Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

1,195 results found
Article

Esophageal and esophagogastric junction neuroendocrine tumor (staging)

Esophageal and esophagogastric junction neuroendocrine tumor staging refers to TNM staging of epithelial cancers other than the squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma groups located in the esophagus or esophagogastric junction (including tumors whose center is within the proximal 2 cm of the...
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Esophageal and esophagogastric junction squamous cell carcinoma (staging)

Esophageal and esophagogastric junction squamous cell carcinoma staging refers to TNM staging of squamous cell carcinoma originating in the esophagus or esophagogastric junction (including tumors whose center is within the proximal 2 cm of the gastric cardia). Related histologies included in thi...
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Esophageal lymph node stations

Esophageal lymph node stations are those nodal stations in the neck, chest, and abdomen considered regional (rather than distant) for the purpose of esophageal cancer staging. This list reflects the map provided in the 8th edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) Cancer Staging M...
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Evacuation proctography

Evacuation proctography (defecography) is a fluoroscopic technique to evaluate pelvic floor disorders. The technique traditionally involves fluoroscopy and barium, but an analogous MRI technique has also been developed (see: MR defecating proctography). Indications incomplete or obstructed def...
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Extramedullary hematopoiesis in the adrenal gland

Extramedullary hematopoiesis in the adrenal gland is a rare physiologic compensatory event in many hematologic diseases. For a general discussion on this subject, please refer to the main article on extramedullary hematopoiesis. Epidemiology Extramedullary hematopoiesis in the adrenal gland i...
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Extramural vascular invasion (EMVI)

Extramural vascular invasion (EMVI) is the direct invasion of a blood vessel (usually a vein) by a tumor. In rectal cancer, this can occur on a macroscopic level and be detected on staging MRI. It is a significant prognostic factor, being a predictor of haematogenous spread.  Radiographic featu...
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Extrapulmonary tuberculosis

Extrapulmonary tuberculosis (TB) refers to the haematogenous spread of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Pathology Extrapulmonary tubercuosis can occur as a primary form of the disease, i.e. direct infection of an extrapulmonary organ without the presence of primary pulmonary tuberculosis or it can ...
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Fecal calprotectin

Fecal calprotectin (FCAL) is a protein which is a marker of inflammation of the gut used as a diagnostic tool and marker of disease activity for Crohn disease and ulcerative colitis. Biochemistry Calprotectin is a protein complex from the S-100 family, which is formed of three polypeptide chai...
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Fecaloma

A fecaloma is a mass of feces most frequently noted in the rectum and sigmoid colon, that is much harder than a fecal impaction due to coprostasis. Clinical Presentation Symptoms are non-specific and include constipation, abdominal pain, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, overflow diarrhea, fecal inc...
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Falciform ligament

The falciform ligament is a broad and thin peritoneal ligament. It is sickle-shaped (Latin: "falciform") and a remnant of the ventral mesentery of the fetus. It is situated in an anteroposterior plane but lies obliquely so that one surface faces forward and is in contact with the peritoneum beh...
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Falciform ligament sign

The falciform ligament sign, also called the Silver sign, is characterized by the falciform ligament being outlined with free abdominal gas in cases of pneumoperitoneum of a large amount.  It is almost never seen in isolation as, if there is enough free gas to outline the falciform ligament, th...
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Fallopian (disambiguation)

The eponym Fallopian may refer to: Fallopian canal (facial nerve canal) Fallopian tube (uterine duct) Fallopian ligament (inguinal ligament) History and etymology It is named after Gabriele Falloppio (also known by his Latin name Fallopius), Italian anatomist (1523-1562).
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Familial adenomatous polyposis syndrome

Familial adenomatous polyposis syndrome (FAPS) is characterized by the presence of hundreds of adenomatous polyps in the colon. It is the most common of the polyposis syndromes. Terminology Familial polyposis coli, attenuated familial adenomatous polyposis and Gardner syndrome are all variants...
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Familial atypical multiple mole melanoma syndrome

Familial atypical multiple mole melanoma (FAMMM) syndrome is an autosomal dominant genodermatosis characterized by multiple melanocytic nevi (often more than 50) and a family history of melanoma. Pathology Genetics It is associated with mutations in the CDKN2A gene and shows reduced penetranc...
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Familial Mediterranean fever

Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) (also known as recurrent polyserositis) is a genetic autoimmune condition that is notable for its spontaneous self-limiting acute episodes of fever and serositis, especially peritonitis and synovitis. Epidemiology Familial Mediterranean fever tends to be ethn...
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Fascial tail sign

The fascial tail sign refers to the linear/tapered extension of soft tissue tumors along the fascia. The sign has been classically described in benign fibrous proliferations 1-4: desmoid tumor plantar fibromatosis nodular fasciitis However, the same sign has also been described as the tail ...
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Fat halo sign (inflammatory bowel disease)

The fat halo sign refers to a feature seen on CT examination of the abdomen, and represents infiltration of the submucosa with fat, between the muscularis propria and the mucosa. It is characterized by an inner (mucosa) and outer (muscularis propria and serosa) ring of enhancing bowel wall along...
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Fat ring sign (mesenteric panniculitis)

The fat ring sign (also known as a fat halo sign) describes preservation of fat around the mesenteric vessels and around soft tissue nodules on a background of diffuse fat stranding in patients with mesenteric panniculitis or mesenteric lipomas.  This finding may help distinguish mesenteric pan...
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Fat stranding on CT

Fat stranding is a common sign seen on CT wherever fat can be found. It is most commonly seen in abdomen/pelvis, but can also be seen in retroperitoneum, thorax and subcutaneous tissues. It can be helpful in localizing both acute and chronic pathology. Radiographic features CT Fat stranding c...
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Fat stranding (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Fat stranding is a sign that is seen on CT. It describes the change in attenuation of fat around an inflamed structure and is a very helpful signpost for intra-abdominal pathology. Reference article This is a summary arti...
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Feline esophagus

Feline esophagus also known as esophageal shiver, refers to the transient transverse bands seen in the mid and lower esophagus on a double-contrast barium swallow. Pathology The appearance is almost always associated with active gastro-esophageal reflux 2,3 and is thought to be due to contract...
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Femoral canal

The femoral canal is the medial compartment of the femoral sheath, an inverted cone-shaped fascial space medial to the common femoral vein within the upper femoral triangle. It is only 1-2 cm long and opens superiorly as the femoral ring. It serves two purposes: allows the femoral vein to expan...
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Femoral hernia

Femoral hernias are a type of groin herniation and comprise a protrusion of a peritoneal sac through the femoral ring into the femoral canal, posterior and inferior to the inguinal ligament. The sac may contain preperitoneal fat, omentum, small bowel, or other structures. Epidemiology There ma...
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Femoral ring

The femoral ring is the superior opening of the femoral canal. Its boundaries are: medial: lacunar ligament anterior: medial part of the inguinal ligament lateral: femoral vein within the intermediate compartment of the femoral sheath posterior: pectineal ligament overlying the pectineus mus...
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Fetal enteric duplication cyst

Fetal enteric duplication cysts are enteric duplication cysts presenting in utero. Pathology They result from an abnormal recanalization of the gastrointestinal tract. They comprise of a two-layer smooth muscle wall and an internal epithelium of a respiratory or intestinal type. These cysts ma...
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Fetus in fetu

Fetus-in-fetu is an extremely rare abnormality that occurs secondary to abnormal embryogenesis in a monochorionic diamniotic pregnancy where a non-viable fetus becomes enclosed within a normally developing fetus. Epidemiology Fetus-in-fetu is very rare, with an incidence of 1/500,000 live birt...
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Fibromuscular dysplasia

Fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) is a heterogeneous group of vascular lesions characterized by an idiopathic, non-inflammatory, and non-atherosclerotic angiopathy of small and medium-sized arteries. Epidemiology The prevalence is unknown 7. It is most common in young women with a female to male r...
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Fibrosing colonopathy

Fibrosing colonopathy a condition characterized by progressive submucosal fibrosis, particularly of the proximal colon. It is associated with high dose lipase supplementation used to treat exocrine insufficiency of the pancreas, such as in treatment for cystic fibrosis. Epidemiology It is more...
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Fishtail pancreas

Fishtail pancreas (also known as pancreas bifidum or bifid tail of the pancreas) is a rare anatomical variant of the pancreas produced by a branching anomaly during its development. It is named as such due to the fishtail-like appearance of the pancreas. Epidemiology It is a rare anatomical an...
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Fissure for ligamentum teres sign

The fissure for ligamentum teres sign or extrahepatic ligamentum teres sign is a radiographic sign of pneumoperitoneum. It represents the outline of the ligamentum teres (remnant of an obliterated left umbilical vein) with free abdominal gas in a supine patient, as seen on a plain abdominal radi...
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Fistula

A fistula (plural: fistulae) is an abnormal connection between two epithelial surfaces such as between hollow organs, skin or vessels. Conventionally, the name of a specific fistula type is a combination of the two organs For discussions of specific fistulae please refer to individual articles....
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Flatulence

Flatulence is the expulsion of bowel gas (or flatus) from the anal canal. The average individual expels a wide range of volume of flatus per day, ~200-2500 mL 1. The bulk of the volume of the gas comprises oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, hydrogen, and methane. However these gases lack any as...
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Fleischner sign (disambiguation)

Fleischner sign can refer to two distinctly separate signs: Fleischner sign (enlarged pulmonary artery) Fleischner sign (tuberculosis of ileocecal junction)
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Fleischner sign (tuberculosis of ileocecal junction)

The Fleischner sign (also known as the inverted umbrella sign), refers to a widely gaping, thickened, patulous ileocecal valve and a narrowed, ulcerated terminal ileum associated with tuberculous involvement of the ileocecum. See also gastrointestinal tuberculosis Stierlin sign not to be con...
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Floating aorta sign

The floating aorta sign refers to the displacement of the abdominal aorta away from the vertebral column. It is a radiographic sign of retroperitoneal masses. Radiographic findings On lateral lumbar spine radiographs, the expected location of the posterior aortic wall is expected to be ≤10 mm...
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Flocculation

Flocculation refers to the breakdown of a barium suspension during a fluoroscopic study. The small bowel environment eventually separates out a barium suspension, and this can occur during the normal course of a barium study (15 minutes to three hours). When the suspension flocculates, it no lo...
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Fluoroscopic nasojejunal tube insertion

Fluoroscopic nasojejunal (NJT) or nasogastric tube (NGT) insertion is a valuable procedure offered by radiologists in patient care. The majority of nasogastric tubes are inserted on the ward level and nasojejunal tubes may be placed in theater at the time of surgery. In difficult cases, inserti...
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Fluoroscopy

Fluoroscopy is an imaging procedure that allows real-time x-ray viewing of the patient with high temporal resolution. It is based on an x-ray image intensifier (II) coupled to a photographic and/or video camera. In recent years flat panel detectors, (which are similar to the digital radiography ...
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Foamy esophagus sign

Foamy esophagus is an appearance seen on a single contrast barium study in Candida esophagitis with associated scleroderma/achalasia (stasis). Pathology Pathophysiologic basis of the foamy esophagus is uncertain. Stasis is a predisposing factor. Foam is produced directly by the fungal organism...
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Focused Assessment with Sonography for Trauma (FAST) scan

Focused Assessment with Sonography for Trauma (FAST) scan is a point-of-care ultrasound examination performed at the time of presentation of a trauma patient.  It is invariably performed by a clinician, who should be formally trained, and is considered as an 'extension' of the trauma clinical a...
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Football sign (pneumoperitoneum)

The football sign is seen in cases of massive pneumoperitoneum, where the abdominal cavity is outlined by gas from a perforated viscus. The median umbilical ligament and falciform ligament are sometimes included in the description of this sign, as representing the sutures. Which football is use...
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Foramen of Morgagni

The foramina of Morgagni, also known as the sternocostal triangles, are small defects in the posterior aspect of the anterior thoracic wall between the sternal and costal attachments of the diaphragm. The internal thoracic vessels descend through these foramina to become the superior epigastric ...
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Foregut duplication cyst

Foregut duplication cysts are a type of congenital duplication cyst. They are sometimes classified under bronchopulmonary foregut malformations. Entities classified as foregut duplication cysts include: bronchogenic cysts neurenteric cysts other enteric cysts esophageal duplication cysts l...
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Foreign modelling agent reactions

Foreign modelling agent reactions (FMAR), also known as iatrogenic allogenosis, the latter term is primarily found in the Spanish literature and has created some controversy. It is a reaction from solid or liquid substances injected for aesthetic reasons, especially in the calves, face, buttocks...
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Fossa of Landzert

The fossa of Landzert is a congenital mesentery defect. It is present in about 2% of autopsy series and is formed due to non-fusion of the inferior mesentery to the parietal peritoneum. It is found to the left of the fourth part of the duodenum. The inferior mesenteric vein runs along its (ante...
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Fossa of Waldeyer

The fossa of Waldeyer, also known as the mesentericoparietal fossa, is a congenital mesentery defect. It is found in about 1% of autopsy series and is formed due to non-fusion of the ascending mesocolon to the posterior parietal peritoneum. The superior mesenteric artery runs along its (anterio...
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Free intraperitoneal fluid (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Free intraperitoneal fluid may be termed free fluid or (less correctly) free intra-abdominal fluid. It may be seen in small volumes in female patients, particularly around the time of menses and in some healthy young men. ...
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Frey procedure

The Frey procedure is a type of pancreaticojejunostomy designed to treat chronic pancreatitis. The fundamental technique is similar to the Puestow procedure, with a lateral incision of the pancreatic duct from an anterior approach, and then a side-to-side anastomosis between the pancreas and a ...
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Frimann-Dahl sign

The Frimann-Dahl sign is a diagnostic sign demonstrated when three dense lines, representing the sigmoid walls, are seen converging to the site of obstruction in sigmoid volvulus and associated with empty rectal gas 1. History and etymology Johan Frimann-Dahl (1902-82) was a Norwegian Professo...
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Frostberg inverted 3 sign

Frostberg inverted 3 sign is a radiological sign seen on a barium examination where there is effacement and distortion of the mucosal pattern on the medial wall of the second part of the duodenum due to focal mass and local edema. It is most commonly associated with carcinoma of the head of the ...
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Frozen pelvis

Frozen pelvis refers to a condition in which pelvic organs are distorted and tethered to each other as a consequence of adhesive processes. It is commonly seen in endometriosis. Other causes include tumors, infections including pelvic inflammatory disease, post-surgical adhesions and post-treat...
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Fucosidosis

Fucosidosis is a rare inherited autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorder, hypomyelinating disorder, and mucopolysaccharidosis-like disorder, characterized by multiorgan accumulation of fucose-containing products. Epidemiology It is considered very rare, with approximately only 100 cases ...
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Fukuoka consensus guidelines

Fukuoka consensus guidelines, also referred to as the Tanaka criteria, is a classification system for intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) and mucinous cystic neoplasms (MCNs).  The prior international consensus guidelines (2006) were referred to as the Sendai criteria, which later ...
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Functional gastrointestinal disorders

The functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) are a set of conditions characterized by their chronic GI manifestations, in the absence of structural abnormality of the gut. These conditions are common and may be disabling in nature. The understanding of their pathogenesis is incomplete, comp...
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Fundic gland polyp

Fundic gland polyps (FGP) are the most common type of gastric polyp. Epidemiology FGPs occur most commonly in middle-aged females. They have been reported to be identified in ~1% of gastroscopies 3,4.  Clinical presentation FGPs are usually an asymptomatic, incidental finding 1.  Pathology ...
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Fundoplication

Fundoplications are forms of antireflux surgery used as a second line of treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease after failure of medical treatment and the first line of treatment of paraesophageal hernia. Technique A gastric fold is wrapped around the distal esophagus which enforces the ...
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Gallbladder agenesis

Agenesis of the gallbladder describes the rare congenital absence of the gallbladder. Epidemiology overall incidence is estimated <0.1% (range 0.04-0.1%) gender:  reported 3:1 female predominance of symptomatic cases equivalent gender distribution in autopsy cases Clinical presentation Mo...
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Gallbladder triplication

Gallbladder triplication is an extremely rare anomaly. There are three types of gallbladder triplication are described according to the number of cystic duct and their insertion: Three gallbladders and three cystic ducts which unite to form a common cystic duct before joining the common bile du...
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Gallstone ileus

Gallstone ileus is an uncommon cause of a mechanical small bowel obstruction. It is a rare complication of chronic cholecystitis 7 and occurs when a gallstone passes through a fistula between the gallbladder and small bowel before becoming impacted at the ileocecal valve.  Epidemiology Althoug...
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Gallstone pancreatitis

Gallstone pancreatitis refers to pancreatitis caused by gallstones, specifically distal choledocholithiasis. Gallstones are the cause for 35-40% of acute pancreatitis but this number has a wide regional variance.  Epidemiology Gallstone pancreatitis has a higher incidence in women (compared to...
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Gardner syndrome

Gardner syndrome is one of the polyposis syndromes. It is characterized by: familial adenopolyposis multiple osteomas: especially of the mandible, skull, and long bones epidermal cysts fibromatoses desmoid tumors of mesentery and anterior abdominal wall Other abnormalities include: supern...
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Gasless abdomen

A gasless abdomen refers to a paucity of gas on abdominal radiography, and the specific cause can usually be identified when the patient's history is known. Common causes include: small bowel obstruction bowel ischemia congenital atresia ascites pancreatitis gastroenteritis large abdomina...
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Gastric adenocarcinoma

Gastric adenocarcinoma, commonly referred to as gastric cancer, refers to a primary malignancy arising from the gastric epithelium. It is the most common gastric malignancy.  Epidemiology Gastric cancer is rare before the age of 40, but its incidence steadily climbs after that and peaks in the...
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Gastric antral vascular ectasia

Gastric antral vascular ectasia (GAVE), also known as watermelon stomach, is a rare condition affecting the stomach. It is one of the diagnoses to consider in older patients with severe anemia and occult or profuse gastrointestinal bleeding (especially in those with cardiac, liver, or renal dise...
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Gastric antral web

Gastric antral webs are a ring of mucosa in the distal stomach (gastric antrum) that can lead to gastric outlet obstruction. A circumferential ring of mucosa has also been termed a "gastric antral diaphragm". Epidemiology Gastric antral webs are rare. There is an association with trisomy 21 an...
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Gastric band

A gastric band is a surgically placed device, used to assist in weight loss. It is now the most popular form of bariatric surgery, largely replacing gastric bypass procedures 1. Performed laparoscopically, a silicone band device is placed around the stomach to reduce its volume. The band is adj...
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Gastric band malposition

Gastric band malposition is an early complication from laparoscopic gastric band procedures which are performed for obesity. It can occur as in isolation or with other gastric band complications. As surgical experience of lap gastric banding has accumulated, it has become a relatively rare comp...
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Gastric band slippage

Gastric band slippage is a late complication of laparoscopic gastric banding surgery performed for obesity. It is reported to occur in 4-13% of cases 1-3. It can occur in either an anterior or posterior direction. Clinical presentation Patients can present with cessation of weight loss, sever...
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Gastric band erosion

Gastric band erosion or penetration is a potentially serious complication following laparoscopic gastric band surgery for obesity.  Epidemiology Gastric band erosion is a delayed complication observed in between 0.3-14% of patients 1,2. Clinical presentation Patients often present non-specif...
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Gastric bubble

The gastric bubble is a radiolucent rounded area generally nestled under the left hemidiaphragm representing gas in the fundus of the stomach. On a lateral radiograph, the gastric bubble is usually located between the abdominal wall and spine. It can be seen on chest or abdominal plain films. I...
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Gastric cancer (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Gastric cancer, also known as stomach cancer or gastric carcinoma, refers to a cancer that arises from the mucosal lining of the stomach. It is the commonest gastric malignancy. Reference article This is a summary article...
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Gastric cancer (TNM staging)

Gastric cancer staging is routinely performed using the TNM staging system. This article is based on the 7th edition of the TNM classification of malignant tumors. TNM staging (7th edition) T T1 T1a: tumor invades the lamina propria and or muscularis mucosae  T1b: tumor invades submucosa  ...
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Gastric diverticulum

Gastric diverticula are sac-like projections that usually originate from the gastric fundus, most commonly on the posterior surface. They are the least common of the gastrointestinal diverticula.  Epidemiology Gastric diverticula are rare and commonly detected incidentally. The incidence varie...
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Gastric duplication cyst

Gastric duplication cysts are rare congenital foregut duplication cysts affecting the stomach. Gastrointestinal tract duplication cysts (GTDCs) most commonly affect the ileum, followed by the esophagus, large bowel, and jejunum; gastric location accounts for less than 10% of all gastrointestinal...
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Gastric emphysema

Gastric emphysema, referring to the presence of gas in the wall of the stomach, is a relatively rare imaging finding 1. The stomach is the least common location for intramural gas in the gastrointestinal tract.  Pathology Etiology There is a wide range of causes, ranging from life-threatening...
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Gastric leiomyoma

Gastric leiomyomas are rare benign mesenchymal tumors, usually asymptomatic and found incidentally.  Clinical presentation Most leiomyomas are found incidentally in asymptomatic patients. Symptoms related to a gastric leiomyoma will depend on the tumor size, location, and presence/absence of u...
Article

Gastric lipoma

Gastric lipomas are a location-specific subtype of gastrointestinal lipomas and represent a rare benign mesenchymal tumors of the stomach. They can be definitively diagnosed on CT.  Epidemiology Gastric lipomas are rare, accounting for <5% of gastrointestinal lipomas and <1% of all gastric neo...
Article

Gastric lymph node stations

Gastric lymph node stations were originally divided into 16 groups proposed by the Japanese Research Society for Gastric Cancer in 1963. Gross anatomy The areas of stomach which drain into regional lymph nodes: cardia and proximal lesser curvature drain into left gastric lymph nodes, then int...
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Gastric lymphoma

Gastric lymphoma may either represent secondary involvement by systemic disease or primary malignancy confined to the stomach.  Epidemiology  Gastric lymphoma represents the most common site of extranodal lymphoma, accounting for 25% of all such lymphomas, 50% of all gastrointestinal lymphomas...
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Gastric metastases

Gastric metastases are rare, found in less than 2% of patients who die of a carcinoma 6. Epidemiology Usually affects the middle-aged and elderly population. Affects males and females equally without predilection. Clinical presentation The patient may be asymptomatic, but the most common sig...
Article

Gastric outlet obstruction

Gastric outlet obstruction is a syndrome resulting from mechanical obstruction of stomach emptying. Pathology Etiology Gastric outlet obstruction can be due to malignant or benign causes. Malignant adenocarcinoma (second most common 4) GIST lymphoma (less common than other malignancies as...
Article

Gastric polyps

Gastric polyps are uncommon findings, even on endoscopy where they are encountered in only 2-6% of patients.  Pathology There are a number of gastric polyp subtypes 1-3: non-neoplastic polyps hyperplastic polyps virtually no malignant potential typically small (<1 cm), multiple, and sessil...
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Gastric ulcer evaluation (barium)

Gastric (peptic) ulcers can be detected on multiple imaging modalities, but are best evaluated on a double contrast barium upper GI study. This article discusses their appearance on a double contrast study, for a more complete description, see the full article on peptic ulcers. Radiographic fea...
Article

Gastric varix

Gastric varices are an important portosystemic collateral pathway, occurring in ~20% of patients with portal hypertension. They are considered distinct from esophageal varices in that they have a propensity to hemorrhage at comparatively lower portal pressures 1, and are also associated with hig...
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Gastric volvulus

Gastric volvulus is a specific type of volvulus that occurs when the stomach twists on its mesentery. It should be at least 180° and cause bowel obstruction to be called gastric volvulus. Merely gastric rotation on its root is not considered gastric volvulus. Epidemiology Organo-axial volvulus...
Article

Gastric wall fatty infiltration

Gastric wall fatty infiltration refers to an appearance seen on CT of the abdomen whereby the wall of the stomach is thickened due to infiltration of fat into the submucosa. Although it can be seen in the context of Crohn disease it is more commonly seen in the asymptomatic general population. ...
Article

Gastrinoma

Gastrinomas are the second most common pancreatic endocrine tumor and the most common type in the setting of multiple endocrine neoplasia type I (MEN I). Epidemiology Most gastrinomas are sporadic, although some are seen in the setting of multiple endocrine neoplasia type I (MEN I). In general...
Article

Gastrinoma triangle

The gastrinoma triangle, also known as Passaro's triangle, is an anatomical area in the abdomen, from where the majority (90%) of gastrinomas are thought to arise.  Gross anatomy Boundaries The triangle is formed by joining the following three points: superiorly: confluence of the cystic and...
Article

Gastroduodenal artery

The gastroduodenal artery (GDA) is a terminal branch of the common hepatic artery which mainly supplies the pylorus of the stomach, proximal duodenum, and the head of the pancreas. Due to its proximity to the anterior wall of the first part of the duodenum, the gastroduodenal artery is one of th...
Article

Gastrointestinal amyloidosis

Gastrointestinal amyloidosis is relatively common, although symptomatic involvement is more rare. It is diagnosed if there are persistent gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms with endoscopic biopsy proven amyloid deposition. Epidemiology Tends to affect middle-aged and older patients.  Clinical pre...
Article

Gastrointestinal angiodysplasia

Gastrointestinal angiodysplasias or angioectasias are one of the most common causes of occult gastrointestinal bleeding. Epidemiology Peak incidence occurs in patients in their 60-70s 3. Clinical presentation Patients can present with symptoms and signs upper or lower gastrointestinal bleedi...
Article

Gastrointestinal cytomegalovirus infection

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection of the gastrointestinal tract is usually seen in patients who are severely immunocompromised, such as solid organ transplantation and is common in HIV/AIDS, and is, in fact, the most common gastrointestinal manifestation of AIDS 1,2.  Epidemiology Approximately ...
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Gastrointestinal MRI contrast agents

Gastrointestinal MRI contrast agents are varied and can be either positive or negative agents. Acceptance of the use of MRI in abdominal imaging has been limited in part by difficulty in distinguishing bowel from intra-abdominal masses and normal organs. The use of enteric contrast agents can ai...

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