaiditi syndrome is the anterior interposition of the colon to the liver reaching the under-surface of the right hemidiaphragm with associated upper abdominal pain; it is one of the causes of pseudopneumoperitoneum. Colonic gas in this position may be misinterpreted as true pneumoperitoneum ...
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Chinese dragon sign (vascular)

Chinese dragon sign is a radiological sign in abdominal radiograph and CT describing the radiologic appearance of calcified tortuous splenic artery that resembles the Chinese dragon. The tortuous splenic artery segment on the splenic hilum side represents the dragon head while the other arterial...
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Choi response criteria

The solitary use of the size of the tumor during evaluation for response to chemotherapy has some pitfalls and limitations, especially for specific tumors such as gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST). The Choi response criteria for GIST proposed that tumor attenuation could provide an addition...
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Cholecystoduodenal fistula

Cholecystoduodenal fistula refers to a fistulous connection between the gallbladder and the duodenum. It is considered the most common type of enterobiliary fistulation. Clinical presentation Can vary but some can present with Bouveret syndrome 3 or a gallstone ileus. Radiographic features C...
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Cholera

Cholera is an acute infective diarrheal illness caused by Vibrio cholerae. Severe cholera causes large volume liquid stools, which may rapidly lead to hypovolemic shock and death, unless intensive rehydration therapy is instituted. Prevention of cholera depends upon access to clean water and eff...
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Christmas inspired signs

There are many signs in radiology that are related to Christmas: snowcap sign in avascular necrosis snowman sign in total anomalous pulmonary venous return in pituitary macroadenomas snowstorm appearance in complete hydatidiform and testicular microlithiasis holly leaf sign in calcified pl...
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Chronic appendicitis

Chronic appendicitis is defined by inflammation of the appendix over time with symptoms lasting for more than three weeks duration 1. The condition should be differentiated from recurrent appendicitis, in which one or more episodes of flares of symptoms last 24 to 48 hours and subside on their o...
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Chronic mesenteric ischemia

Chronic mesenteric ischemia, also known as intestinal angina, is an uncommon type of intestinal ischemia usually affecting elderly patients as a result of significant stenosis of two or more mesenteric arteries. Epidemiology Normally seen in patients older than 60 years of age and is three tim...
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Chronic pancreatitis

Chronic pancreatitis represents the end result of a continuous, prolonged, inflammatory, and fibrosing process that affects the pancreas. This results in irreversible morphologic changes and permanent endocrine and exocrine pancreatic dysfunction. Epidemiology The most common cause of chronic ...
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Chylous ascites

Chylous ascites (also known as chyloperitoneum) is defined as the abnormal intraperitoneal accumulation of milky lymphatic fluid with a triglyceride level >110 mg/dL 1. Etiologically it is due to a disruption of the lymphatic system, most commonly obstructive due to a mass or traumatic (which ma...
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Circumferential resection margin

Circumferential resection margin (CRM) is a term used to denote the standard plane of excision of total mesorectal excision, used for resection of rectal cancers. The anatomic correlate is the mesorectal fascia. The distance between tumor tissue or satellite tumor deposits and the mesorectal fas...
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Cloaca (urogenital)

The cloaca is the terminal portion of the hindgut. It is an embryonic structure (weeks 4-7) in which the distal ends of the gastrointestinal tract and urogenital system share a common channel. The most distal aspect of the cloaca is termed the cloacal membrane. The cloaca, or portions of it, ca...
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Closed loop obstruction

Closed loop obstruction is a specific type of bowel obstruction in which two points along the course of a bowel are obstructed, usually but not always with the transition points adjacent to each other at a single location. The closed loop refers to a segment of bowel without proximal or distal o...
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Clostridioides difficile colitis

Clostridioides difficile colitis, also known as pseudomembranous colitis and previously known as Clostridium difficile colitis 10, is a common cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea, and increasingly encountered in sick hospitalized patients. If undiagnosed and untreated, it continues to have h...
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Cobblestone appearance (hollow viscera)

Cobblestoning (having a cobblestone appearance) can occur in a number of hollow organs with mucosa, most commonly the bowel, in the setting of Crohn disease.  Longitudinal and circumferential fissures and ulcers separate islands of mucosa, giving it an appearance reminiscent of cobblestones.  ...
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Cockade sign (disambiguation)

There are several described cockade signs in radiology: cockade sign (intraosseous lipoma) cockade sign (aorto-left ventricular tunnel) 1 cockade sign (appendicitis) 2 cockade sign (hypertrophic pyloric stenosis) 3 cockade sign (GI tumors) 4
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Celiac artery

The celiac artery, also known as the celiac axis or celiac trunk, is a major visceral artery in the abdominal cavity supplying the foregut. It arises from the abdominal aorta and commonly gives rise to three branches: left gastric artery, splenic artery, and common hepatic artery.  Gross anatom...
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Celiac artery compression syndrome

Celiac artery compression syndrome, also known as median arcuate ligament syndrome, Dunbar syndrome, or Harjola-Marable syndrome, is a rare condition characterized by upper abdominal pain in the setting of compression of the celiac trunk by the diaphragmatic crurae. Although well-recognized as ...
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Celiac disease

Celiac disease, also known as non-tropical sprue, is the most common gluten-related disorder and is a T-cell mediated autoimmune chronic gluten intolerance condition characterized by a loss of villi in the proximal small bowel and gastrointestinal malabsorption (sprue). It should always be cons...
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Celiacomesenteric trunk

The celiacomesenteric trunk (CMT) represents an uncommon vascular anatomical variant where both the celiac trunk and the superior mesenteric artery have a common origin from the abdominal aorta as a single trunk. Its frequency has been reported to occur in about 1.5% of the population 1,2. Four...
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Celiac plexus block

Celiac plexus block under image guidance is an easy and safe percutaneous procedure with good outcomes for pain palliation in patients who have chronic abdominal pain related to the celiac ganglia.  This usually includes patients with advanced cancers, especially from upper abdominal viscera, s...
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Coffee-bean sign (sigmoid colon)

The coffee-bean sign (also known as the kidney bean sign or bent inner tube sign 4) is a sign on an abdominal plain radiograph of a sigmoid volvulus although some authors have also used the term to refer to closed loop small bowel obstructions. Cecal volvulus may be mistaken with sigmoid volvulu...
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Collar sign in diaphragmatic rupture

The collar sign, also called the hourglass sign, is a helpful sign for diagnosis of diaphragmatic rupture on coronal or sagittal CT/ MR images and barium studies. It refers to a waist-like or collar-like appearance of herniated organs at the level of the diaphragm. Small tear on the right side ...
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Colo-enteric fistula

A colo-enteric fistula is a type of gastrointestinal fistulation wherein there is abnormal communication between the colon and the small bowel.  Pathology It can occur from a number of causes which include: Crohn disease - considered one of the commonest causes colorectal carcinoma prior su...
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Colon cut-off sign

The colon cut-off sign describes gaseous distension seen in the proximal colon associated with abrupt termination of gas within the colon usually at the level of the splenic flexure and decompression of the more distal part of the colon. Though originally described in abdominal radiographs, this...
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Colonic anastomotic leak

Colonic anastomotic leaks occur in the early or late postoperative phase, in which the enteric anastomosis fails. This may be a small leak that can be managed conservatively or less commonly complete dehiscence requiring repeat surgery. Epidemiology In one large surgical series, the incidence ...
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Colonic diverticulitis

Colonic diverticulitis (plural diverticulitides), is a complication of colonic diverticulosis, and one of the presentations of diverticular disease. Differentiating one from the other is critical since uncomplicated diverticulosis is mostly asymptomatic and acute diverticulitis is a potentially ...
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Colonic diverticulosis

Colonic diverticulosis (plural diverticuloses) refers to the presence of multiple diverticula. It is quite distinct from diverticulitis which describes inflammation and infection of one or multiple diverticula. Epidemiology Diverticulosis is very common in westernised countries and is typicall...
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Colonic leiomyoma

Colonic leiomyomas are uncommon benign smooth muscle tumors that can mimic a more aggressive tumor on imaging, such as a GIST. They can be pedunculated, simulating a colonic polyp. Their characteristics are similar to leiomyomas in general. Radiographic features There are no specific findings ...
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Colonic esophageal interposition

Colonic esophageal interposition is a now rarely performed upper gastrointestinal tract surgical procedure, in which colon is used to replace the distal esophagus. This was performed for long esophageal strictures or in some cases malignancy. The haustra of the colon are illustrated on plain r...
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Colonic pseudo-obstruction

Colonic pseudo-obstruction (also known as Ogilvie syndrome) is a potentially fatal condition leading to an acute colonic distention without an underlying mechanical obstruction. It is defined as an acute pseudo-obstruction and dilatation of the colon in the absence of any mechanical obstruction....
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Colonic stricture

Colonic strictures can be long (>10 cm) or short. Short scirrhous colorectal carcinoma (apple core sign) post surgical (anastamotic stricture) Long malignancy scirrhous colorectal carcinoma gastrointestinal lymphoma inflammatory bowel disease ulcerative colitis Crohn disease post radi...
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Colonic transit study

The colonic transit study is an older technique to estimate colonic transit time.  Terminology Various names are used for this type of study including shapes study, colon motility test, Sitz marker study and Transit-PelletsmethodTM, and variations thereof.  Indications In constipation, it ca...
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Colon polyp

Colon polyps are mucosal outgrowths of the colon wall. They are of interest to physicians and radiologists because of the accepted progression of adenomatous polyps to colon carcinoma. Pathology adenomatous colon polyps tubular polyps tubulovillous polyps villous colon polyps dysplastic co...
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Colorectal cancer

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the most common cancer of the gastrointestinal tract and the second most frequently diagnosed malignancy in adults. CT and MRI are the modalities most frequently used for staging. Surgical resection may be curative although five-year survival rate is 40-50%.  Epidemio...
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Colorectal cancer (staging)

Colorectal carcinoma staging can be performed using two systems. The traditional Dukes staging system has largely been replaced by the TNM system but is nonetheless often used clinically. Staging Dukes (Astler-Coller modification) stage A: confined to mucosa stage B: through muscularis propr...
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Colorectal cancer (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Colorectal cancer, also called colorectal carcinoma (CRC), is the most common cancer of the gastrointestinal tract and the second most frequently diagnosed malignancy in adults. CT and MRI are the modalities most frequently...
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Colorectal villous polyps

Colorectal villous polyps refer to villous adenomas of the large intestine. They are most commonly found in the rectum and are the least common of all types of colon polyps. Epidemiology The prevalence of advanced polyps including villous polyps on screening colonography is ~5% (range 3-7%) 3,...
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Colostomy

Colostomies are a surgically created stoma between the colon and the abdominal wall. It can be performed for both malignant and benign conditions.  Types end colostomy temporary end colostomy as part of a Hartmann procedure loop colostomy double barrel colostomy end colostomy with mucous f...
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Colovaginal fistula

Colovaginal fistula is one form of genitourinary fistula. It is also sometimes classed under a type of gastro-intestinal fistula. Pathology It refers to a communication between the colon (typically the rectum or sigmoid colon) with the vagina. At times, specific terms are used dependent on th...
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Colovesical fistula

Colovesical fistulas are communications between the lumen of the colon and that of the bladder, either directly or via an intervening abscess cavity (foyer intermediaire). When the communication is between the rectum and urinary bladder, the term rectovesical fistula is used. Epidemiology The ...
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Comb sign (mesentery)

The comb sign refers to the hypervascular appearance of the mesentery in active Crohn disease. Fibrofatty proliferation and perivascular inflammatory infiltration outline the distended intestinal arcades. This forms linear densities on the mesenteric side of the affected segments of small bowel,...
Article

Common bile duct

The common bile duct (CBD), which is sometimes simply known as the bile duct, is formed by the union of the cystic duct and common hepatic duct (CHD).  Terminology On ultrasound imaging, it is not always possible to confidently see where the cystic duct enters the common hepatic duct to form t...
Article

Common hepatic artery

The common hepatic artery (CHA) is one of the 3 branches of the celiac artery. Gross anatomy Origin The common hepatic artery is normally a terminal branch of the celiac artery, the largest branch coursing to the right. Course It passes anterior to the pancreas, and then inferiorly to the r...
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Common hepatic duct

The common hepatic duct (CHD) is formed by the junction of the right and left hepatic ducts. It joins the cystic duct to form the common bile duct (CBD). It is approximately 4 cm long and 4 mm in diameter.  Together with the cystic duct (laterally) and cystic artery (superiorly), they form Calo...
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Complications following gastric banding

There are many complications that can occur following gastric banding. It is helpful to divide these into early and late post-surgical complications. Clinical presentation Although the exact mode of presentation can vary depending on the underlying complication common modes of presentation tha...
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Complications of sleeve gastrectomy

Complications of sleeve gastrectomy​ are often evaluated by imaging. For details about the surgical procedure, please see the parental article on sleeve gastrectomy.  Postoperative complications can be classified by etiology or temporality. Early complications staple line leakage clinical pr...
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Complications post optical colonoscopy

Complications post optical colonoscopy are most commonly assessed by CT if patients present with abdominal symptoms post colonoscopy. Complications include: bowel perforation (most common) pneumoperitoneum pneumoretroperitoneum pneumomediastinum pneumothorax lower gastrointestinal hemorrha...
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Computed tomographic (CT) colonography

Computed tomographic (CT) colonography, also called CTC, virtual colonoscopy (VC) or CT pneumocolon, is a powerful minimally invasive technique for colorectal cancer screening. Indications screening test for colorectal carcinoma colon evaluation after incomplete or unsuccessful conventional c...
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Computed tomographic (CT) gastrography

Computed tomographic (CT) gastrography, also called virtual gastroscopy (VG), is a noninvasive procedure for the detection of gastric abnormalities. Advantages rapid and noninvasive exam offers information about local tumor invasion, lymph node and distant metastasis in cases of gastric cance...
Article

Cone-shaped cecum (differential)

A cone-shaped cecum refers to a loss of the normal rounded appearance of the cecum, which instead becomes narrow and cone-shaped with the apex pointing towards the base of the appendix. It is encountered in a number of conditions including: inflammatory infective blastomycosis amoebiasis Ye...
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Congenital extrahepatic portosystemic shunt classification

This congenital extrahepatic portosystemic shunt classification was proposed by Morgan and Superina in 1994 1: type 1: complete diversion of portal blood into the inferior vena cava with congenital absence of the portal vein 1a: superior mesenteric vein and splenic vein do not join to form a c...
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Congenital intrahepatic portosystemic shunt classification

This congenital intrahepatic portosystemic shunt classification was proposed by Park et al. in 1990 1: type 1: single large vessel of constant diameter connecting the right portal vein to the inferior vena cava type 2: localized, peripheral shunt with one or more communications in a single hep...
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Congenital peritoneal encapsulation

Congenital peritoneal encapsulation (CPE) is an extremely rare condition of abnormal embryonic gastrointestinal development. It is characterized by congenital development of an accessory peritoneal layer partially or entirely encapsulating the small bowel. Epidemiology Congenital peritoneal en...
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Congenital portosystemic shunt

​Congenital portosystemic shunts are rare, extrahepatic or intrahepatic, anatomical abnormalities shunting blood from the portal venous system to the systemic venous system and, thus, avoiding passage through the hepatic acinus. Terminology The term “portosystemic shunt” can be used to refer t...

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