Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

1,293 results found
Article

Congenital tracheo-esophageal fistula

Congenital tracheo-esophageal fistula is a congenital pathological communication between the trachea and esophagus.   Epidemiology Tracheo-esophageal fistula and esophageal atresia have a combined incidence of approximately 1 in 3500 live births 1-3,5. There is only a minimal hereditary/geneti...
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Conjoint tendon

The conjoint tendon, also known as Henle's ligament, forms when the medial fibers of the internal oblique aponeurosis unite with the deeper fibers of the transversus abdominis aponeurosis. The conjoint tendon then turns inferiorly and attaches onto the pubic crest and pecten pubis 1.  Relations...
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Corkscrew sign (disambiguation)

Corkscrew sign can refer to: corkscrew sign (midgut volvulus) corkscrew sign (tertiary esophageal contractions) corkscrew sign (corkscrew cochlea)
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Corkscrew sign (midgut volvulus)

The corkscrew sign describes the spiral appearance of the distal duodenum and proximal jejunum seen in midgut volvulus 1. In patients with malrotation and volvulus, the distal duodenum and proximal jejunum do not cross the midline and instead pass in an inferior direction. These loops twist on ...
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Cornual ectopic pregnancy

Cornual ectopic pregnancies are rare and represent a gestational sac within the cornua of a bicornuate or septate uterus.  Terminology Although sometimes interchangeably used with interstitial pregnancy, cornual pregnancy specifically refers to the presence of a gestational sac within a rudime...
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Coronary ligament (liver)

The coronary ligament is a peritoneal ligament complex of the liver which encloses the bare area of the liver. Gross anatomy The coronary ligament is formed by the reflection of the peritoneum from the undersurface of the diaphragm onto the superior and posterior surfaces to the right lobe of ...
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Corrosive esophagitis

Corrosive esophagitis usually occurs from accidental or suicidal ingestion of caustic substances (e.g. lye, household cleaners, bleaches, washing soda), and is harmful to the esophagus due to their alkali medium. The stomach is not affected as the gastric acid can neutralize these substances, ho...
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Cowden syndrome

Cowden syndrome, also known as multiple hamartoma syndrome, is characterized by multiple hamartomas throughout the body and increased risk of several cancers. Terminology Type 2 segmental Cowden syndrome is the association of Cowden syndrome with a Cowden nevus when it is considered a type of ...
Article

Crescent in a doughnut sign (intestinal intussusception)

The crescent in a doughnut sign refers to the transverse ultrasound appearance of intestinal intussusception, and is a variation of the target sign (which is also known as the doughnut sign) The doughnut is formed by concentric alternating echogenic and hypoechogenic bands. The echogenic bands ...
Article

Cricopharyngeal bar

Cricopharyngeal bar refers to the radiographic appearance of a prominent cricopharyngeus muscle contour on barium swallow. Terminology The terms cricopharyngeal bar and cricopharyngeal muscle spasm/achalasia are often used synonymously but this is incorrect because studies have demonstrated th...
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Cricopharyngeal muscle spasm

Cricopharyngeal muscle spasm is also known as cricopharyngeal achalasia, although some authors distinguish between these entities, and may present as a cause of dysphagia. Terminology There is confusing use of the terms cricopharyngeal muscle spasm, cricopharyngeal achalasia and cricopharyngea...
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Crohn disease

Crohn disease, also known as regional enteritis, is an idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease characterized by widespread discontinuous gastrointestinal tract inflammation. The terminal ileum and proximal colon are most often affected. Extraintestinal disease is common. Epidemiology The diagnos...
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Crohn disease (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember the radiological features of Crohn disease is: CROHNS Mnemonic C: cobblestone appearance of mucosa R: rose-thorn ulcers O: obstruction of bowel H: hyperplasia of mesenteric lymph nodes N: narrowing of intestinal lumen S: skip lesions
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Crohn disease vs ulcerative colitis

Due to the overlap in the clinical presentation of Crohn disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), imaging often has a role to play in distinguishing the two. Distinguishing features include: bowel involved CD: small bowel 70-80%, only 15-20% have only colonic involvement UC: rectal involveme...
Article

Cronkhite-Canada syndrome

Cronkhite-Canada syndrome is a type of non-neoplastic, non-hereditary hamartomatous polyposis syndrome characterized by rash, alopecia, and watery diarrhea. Epidemiology There is a recognized male predilection with 3:2 male:female. Patients typically are middle age (50-60 years of age) 1. 75% ...
Article

Crus (disambiguation)

A crus (plural: crura) is an anatomical term used for a structure which resembles a leg. crus (auricle) crus (cerebrum) crus (clitoris) crus (diaphragm) crus (fornix) crus (heart) crus (incus) crus (internal capsule) crus (nose) crus (penis) crus (semicircular duct) crus (stapes) cr...
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Cryptococcoma

Cryptococcomas are a rare complication of infection by the Cryptococcus genus of invasive fungi, where a discrete, encapsulated lesion of immune infiltrates and pathogen forms. Cryptococcus gattii is most often isolated but Cryptococcus neoformans may also form cryptococcomas. Epidemiology In ...
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CT abdomen (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists CT abdomen is an increasingly common investigation that is used to help make diagnoses of a broad range of pathologies. A CT abdomen in its simplest form is a CT from diaphragm to symphysis pubis performed 60 seconds after ...
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CT angiography of the splanchnic vessels

Multi-slice CT angiography of the splanchnic vessels is a powerful minimally invasive technique for evaluation of the splanchnic vascular system. Technique   The actual procedure will vary depending on institutional protocol/guidelines but below is a typical description 2, 4: patient receives...
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CT colonography - pitfalls

The interpretation of CT colonography can sometimes be difficult because of pitfalls, which may be a source of false negative and false positive findings. When suboptimal CT colonography techniques are applied, the number and severity of interpretive pitfalls can rapidly multiply. However, when ...
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CT colonography reporting and data system

CT Colonography Reporting and Data System (C-RADS) is a method devised to standardize CT colonography reporting. Classification It primarily classifies abnormalities into colonic (C) and extra-colonic (E). Colonic classification C0: inadequate study C1: normal colon/benign lesion: routine s...
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CT enteric contrast medium

Enteric contrast media can be given to patients before their CT to improve its diagnostic accuracy. Historically, a combination of oral and intravenous contrast media were always given prior to a CT abdomen. Contemporaneously, improved CT scanners mean that oral contrast agents are no longer rou...
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CT enteroclysis

Computed tomographic (CT) enteroclysis refers to a hybrid technique that combines the methods of fluoroscopic intubation-infusion small bowel examinations with that of abdominal CT. Indications CT enteroclysis is complementary to capsule endoscopy in the elective investigation of small-bowel d...
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CT enterography

Computed tomographic (CT) enterography is a non-invasive technique for the diagnosis of small bowel disorders. Indications CT enterography, similarly to MRI enterography, is most commonly used to evaluate patients with Crohn disease where it is used for assessment of the primary disease and an...
Article

CT esophagography

CT esophagography is a CT study designed to primarily evaluate the esophagus, particularly in the situation of esophageal trauma and potential perforation. It has been developed partly as an alternative to fluoroscopic barium swallow evaluation in this situation. Indications potential esophage...
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CT hypoperfusion complex

CT hypoperfusion complex refers to the predominantly abdominal imaging features that occur in the context of profound hypotension. Multiple abdominal organs can display atypical appearances not related to the initial trauma but reflect alterations in perfusion secondary to hypovolemia which affe...
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CT peritoneography

CT peritoneography is an examination used to assess difficulties with peritoneal dialysis.  Indications Recurrent peritonitis with difficulty with fluid exchange, abdominal wall or genital soft tissue edema, localized bulging of the abdomen, and poor ultrafiltration. Technique Before perform...
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CT polytrauma (technique)

CT polytrauma/multitrauma, also called trauma CT, whole body CT (WBCT) or panscan, is an increasingly used investigation in patients with multiple injuries sustained after significant trauma. Clinical assessment and mechanism of injury may underestimate injury severity by 30% 8. There is some e...
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CT severity index in acute pancreatitis

The CT severity index (CTSI) is based on findings from an enhanced CT scan to assess the severity of acute pancreatitis. The severity of acute pancreatitis CT findings has been found to correlate well with clinical indices of severity.  The CT severity index sums two scores: Balthazar score: g...
Article

Cupola sign (pneumoperitoneum)

The cupola sign is seen on a supine chest/abdominal radiograph in the presence of pneumoperitoneum.  It refers to non-dependent gas that rises within the abdominal cavity of the supine patient to accumulate underneath the central tendon of the diaphragm in the midline. It is seen as lucency ove...
Article

Cystic duct

The cystic duct connects the neck of the gallbladder to the common hepatic duct (CHD), draining bile to and from the biliary tree. Gross anatomy The confluence of the cystic duct and the common hepatic duct forms the common bile duct (CBD). The cystic duct is approximately 2-3 cm long and 2-3 ...
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Cystic fibrosis

Cystic fibrosis (CF), also called mucoviscidosis, is an autosomal recessive genetic disease that affects the exocrine function of the lungs, liver, pancreas, small bowel, sweat glands, and the male genital system 11. resulting in progressive disability and multisystem failure. This article is a ...
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Cystic fibrosis (abdominal manifestations)

Abdominal manifestations in cystic fibrosis (CF) are common, varied and nearly all organ systems can be affected, and it should be remembered that only 39% of patients with cystic fibrosis have pulmonary symptoms as their sole complaint 1. Not only that, but 7% of cystic fibrosis patients do not...
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Cystic lesions of the pancreas (differential)

The differential for cystic lesions of the pancreas includes: unilocular pancreatic pseudocyst intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) serous cystadenoma uncommonly uni/macrolocular simple pancreatic cyst pancreatic cysts occur in association with  von Hippel Lindau syndrome autos...
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Cystic lesions of the spleen (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for causes of cystic lesions in the spleen is: TEAM Mnemonic T: trauma E: echinococcal A: abscess M: metastasis
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Cystic (necrotic) lymph nodes

Cystic or necrotic appearing lymph nodes can be caused by a number of infectious, inflammatory or malignant conditions: Systemic squamous cell carcinoma metastases treated lymphoma leukemia plasmacytoid T-cell leukemia acute myeloid leukemia viral lymphadenitis herpes simplex lymphadenit...
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Cystic retroperitoneal lesions

Cystic retroperitoneal lesions can carry a relatively broad differential, which includes: retroperitoneal lymphatic malformation retroperitoneal mucinous cystadenoma retroperitoneal cystic teratoma retroperitoenal cystic mesothelioma pseudomyxoma retroperitonei with cystic change perianal ...
Article

De Garengeot hernia

De Garengeot hernias (alternative plural: herniae) are femoral hernias that contain the appendix. It is not to be confused with Amyand hernia, which is an appendix-containing inguinal hernia. Epidemiology It is a rare phenomenon, with only 1% of all femoral hernias containing the appendix (an...
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Degloving bowel injury

Degloving bowel injuries are a rare type of bowel and mesenteric injury only being described a handful of times in the literature 1-5. In these injuries the bowel is stripped of its mesentery and muscle, leaving a "mucosal tube" 2,3. Perforation may or may not be present.  See also degloving i...
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Degloving injury

Degloving injuries can refer to a number of conditions: degloving soft tissue injury Morel-Lavallée lesion (closed degloving soft tissue injury) intramuscular degloving injury degloving bowel injury
Article

Dehiscence

Dehiscence is a general term referring to 'splitting open' and is used in a variety of contexts in medicine generally and radiology more specifically.  The two most common usages are: splitting open of a wound (e.g. sternal dehiscence) loss of bone separating one structure from another (e.g. ...
Article

Dental caries

Dental caries are cavities in teeth ('caries' is both the singular and plural form). They are very common and can lead to serious morbidity.  Clinical presentation Tooth decay is asymptomatic in its early stages. Once the enamel has been breached and the dentin is exposed then people may exper...
Article

Dependent viscera sign

The dependent viscera sign is one of the signs of diaphragmatic rupture on axial CT or MR images, where herniated viscera lie against the posterior thoracic wall in a dependent position, as they are no longer supported by the diaphragm. See also  collar sign (or hourglass sign)
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Descending colon

The descending colon is the continuation of the transverse colon after the left colic flexure, where the colon loses its mesentery.  Gross anatomy The descending colon measures up to 25 cm in length and is secondarily retroperitoneal. It descends down attached to the left posterior abdominal w...
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Desmoplastic small round cell tumor (peritoneal)

Desmoplastic small round cell tumors of the peritoneum are a rare and highly aggressive primary peritoneal malignancy. Epidemiology Desmoplastic small round cell tumor is usually seen in young adolescents and have a male predominance with a mean survival of 2-3 years. Clinical presentation A...
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Diabetes mellitus

Diabetes mellitus (DM) often referred to simply as diabetes, is a group of metabolic conditions characterized by hyperglycemia.  These conditions should not be confused with diabetes insipidus which is clinically distinct and not related to hyperglycemia. Terminology If a patient with diabete...
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Diaphragm

The diaphragm is the dome-shaped muscle that separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity, enclosing the inferior thoracic aperture. Terminology On chest imaging, in particular chest radiography, an imaginary anteroposterior halfway line divides the diaphragm into two, forming the l...
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Diaphragmatic rupture

Diaphragmatic rupture often results from blunt abdominal trauma. The mechanism of injury is typically a motor-vehicle collision. Epidemiology Given that the most common mechanism is motor vehicle collisions, it is perhaps unsurprising that young men are most frequently affected. The estimated ...
Article

Dieulafoy lesion

Dieulafoy lesions (also known as exulceratio simplex) are uncommon but important causes of acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding. A Dieulafoy lesion is characterized by a dilated tortuous submucosal artery that erodes overlying gastrointestinal mucosa most commonly found in the stomach.   Epide...
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Differential diagnosis of hepatic nodule in cirrhotic liver

Differential diagnosis of hepatic nodule in cirrhotic liver include regenerative liver nodules, dysplastic liver nodules, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), all represent a spectrum of disease ranging from non-neoplastic reparative process (regenerative) to nuclear atypia (dysplastic) to typica...
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Diffuse colonic nodularity (differential)

Diffuse colonic nodularity on barium enema or CT colonography has a range of possible etiologies: lymphoid hyperplasia (tend to be small and discrete) lymphoma (tend to be larger nodules and confluent) urticaria (closely spaced polygonal lesions, history is often helpful) pseudomembranous co...
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Diffuse esophageal spasm

Diffuse/distal esophageal spasm (DOS) is a motility disorder of the esophagus. On barium swallow, diffuse esophageal spasm may appear as a corkscrew or rosary bead esophagus, but this is uncommon. Manometry is the gold-standard diagnostic test. Diffuse esophageal spasm differs from hypercontrac...
Article

Diffuse peritoneal leiomyomatosis

Diffuse or disseminated peritoneal leiomyomatosis, also known as leiomyomatosis peritonealis disseminata, is an exceedingly rare benign disorder characterized by multiple vascular leiomyomas growing along the submesothelial tissues of the abdominopelvic peritoneum. Epidemiology It is usually d...
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Diffuse small bowel disease

Diffuse small bowel disease may be caused by a number of conditions may be generalized multisystem disorders or conditions that effect the bowel in a global fashion: sprue scleroderma Whipple's disease amyloidosis hypoproteinemia giardiasis intramural hemorrhage radiation enteritis smal...
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Direct inguinal hernia

A direct inguinal hernia (alternative plural: herniae) is a type of groin herniation, that arises from protrusion of abdominal viscera through a weakness of the posterior wall of the inguinal canal medial to the inferior epigastric vessels, specifically through Hesselbach's triangle. This type ...
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Disconnected pancreatic duct syndrome

Disconnected pancreatic duct syndrome, also referred only as disconnected pancreatic duct, refers to the symptoms and complications due to the complete discontinuity of the main pancreatic duct between segments of viable secreting pancreatic tissue and the duodenum, usually seen as a sequela of ...
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Discrete colonic ulceration

Discrete colonic ulcerations are nonspecific findings, and can be due to: Crohn disease infective colitis Yersinia entercolitis shigellosis tuberculosis cytomegalovirus (CMV) amoebic colitis vasculitic colitis Behcet disease
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Distal intestinal obstruction syndrome

Distal intestinal obstruction syndrome (DIOS) is one the of many abdominal manifestations of cystic fibrosis. In older children or young adults with cystic fibrosis, the distal small bowel may become obstructed with a mucofaeculent material in the distal ileum and right colon.    Epidemiology ...
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Diversion colitis

Diversion colitis, also known as diversional colitis, describes non-specific inflammation of segments of colon and/or rectum which have been surgically diverted from the fecal stream after colostomy or ileostomy. A similar condition, diversion pouchitis, manifesting after formation of continent...
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Diverticular disease

Diverticular disease generally refers to phenomenon involving acquired diverticula along the lower gastrointestinal tract. It covers a range of pathologies and may account for a variety of presentations. Diverticulosis is largely asymptomatic however 4% of individuals with diverticula develop di...
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Diverticulitis (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Diverticulitis is one of the presentations of diverticular disease and is most often a complication of colonic diverticulosis. Differentiating one from the other is critical since uncomplicated diverticulosis is mostly asym...
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Diverticulum

Diverticula are outpouchings of a hollow viscus and can be either true or false. Occasionally a diverticulum is used in a more general sense to mean the outpouching of other anatomical structures, e.g. frontal intersinus septal cells are hypothesized to form as diverticula from the frontal sinu...
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Dog ear sign (abdomen)

The dog ear sign represents the presence of fluid or blood in the pelvic peritoneal recess on a supine abdominal radiograph. The appearance of the sign comes from a convex soft-tissue density representing fluid or blood in the lateral pelvic peritoneal recess separated from the bladder by a thin...
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Doge cap sign (pneumoperitoneum)

The doge cap sign, also referred to as Morison pouch sign, is a radiographic sign of pneumoperitoneum. It presents as a triangular-shaped gas lucency or can be crescent shaped, or semicircular is usually bound by the 11th rib in the right upper quadrant on abdominal radiographs due to air in the...
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Dorsal pancreatic agenesis

Agenesis of the dorsal pancreas is an extremely rare congenital pancreatic anomaly.  While complete agenesis of the dorsal pancreas is extremely rare, partial agenesis of the dorsal pancreas is thought to be more common than ventral pancreatic agenesis 4. Clinical presentation While many pati...
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Double barrel sign (disambiguation)

Double barrel sign is an imaging appearance of two lumens adjacent to each other. It can be seen in: dilated bile duct adjacent to portal vein double barrel aorta: aortic dissection double barrel esophagus: esophageal dissection
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Double bubble sign (duodenum)

The double bubble sign is seen in infants and represents dilatation of the proximal duodenum and stomach. It is seen in both radiographs and ultrasound, and can be identified antenatally 2. Pathology Causes include 1,2: congenital obstruction duodenal web duodenal atresia duodenal stenosis...
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Double contrast barium enema (overview)

The double contrast barium enema is rapidly being replaced by CT colonography, but remains in some centers for: the detection of polyps and colorectal cancer follow up screening for postoperative colorectal cancer evaluation of diverticular disease failed colonoscopy investigation of non-sp...
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Double contrast barium enema technique

Double contrast barium enema (DCBE) technique is a method of imaging the colon with fluoroscopy. "Double contrast" refers to imaging with the positive contrast of barium sulfate contrast medium (rarely water-soluble iodinated contrast) as well as with the negative contrast of gas (CO2 preferable...
Article

Double duct sign

The double duct sign refers to the presence of simultaneous dilatation of the common bile and pancreatic ducts. Being an anatomical sign it can be seen on all modalities that can visualize the region, including: MRI, CT, ultrasound and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP).  The...
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Double track sign (pyloric stenosis)

The double track sign is a radiological sign described in pyloric stenosis on various imaging modalities.  Barium study Double streaks of barium passing through the narrow pylorus 1. Ultrasound On fluid aided real-time examination, the pyloric fluid is compressed into smaller tracks as it is...
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Doughnut sign (disambiguation)

The doughnut sign can refer to a variety of different signs: doughnut sign (bone scan) doughnut sign (bowel) crescent in a doughnut sign (bowel) doughnut sign (chest) doughnut sign (orbit)
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Downhill esophageal varix

Downhill esophageal varices are an uncommon type of esophageal varices associated with superior vena cava (SVC) obstruction. Epidemiology Downhill oesophagal varices are less frequently seen. It is seen in less than 0.5% of routine upper endoscopies. Most common etiology is superior vena obstr...
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Down syndrome

Down syndrome (or trisomy 21) is the most common trisomy and also the commonest chromosomal disorder. It is a major cause of intellectual disability, and also has numerous multisystem manifestations. Epidemiology The approximate worldwide incidence is approximately 1 in 800 live births 15. The...
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Dropped appendicolith

Retained appendicoliths, also called dropped or slipped appendicoliths, are appendicoliths that have been inadvertently left inside the peritoneal cavity following appendectomy. Clinical presentation Patients may be asymptomatic in some cases. Other cases may present with infective symptoms du...
Article

Duct penetrating sign (pancreas)

Duct penetrating sign is a radiographic sign that can be useful in differentiating between focal pancreatitis (inflammatory pancreatic mass) from pancreatic carcinoma. A positive sign is when a mass is penetrated by an unobstructed pancreatic duct; this makes focal pancreatitis the most likely ...
Article

Dukes staging system for colorectal cancer

The Dukes staging system is a classification system for colorectal cancer. This system is now mainly of historical interest as it has largely been replaced by the TNM staging system. It is not recommended for clinical practice. Dukes A: invasion into but not through the bowel wall (90% 5 year s...
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Duodenal adenocarcinoma

Duodenal adenocarcinoma is the most common primary malignancy of the duodenum. Epidemiology Adenocarcinoma is the most common primary malignant neoplasm of the duodenum. It represents 0.3% of all gastrointestinal malignancies and accounts for  50-70% of small bowel adenocarcinomas occurring ei...
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Duodenal atresia

Duodenal atresia results from a congenital malformation of the duodenum and requires prompt correction in the neonatal period. It is considered to be one of the commonest causes of a fetal bowel obstruction. Epidemiology The prevalence of duodenal atresia is ~1 in 5,000-10,000 newborns, and th...
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Duodenal bulb

The duodenal bulb refers to a proximal-most portion of the duodenum closest to the stomach and for most of the D1 segment of the duodenum. It usually has a length of about 5 cm.  It commences at the gastric pylorus and ends at the neck of the gallbladder. It is located posterior to the liver and...
Article

Duodenal diverticulitis

Duodenal diverticulitis (plural diverticulitides) is a rare, inflammatory complication of duodenal diverticula.  Clinical presentation While the vast majority of patients are asymptomatic, patients with diverticulitis usually present with epigastric pain, nausea and vomiting.  Radiographic fe...
Article

Duodenal diverticulum

Duodenal diverticula are outpouchings from the duodenal wall (intraluminal diverticulum discussed separately). They may result from mucosal prolapse or the prolapse of the entire duodenal wall and can be found at any point in the duodenum although are by far most commonly located along the media...
Article

Duodenal filling defects

Duodenal filling defects may be caused by a wide variety of duodenal pathology which may be divided by their location and pathological process. Extrinsic gallbladder impression common bile duct impression gas-filled diverticulum Intrinsic Note: please refer to duodenal mucosal nodular fill...
Article

Duodenal hematoma

Duodenal hematoma results in hematoma formation in the duodenal wall. It may occur as a result of blunt abdominal trauma, non-accidental injury to children and spontaneously in anti-coagulated patients. Distinction must be made from duodenal perforation since the latter will require immediate s...
Article

Duodenal–jejunal bypass liner

A duodenal–jejunal bypass liner (DJBL), also known as a duodenal–jejunal bypass sleeve device or EndoBarrier™ is being trialled as a new technique, as an alternative to more 'traditional' gastric bypass surgeries 1,2. The basic principle is that the sleeve is endoscopically-inserted into the duo...
Article

Duodenal stricture

A duodenal stricture refers to a segment of narrowing involving the duodenum. They can occur from a range of benign infective - inflammatory to malignant etiology. They can contribute to gastric outlet obstruction. Pathology Etiology infective/inflammatory  duodenitis regional inflammation:...
Article

Duodenal switch procedure

The duodenal switch procedure is a form of biliopancreatic diversion which is often done as a obesity reduction surgery. It has a restrictive portion and malabsorptive portion restrictive portion: involves removal of approximately 70% of the stomach (along the greater curvature) and most of th...
Article

Duodenal varices

Duodenal varices is the dilatation of the posterior superior pancreaticoduodenal vein secondary to portal hypertension. They are much less common than esophageal, rectal or fundal varices, but may be associated with them. Radiographic features Fluoroscopy Lobulated filling defects are best de...
Article

Duodenal web

A duodenal web, diaphragm or intraluminal diverticulum refers to a complete or incomplete obstruction at the duodenum due to a membranous web or intraluminal diverticulum. There is usually a small aperture at the center differentiating this from duodenal atresia.  Epidemiology Although they ar...
Article

Duodenitis

Duodenitis is a term given to inflammation of the duodenum. Pathology Etiology A duodenitis can result from both intrinsic processes within the duodenum as well as from processes occuring outside the duodendum. It can occur from infective as well as non-infective inflammatory processes. Non-...
Article

Duodenojejunal flexure

The duodenojejunal (DJ) flexure or junction is the anatomical border between the duodenum and the jejunum. Gross anatomy The DJ flexure is located anterolateral to the aorta at the level of the upper border of the second lumbar vertebra. It makes a sharp turn anteroinferiorly to become the jej...
Article

Duodenum

The duodenum is the first part of the small intestine and is the continuation of the stomach. Gross anatomy The duodenum is a 20-30 cm C-shaped hollow viscus predominantly on the right side of the vertebral column. It lies at the level of L1-3 and the convexity of the duodenum (called the duod...
Article

Duplex appendix

Duplex appendix is a rare anomaly of the appendix and is usually discovered incidentally during surgery for appendicitis. Epidemiology Duplication of the vermiform appendix is extremely rare. It is found in only 1 in 25,000 patients (incidence ~0.004%) operated on for acute appendicitis. Altho...

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