Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

1,293 results found
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Dysphagia

Dysphagia refers to subjective awareness of difficulty or obstruction during swallowing. It is a relatively common and increasingly prevalent clinical problem. Odynophagia is the term for painful swallowing. Fluoroscopy is the mainstay of imaging assessment but manometry can help evaluate the e...
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Dysphagia megalatriensis

Dysphagia megalatriensis, also known as cardiovascular dysphagia or cardiac dysphagia, is an impairment of swallowing due to esophageal compression from a dilated left atrium.  Clinical presentation Presentation is generally with mild dysphagia, although a minority of patients will have dyspha...
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Ebola virus disease

Ebola virus disease (EVD) (also known as Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF) or simply Ebola) is a viral hemorrhagic disease caused by the Ebola filovirus. Ebola is an extremely virulent virus with a case fatality rate of ~70% 1. Epidemiology First recognized in 1967 after polio vaccine laboratory w...
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EBV associated smooth muscle tumor

Epstein-Barr virus-associated smooth muscle tumors (EBV-SMT) are rare and encountered in immunocompromised individuals. Epidemiology These tumors are generally exceedingly rare, and only seen with any frequency in the setting of immunosuppression, particularly in HIV/AIDS patients, but also po...
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Ectopic pancreatic tissue

Ectopic pancreatic tissue, also known as heterotopic pancreatic tissue, refers to the presence of pancreatic tissue in the submucosal, muscularis or subserosal layers of the luminal gastrointestinal tract outside the normal confines of the pancreas and lacking any anatomic or vascular connection...
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Ehlers-Danlos syndrome

Ehlers-Danlos syndrome comprises a heterogeneous group of collagen disorders (hereditary connective tissue disease). Epidemiology There is a recognized male predominance. Clinical presentation Ehlers-Danlos syndrome clinically manifests with skin hyperelasticity and fragility joint hypermo...
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Elevated vitamin B12

Elevated vitamin B12 (also known as hypervitaminosis B12 or hypercobalaminemia) is most important as a diagnostic and prognostic marker for malignant disease 1,3. Very high serum levels of vitamin B12, following dietary megadosing, does not seem to have any observable deleterious effects 2. 
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Embedded organ sign

The embedded organ sign is used to help localize a mass and define the organ from which it originates. When a mass extrinsically compresses an adjacent organ (such as inferior cava vein and gastrointestinal tract)  it gives the organ a crescent shape, which is called a negative embedded organ si...
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Emphysema (disambiguation)

Emphysema refers to any disease process involving an abnormal accumulation of air/gas in the tissues. When used alone, it is usually taken to mean the lung disease, pulmonary emphysema, which forms part of the spectrum of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).  gastric emphysema: include...
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Emphysematous gastritis

Emphysematous gastritis is a cause of gastric emphysema. It is a form of phlegmonous gastritis caused by gas-producing organisms 3. In this condition, microorganisms (e.g. Escherichia coli, Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium welchii, or mixed infections with Staphylococcus aureus) produce the ...
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Emphysematous pancreatitis

Emphysematous pancreatitis is an unusual complication of acute pancreatitis caused by necrotizing infection of the pancreas. It is associated with gas-forming bacteria and characterized by the presence of gas within or around the pancreas.  Pathology Infection with gas-forming bacteria such as...
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Encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis

Encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis is a rare benign cause of acute or subacute small bowel obstruction. It is characterized by total or partial encasement of the small bowel within a thick fibrocollagenous membrane. Terminology The condition was originally termed abdominal cocoon. The conditio...
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Endocrine tumors of the pancreas

Endocrine tumors of the pancreas, also known as pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (pNET), arise from the pancreatic islet cells and include some distinct tumors that match the cell type of origin.  Terminology Pancreatic endocrine tumors have commonly been referred to as "islet cell tumors", re...
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Endometriosis of canal of Nuck

Endometriosis affecting the canal of Nuck is an extremely rare site for endometriosis. It is proposed that retrograde implantation of endometrial tissue into patent canal of Nuck could give rise to the condition. Clinical presentation The condition is presented as a painful inguinal swelling. ...
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Endopelvic fascia

The endopelvic fascia is the enveloping connective tissue network for the pelvic viscera, suspending, supporting and fusing the pelvic organs to the arcus tendineus fasciae pelvis, which itself inserts onto the pelvic sidewalls and pubic bones. The major anterior component is the pubovesical li...
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Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography

Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is a diagnostic and interventional procedure technique using both endoscopy and fluoroscopy for examination and intervention of the biliary tree and pancreatic ducts. It is typically performed by doctors with endoscopic qualifications (e.g. g...
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Endoscopic ultrasound

Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) is a procedure combining the range of endoscopy with the diagnostic abilities of ultrasound. EUS is used in the imaging of the upper GI tract and surrounding structures as well as the respiratory tract (where it is referred to as endobronchial ultrasound - EBUS). A hi...
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Enteric duplication cyst

Enteric duplication cyst is a broad term for a number of congenital cystic lesions that arise along the gastrointestinal tract. Please see individual articles for further information: foregut duplication cyst midgut duplication cyst tailgut duplication cyst See also fetal enteric duplicatio...
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Enteric nervous system

The enteric nervous system (ENS) is a general term that refers to the vast network of neurons that supply the gastrointestinal system. It is part of the autonomic nervous system and allows the gastrointestinal system to act independently from the brain and spinal cord.
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Enteritis

Enteritis (plural: enteritides) refers to inflammation of the small bowel. When associated with inflammation of the stomach, the term gastroenteritis is used which is usually caused by infection. Pathology Etiology infection infective enteritis eosinophilic enteritis ischemia inflammatory...
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Enteroclysis

Enteroclysis is a gastrointestinal technique designed to provide improved evaluation of the small bowel. The conventional fluoroscopic technique is not widely used since it is somewhat invasive, time and labor intensive, and not particularly pleasant for the patient. The exam also requires a deg...
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Enterocutaneous fistula

An enterocutaneous fistula is an abnormal connection between a loop of bowel and the skin. They occur most commonly secondary to abdominal surgery. Other less common etiologies are chronic inflammatory bowel diseases, tumors, and radiation enteritis. Radiographic features CT CT is the most co...
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Enteroenteric fistula

An enteroenteric fistula is the formation of a fistula between two parts of the small bowel. The can result for a number of reasons most commonly with inflammatory bowel disease, in particular Crohn.
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Enterolithiasis

Enterolithiasis represents the formation of dense concretions (enteroliths) within the gastrointestinal tract, typically as a consequence of intestinal stasis due to underlying pathology.  Epidemiology The condition is fairly common, with a reported prevalence of enterolithiasis ranging betwee...
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Enterovirus 71

Enterovirus 71 is one of the viruses that causes hand-foot-and-mouth disease in children. It is an enterovirus, one of the picornaviruses. Infection with enterovirus 71 predominantly results in a vesicular rash of the hands and feet that follows a prodrome of symptoms including fever, vomiting ...
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Eosinophilic gastroenteritis

Eosinophilic gastroenteritis (EG) is an uncommon disease characterized by diffuse infiltration of any or all layers of gut wall by eosinophils.  Epidemiology  Eosinophilic gastroenteritis is an uncommon but not rare disease with slight male predominance. It can affect any age group but usually...
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Eosinophilic myenteric ganglionitis

Eosinophilic myenteric ganglionitis is an enteric neuropathy where there is infiltration of the Auerbach plexus by eosinophils. It can be associated with a bowel dysmotility and can result in gastrointestinal pseudo-obstruction.
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Epidermolysis bullosa

Epidermolysis bullosa refers to a rare group of genetically determined conditions characterized by blistering of the skin. This can be limited to the soles and palms or extensive whole body involvement.  Radiographic features Gastrointestinal manifestations: limited to the mucosa of the gastr...
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Epigastric hernia

Epigastric hernias, also known as fatty hernias of the linea alba, occur ventrally through a defect in the linea alba, superior to the umbilicus. Epidemiology Risk factors obesity  pregnancy Radiographic features Ultrasound Shows a midline defect which is usually small with or without her...
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Epiphrenic diverticulum

Epiphrenic diverticula are pulsion diverticula of the distal esophagus arising just above the lower esophageal sphincter, more frequently on the right posterolateral wall. They are less frequent than traction mid esophageal diverticula but may have more clinical relevance.   Clinical presentat...
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Epiploic appendage

Epiploic appendages (or appendix epiploica, plural: appendices epiploicae) are peritoneum-lined protrusions of subserosal fat that arise from the surface of the large bowel.  Gross anatomy Epiploic appendages typically measure 1.5 x 3.5 cm but have been reported to measure up to 15 cm in lengt...
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Epiploic appendagitis

Epiploic appendagitis is a rare self-limiting ischemic/inflammatory process involving appendix epiploica of the colon and may either be primary or secondary to adjacent pathology. This article pertains to primary (spontaneous) epiploic appendagitis. The term along with omental infarction is grou...
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Epiploic foramen

The epiploic foramen (also called the foramen of Winslow) is a passage between the greater sac (peritoneal cavity proper) and the lesser sac (omental bursa), allowing communication between these two spaces. Gross anatomy Boundaries anterior: the free edge of the lesser omentum, known as the h...
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Erect chest x-ray (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Erect chest x-rays are standard positioning but are also a specific examination performed for the assessment of subdiaphragmatic free gas (pneumoperitoneum). Reference article This is a summary article; we do not have a m...
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Eructation

Eructation is the medical term for belching. Pathology Excessive/troublesome belching is most commonly found as a symptom of gastro-esophageal reflux disease. Rarely patients can present with recurrent paroxysms of belching secondary to seizure activity in the brain, this is called ictal eruct...
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Esophageal and esophagogastric junction adenocarcinoma (staging)

Esophageal and esophagogastric junction adenocarcinoma staging refers to TNM staging of adenocarcinoma originating in the esophagus or esophagogastric junction (including tumors whose center is within the proximal 2 cm of the gastric cardia). Related histologies included in this system are high...
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Esophageal and esophagogastric junction neuroendocrine tumor (staging)

Esophageal and esophagogastric junction neuroendocrine tumor staging refers to TNM staging of epithelial cancers other than the squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma groups located in the esophagus or esophagogastric junction (including tumors whose center is within the proximal 2 cm of the...
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Esophageal and esophagogastric junction squamous cell carcinoma (staging)

Esophageal and esophagogastric junction squamous cell carcinoma staging refers to TNM staging of squamous cell carcinoma originating in the esophagus or esophagogastric junction (including tumors whose center is within the proximal 2 cm of the gastric cardia). Related histologies included in th...
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Esophageal lymph node stations

Esophageal lymph node stations are those nodal stations in the neck, chest, and abdomen considered regional (rather than distant) for the purpose of esophageal cancer staging. This list reflects the map provided in the 8th edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) Cancer Staging M...
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Evacuation proctography

Evacuation proctography (defecography) is a fluoroscopic technique to evaluate pelvic floor disorders. The technique traditionally involves fluoroscopy and barium, but an analogous MRI technique has also been developed (see: MR defecating proctography). Indications incomplete or obstructed def...
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Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy

Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) is a common non-invasive treatment for urolithiasis, and less commonly for pancreatic or salivary ductal stones 4. It is less successful in obese patients and with stones >2 cm. Children respond equally well or better to ESWL than adults 5. The princ...
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Extramedullary hematopoiesis in the adrenal gland

Extramedullary hematopoiesis in the adrenal gland is a rare physiologic compensatory event in many hematologic diseases. For a general discussion on this subject, please refer to the main article on extramedullary hematopoiesis. Epidemiology Extramedullary hematopoiesis in the adrenal gland i...
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Extramural vascular invasion (EMVI)

Extramural vascular invasion (EMVI) is the direct invasion of a blood vessel (usually a vein) by a tumor. In rectal cancer, this can occur on a macroscopic level and be detected on staging MRI. It is a significant prognostic factor, being a predictor of hematogenous spread.  Radiographic featur...
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Extrapulmonary tuberculosis

Extrapulmonary tuberculosis (TB) refers to the hematogenous spread of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Pathology Extrapulmonary tuberculosis can occur as a primary form of the disease, i.e. direct infection of an extrapulmonary organ without the presence of primary pulmonary tuberculosis or it can ...
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Fecal calprotectin

Fecal calprotectin (FCAL) is a protein marker of gut inflammation. It is used as a diagnostic tool and marker of disease activity for Crohn disease and ulcerative colitis. Biochemistry Calprotectin is a protein complex from the S-100 family, which is formed of three polypeptide chains, two hea...
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Fecal immunochemical test

A fecal immunochemical test (FIT) is a test for human hemoglobin in stool as a screening tool for colorectal carcinoma. It is considered a better test than the traditional guaiac fecal occult blood test (gFOBT) which cannot distinguish human blood from food-derived sources.  Technical backgroun...
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Fecal impaction

Fecal impaction is the inability to spontaneously evacuate solid feces. It is common in the elderly population. A severe form of fecal impaction is often referred to as a fecaloma.  Epidemiology Fecal impaction is common and usually seen among the elderly, bedridden patients or incapacitated p...
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Fecaloma

A fecaloma is a mass of feces most frequently noted in the rectum and sigmoid colon, and is considered a severe/extreme form of fecal impaction. Clinical presentation Symptoms are non-specific and include constipation, abdominal pain, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, overflow diarrhea, fecal incont...
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Fecolith

A fecolith, also known as a coprolith or stercolith, is a stony mass of compacted feces. They are most common in the descending and sigmoid colon, but may also form in the small bowel or appendix 1,2. Clinical presentation Fecoliths differ in their presentation based on size and location and m...
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Falciform ligament

The falciform ligament is a broad and thin peritoneal ligament. It is sickle-shaped and a remnant of the ventral mesentery of the fetus. It is situated in an anteroposterior plane but lies obliquely so that one surface faces forward and is in contact with the peritoneum behind the right rectus ...
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Falciform ligament hernia

Falciform ligament hernias (alternative plural: herniae) are a very rare type of internal hernia occurring through a defect in the falciform ligament. Epidemiology Exceedingly rare, thought to comprise just 0.2% of all internal hernias 4. Associations laparoscopic surgery 2 Clinical present...
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Falciform ligament sign

The falciform ligament sign, also called the Silver sign, is characterized by the falciform ligament being outlined with free abdominal gas in cases of pneumoperitoneum of a large amount.  It is almost never seen in isolation as, if there is enough free gas to outline the falciform ligament, th...
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Fallopian (disambiguation)

The eponym Fallopian may refer to: Fallopian canal (facial nerve canal) Fallopian tube (uterine duct) Fallopian ligament (inguinal ligament) History and etymology It is named after Gabriele Falloppio (also known by his Latin name Fallopius), Italian anatomist (1523-1562).
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Familial adenomatous polyposis syndrome

Familial adenomatous polyposis syndrome (FAPS) is characterized by the presence of hundreds of adenomatous polyps in the colon. It is the most common of the polyposis syndromes. Terminology Familial polyposis coli, attenuated familial adenomatous polyposis and Gardner syndrome are all variants...
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Familial atypical multiple mole melanoma syndrome

Familial atypical multiple mole melanoma (FAMMM) syndrome is an autosomal dominant genodermatosis characterized by multiple melanocytic nevi (often more than 50) and a family history of melanoma. Pathology Genetics It is associated with mutations in the CDKN2A gene and shows reduced penetranc...
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Familial Mediterranean fever

Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) (also known as recurrent polyserositis) is a genetic autoimmune condition that is notable for its spontaneous self-limiting acute episodes of fever and serositis, especially peritonitis and synovitis. Epidemiology Familial Mediterranean fever tends to be ethn...
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Fascial tail sign

The fascial tail sign refers to the linear/tapered extension of soft tissue tumors along the fascia. The sign has been classically described in benign fibrous proliferations 1-4: desmoid tumor plantar fibromatosis nodular fasciitis However, the same sign has also been described as the tail ...
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Fat halo sign (inflammatory bowel disease)

The fat halo sign (in colonic imaging) refers to a feature seen on CT abdominal scans, and represents infiltration of the submucosa with fat, between the muscularis propria and the mucosa. It is characterized by an inner (mucosa) and outer (muscularis propria and serosa) ring of enhancing bowel ...
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Fat ring sign (mesenteric panniculitis)

The fat ring sign (also known as a fat halo sign) describes preservation of fat around the mesenteric vessels and around soft tissue nodules on a background of diffuse fat stranding in patients with mesenteric panniculitis or mesenteric lipomas.  This finding may help distinguish mesenteric pan...
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Fat stranding (CT)

Fat stranding is a common sign seen on CT wherever fat can be found. It is most commonly seen in abdomen/pelvis, but can also be seen in retroperitoneum, thorax, neck and subcutaneous tissues. It can be helpful in localizing both acute and chronic pathology. Radiographic features CT Fat stran...
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Fat stranding (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Fat stranding is a sign that is seen on CT. It describes the change in attenuation of fat around an inflamed structure and is a very helpful signpost for intra-abdominal pathology. Reference article This is a summary arti...
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Feline esophagus

Feline esophagus also known as esophageal shiver, refers to the transient transverse bands seen in the mid and lower esophagus on a double-contrast barium swallow. Pathology The appearance is almost always associated with active gastro-esophageal reflux 2,3 and is thought to be due to contract...
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Femoral canal

The femoral canal is the medial compartment of the femoral sheath, an inverted cone-shaped fascial space medial to the common femoral vein within the upper femoral triangle. It is only 1-2 cm long and opens superiorly as the femoral ring. It serves two purposes: allows the femoral vein to expan...
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Femoral hernia

Femoral hernias (alternative plural: herniae) are a type of groin herniation and comprise a protrusion of a peritoneal sac through the femoral ring into the femoral canal, posterior and inferior to the inguinal ligament. The sac may contain preperitoneal fat, omentum, small bowel, or other struc...
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Femoral ring

The femoral ring is the superior opening of the femoral canal. Its boundaries are: medial: lacunar ligament anterior: medial part of the inguinal ligament lateral: femoral vein within the intermediate compartment of the femoral sheath posterior: pectineal ligament overlying the pectineus mus...
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Fetal enteric duplication cyst

Fetal enteric duplication cysts are enteric duplication cysts presenting in utero. Pathology They result from an abnormal recanalization of the gastrointestinal tract. They comprise of a two-layer smooth muscle wall and an internal epithelium of a respiratory or intestinal type. These cysts ma...
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Fetus in fetu

Fetus-in-fetu is an extremely rare abnormality that occurs secondary to abnormal embryogenesis in a monochorionic diamniotic pregnancy where a non-viable fetus becomes enclosed within a normally developing fetus. Epidemiology Fetus-in-fetu is very rare, with an incidence of 1/500,000 live birt...
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Fibromuscular dysplasia

Fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) is a heterogeneous group of vascular lesions characterized by an idiopathic, non-inflammatory, and non-atherosclerotic angiopathy of small and medium-sized arteries. Epidemiology The prevalence is unknown 7. It is most common in young women with a female to male r...
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Fibrosing colonopathy

Fibrosing colonopathy a condition characterized by progressive submucosal fibrosis, particularly of the proximal colon. It is associated with high dose lipase supplementation used to treat exocrine insufficiency of the pancreas, such as in treatment for cystic fibrosis. Epidemiology It is more...
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Filling defect

A filling defect is a general term used to refer to any abnormality on an imaging study which disrupts the normal opacification (filling) of a cavity or lumen. The opacification maybe physiological, for example, bile in the gallbladder or blood in a dural venous sinus, or maybe due to the instal...
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Fishtail pancreas

Fishtail pancreas (also known as pancreas bifidum or bifid tail of the pancreas) is a rare anatomical variant of the pancreas produced by a branching anomaly during its development. It is named as such due to the fishtail-like appearance of the pancreas. Epidemiology It is a rare anatomical an...
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Fissure for ligamentum teres sign

The fissure for ligamentum teres sign or extrahepatic ligamentum teres sign is a radiographic sign of pneumoperitoneum. It represents the outline of the ligamentum teres (remnant of an obliterated left umbilical vein) with free abdominal gas in a supine patient, as seen on a plain abdominal radi...
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Fistula

A fistula (plural: fistulae) is an abnormal connection between two epithelial surfaces such as between hollow organs, skin or vessels. Conventionally, the name of a specific fistula type is a combination of the two organs For discussions of specific fistulae please refer to individual articles....
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Flatulence

Flatulence is the expulsion of bowel gas (or flatus) from the anal canal. The average individual expels a wide range of volume of flatus per day, ~200-2500 mL 1. The bulk of the volume of the gas comprises oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, hydrogen, and methane. However these gases lack any as...
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Fleischner sign (disambiguation)

Fleischner sign can refer to two distinctly separate signs: Fleischner sign (enlarged pulmonary artery) Fleischner sign (tuberculosis of ileocecal junction)
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Fleischner sign (tuberculosis of ileocecal junction)

The Fleischner sign (also known as the inverted umbrella sign), refers to a widely gaping, thickened, patulous ileocecal valve and a narrowed, ulcerated terminal ileum associated with tuberculous involvement of the ileocecum. See also gastrointestinal tuberculosis Stierlin sign not to be con...
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Floating aorta sign

The floating aorta sign refers to the displacement of the abdominal aorta away from the vertebral column. It is a radiographic sign of retroperitoneal masses. Radiographic findings On lateral lumbar spine radiographs, the expected location of the posterior aortic wall is expected to be ≤10 mm...
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Flocculation

Flocculation refers to the breakdown of a barium suspension during a fluoroscopic study. The small bowel environment eventually separates out a barium suspension, and this can occur during the normal course of a barium study (15 minutes to three hours). When the suspension flocculates, it no lo...
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Fluoroscopic nasojejunal tube insertion

Fluoroscopic nasojejunal (NJT) or nasogastric tube (NGT) insertion is a valuable procedure offered by radiologists in patient care. The majority of nasogastric tubes are inserted on the ward level and nasojejunal tubes may be placed in theater at the time of surgery. In difficult cases, inserti...
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Fluoroscopy

Fluoroscopy is an imaging modality that allows real-time x-ray viewing of a patient with high temporal resolution. It is based on an x-ray image intensifier coupled to a still/video camera. In recent years flat panel detectors (which are similar to the digital radiography used in projection radi...
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Foamy esophagus sign

Foamy esophagus is an appearance seen on a single contrast barium study in Candida esophagitis with associated scleroderma/achalasia (stasis). Pathology Pathophysiologic basis of the foamy esophagus is uncertain. Stasis is a predisposing factor. Foam is produced directly by the fungal organism...
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Focused Assessment with Sonography for Trauma (FAST) scan

Focused Assessment with Sonography for Trauma (FAST) scan is a point-of-care ultrasound examination performed at the time of presentation of a trauma patient.  It is invariably performed by a clinician, who should be formally trained, and is considered as an 'extension' of the trauma clinical a...
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Football sign (pneumoperitoneum)

The football sign is seen in cases of massive pneumoperitoneum, where the abdominal cavity is outlined by gas from a perforated viscus. The median umbilical ligament and falciform ligament are sometimes included in the description of this sign, as representing the sutures. Which football is use...
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Foramen of Morgagni

The foramina of Morgagni, also known as the sternocostal triangles, are small defects in the posterior aspect of the anterior thoracic wall between the sternal and costal attachments of the diaphragm. The internal thoracic vessels descend through these foramina to become the superior epigastric ...
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Foregut duplication cyst

Foregut duplication cysts are a type of congenital duplication cyst. They are sometimes classified under bronchopulmonary foregut malformations. Entities classified as foregut duplication cysts include: bronchogenic cysts neurenteric cysts other enteric cysts esophageal duplication cysts l...
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Foreign modelling agent reactions

Foreign modelling agent reactions (FMAR), also known as iatrogenic allogenosis, the latter term is primarily found in the Spanish literature and has created some controversy. It is a reaction from solid or liquid substances injected for aesthetic reasons, especially in the calves, face, buttocks...
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Fossa of Landzert

The fossa of Landzert is a congenital mesentery defect. It is present in about 2% of autopsy series and is formed due to non-fusion of the inferior mesentery to the parietal peritoneum. It is found to the left of the fourth part of the duodenum. The inferior mesenteric vein runs along its (ante...
Article

Fossa of Waldeyer

The fossa of Waldeyer, also known as the mesentericoparietal fossa, is a congenital mesentery defect. It is found in about 1% of autopsy series and is formed due to non-fusion of the ascending mesocolon to the posterior parietal peritoneum. The superior mesenteric artery runs along its (anterio...
Article

Free intraperitoneal fluid (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Free intraperitoneal fluid may be termed free fluid or (less correctly) free intra-abdominal fluid. It may be seen in small volumes in female patients, particularly around the time of menses and in some healthy young men. W...
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Frey procedure

The Frey procedure is a type of pancreaticojejunostomy designed to treat chronic pancreatitis. The fundamental technique is similar to the Puestow procedure, with a lateral incision of the pancreatic duct from an anterior approach, and then a side-to-side anastomosis between the pancreas and a ...
Article

Frimann-Dahl sign

The Frimann-Dahl sign is a diagnostic sign demonstrated when three dense lines, representing the sigmoid walls, are seen converging to the site of obstruction in sigmoid volvulus and associated with empty rectal gas 1. History and etymology Johan Frimann-Dahl (1902-82) was a Norwegian Professo...
Article

Frostberg inverted 3 sign

Frostberg inverted 3 sign is a radiological sign seen on a barium examination where there is effacement and distortion of the mucosal pattern on the medial wall of the second part of the duodenum due to focal mass and local edema. It is most commonly associated with carcinoma of the head of the ...
Article

Frozen pelvis

Frozen pelvis refers to a condition in which pelvic organs are distorted and tethered to each other as a consequence of adhesive processes. It is commonly seen in endometriosis. Other causes include tumors, infections including pelvic inflammatory disease, post-surgical adhesions and post-treat...

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