Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

1,293 results found
Article

Fucosidosis

Fucosidosis is a rare inherited autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorder, hypomyelinating disorder, and mucopolysaccharidosis-like disorder, characterized by multiorgan accumulation of fucose-containing products. Epidemiology It is considered very rare, with approximately only 100 cases ...
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Fukuoka consensus guidelines

Fukuoka consensus guidelines, also referred to as the Tanaka criteria, is a classification system for intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) and mucinous cystic neoplasms (MCNs).  The prior international consensus guidelines (2006) were referred to as the Sendai criteria, which later ...
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Functional gastrointestinal disorders

The functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) are a set of conditions characterized by their chronic GI manifestations, in the absence of structural abnormality of the gut. These conditions are common and may be disabling in nature. The understanding of their pathogenesis is incomplete, comp...
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Fundic gland polyp

Fundic gland polyps (FGP) are the most common type of gastric polyp. Epidemiology FGPs occur most commonly in middle-aged females. They have been reported to be identified in ~1% of gastroscopies 3,4.  Clinical presentation FGPs are usually an asymptomatic, incidental finding 1.  Pathology ...
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Fundoplication

Fundoplications are forms of antireflux surgery used as a second line of treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease after failure of medical treatment and the first line of treatment of paraesophageal hernia. Technique A gastric fold is wrapped around the distal esophagus which enforces the ...
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Gallbladder agenesis

Agenesis of the gallbladder describes the rare congenital absence of the gallbladder. Epidemiology overall incidence is estimated <0.1% (range 0.04-0.1%) gender:  reported 3:1 female predominance of symptomatic cases equivalent gender distribution in autopsy cases Associations Gallbladder...
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Gallbladder triplication

Gallbladder triplication is an extremely rare anomaly. There are three types of gallbladder triplication are described according to the number of cystic duct and their insertion: Three gallbladders and three cystic ducts which unite to form a common cystic duct before joining the common bile du...
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Gallstone ileus

Gallstone ileus is an uncommon cause of a mechanical small bowel obstruction. It is a rare complication of chronic cholecystitis 7 and occurs when a gallstone passes through a fistula between the gallbladder and small bowel before becoming impacted at the ileocecal valve.  Epidemiology Althoug...
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Gallstone pancreatitis

Gallstone pancreatitis refers to pancreatitis caused by gallstones, specifically distal choledocholithiasis. Gallstones are the cause for 35-40% of acute pancreatitis but this number has a wide regional variance.  Epidemiology Gallstone pancreatitis has a higher incidence in women (compared to...
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Gardner syndrome

Gardner syndrome is one of the polyposis syndromes. It is characterized by: familial adenopolyposis multiple osteomas: especially of the mandible, skull, and long bones epidermal cysts fibromatoses desmoid tumors of mesentery and anterior abdominal wall Other abnormalities include: supern...
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Gasless abdomen

A gasless abdomen refers to a paucity of gas on abdominal radiography, and the specific cause can usually be identified when the patient's history is known. Common causes include: small bowel obstruction bowel ischemia congenital atresia ascites pancreatitis gastroenteritis large abdomina...
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Gastric adenocarcinoma

Gastric adenocarcinoma, commonly, although erroneously, referred to as gastric cancer, refers to a primary malignancy arising from the gastric epithelium. It is the most common gastric malignancy. It is the third most common GI malignancy following colon and pancreatic carcinoma.  Epidemiology ...
Article

Gastric antral vascular ectasia

Gastric antral vascular ectasia (GAVE), also known as watermelon stomach, is a rare condition affecting the stomach. It is one of the diagnoses to consider in older patients with severe anemia and occult or profuse gastrointestinal bleeding (especially in those with cardiac, liver, or renal dise...
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Gastric antral web

Gastric antral webs are a ring of mucosa in the distal stomach (gastric antrum) that can lead to gastric outlet obstruction. A circumferential ring of mucosa has also been termed a "gastric antral diaphragm". Epidemiology Gastric antral webs are rare. There is an association with trisomy 21 an...
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Gastric band

A gastric band is a popular form of bariatric surgery and is a surgically placed device, used to assist in weight loss and is adjustable. Procedure Performed laparoscopically, a silicone band device is placed around the stomach to reduce its volume. The band is adjustable via a port placed in ...
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Gastric band malposition

Gastric band malposition is an early complication from laparoscopic gastric band procedures which are performed for obesity. It can occur as in isolation or with other gastric band complications. As surgical experience of lap gastric banding has accumulated, it has become a relatively rare comp...
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Gastric band slippage

Gastric band slippage is a late complication of laparoscopic gastric banding surgery performed for obesity. It is reported to occur in 4-13% of cases 1-3. It can occur in either an anterior or posterior direction. Clinical presentation Patients can present with cessation of weight loss, sever...
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Gastric band erosion

Gastric band erosion or penetration is a potentially serious complication following laparoscopic gastric band surgery for obesity.  Epidemiology Gastric band erosion is a delayed complication observed in between 0.3-14% of patients 1,2. Clinical presentation Patients often present non-specif...
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Gastric bubble

The gastric bubble is a radiolucent rounded area generally nestled under the left hemidiaphragm representing gas in the fundus of the stomach. On a lateral radiograph, the gastric bubble is usually located between the abdominal wall and spine. It can be seen on chest or abdominal plain films. I...
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Gastric cancer (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Gastric cancer, also known as stomach cancer or gastric carcinoma, refers to a cancer that arises from the mucosal lining of the stomach. It is the commonest gastric malignancy. Reference article This is a summary article...
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Gastric cancer (TNM staging)

Gastric cancer staging is routinely performed using the TNM staging system. This article is based on the 7th edition of the TNM classification of malignant tumors. TNM staging (7th edition) T T1 T1a: tumor invades the lamina propria and or muscularis mucosae  T1b: tumor invades submucosa  ...
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Gastric diverticulum

Gastric diverticula are sac-like projections that usually originate from the gastric fundus, most commonly on the posterior surface. They are the least common of the gastrointestinal diverticula.  Epidemiology Gastric diverticula are rare and commonly detected incidentally. The incidence varie...
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Gastric duplication cyst

Gastric duplication cysts are rare congenital foregut duplication cysts affecting the stomach. Gastrointestinal tract duplication cysts (GTDCs) most commonly affect the ileum, followed by the esophagus, large bowel, and jejunum; gastric location accounts for less than 10% of all gastrointestinal...
Article

Gastric emphysema

Gastric emphysema, referring to the presence of gas in the wall of the stomach, is a relatively rare imaging finding 1. The stomach is the least common location for intramural gas in the gastrointestinal tract.  Pathology Etiology There is a wide range of causes, ranging from life-threatening...
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Gastric leiomyoma

Gastric leiomyomas are rare benign mesenchymal tumors, usually asymptomatic and found incidentally.  Clinical presentation Most leiomyomas are found incidentally in asymptomatic patients. Symptoms related to a gastric leiomyoma will depend on the tumor size, location, and presence/absence of u...
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Gastric lipoma

Gastric lipomas are a location-specific subtype of gastrointestinal lipomas and represent a rare benign mesenchymal tumors of the stomach. They can be definitively diagnosed on CT.  Epidemiology Gastric lipomas are rare, accounting for <5% of gastrointestinal lipomas and <1% of all gastric neo...
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Gastric lymph node stations

The gastric lymph node stations were originally divided into 16 groups, as proposed by the Japanese Research Society for Gastric Cancer in 1963. Gross anatomy The stomach regions and their drainage into regional lymph nodes: cardia and proximal lesser curvature drain into left gastric lymph n...
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Gastric lymphoma

Gastric lymphoma may either represent secondary involvement by systemic disease or primary malignancy confined to the stomach.  Epidemiology  Gastric lymphoma represents the most common site of extranodal lymphoma, accounting for 25% of all such lymphomas, 50% of all gastrointestinal lymphomas...
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Gastric metastases

Gastric metastases are rare, found in less than 2% of patients who die of a carcinoma 6. Epidemiology Usually affects the middle-aged and elderly population. Affects males and females equally without predilection. Clinical presentation The patient may be asymptomatic, but the most common sig...
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Gastric outlet obstruction

Gastric outlet obstruction is a syndrome resulting from mechanical obstruction of stomach emptying. Pathology Etiology Gastric outlet obstruction can be due to malignant or benign causes. Malignant adenocarcinoma (second most common 4) GIST lymphoma (less common than other malignancies as...
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Gastric polyps

Gastric polyps are uncommon findings, even on endoscopy where they are encountered in only 2-6% of patients.  Pathology There are a number of gastric polyp subtypes 1-3: non-neoplastic polyps hyperplastic polyps virtually no malignant potential typically small (<1 cm), multiple, and sessil...
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Gastric ulcer evaluation (barium)

Gastric (peptic) ulcers can be detected on multiple imaging modalities, but are best evaluated on a double-contrast barium upper GI study. This article discusses their appearance on a double contrast study, for a more complete description, see the full article on peptic ulcers. Radiographic fea...
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Gastric varix

Gastric varices are an important portosystemic collateral pathway, occurring in ~20% of patients with portal hypertension. They are considered distinct from esophageal varices in that they have a propensity to hemorrhage at comparatively lower portal pressures 1, and are also associated with hig...
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Gastric volvulus

Gastric volvulus is a specific type of volvulus that occurs when the stomach twists on its mesentery. It should be at least 180° and cause bowel obstruction to be called gastric volvulus. Merely gastric rotation on its root is not considered gastric volvulus. Epidemiology Organo-axial volvulus...
Article

Gastric wall fatty infiltration

Gastric wall fatty infiltration refers to an appearance seen on CT of the abdomen whereby the wall of the stomach is thickened due to infiltration of fat into the submucosa. Although it can be seen in the context of Crohn disease it is more commonly seen in the asymptomatic general population. ...
Article

Gastrinoma

Gastrinomas are the second most common pancreatic endocrine tumor and the most common type in the setting of multiple endocrine neoplasia type I (MEN I). Epidemiology Most gastrinomas are sporadic, although some are seen in the setting of multiple endocrine neoplasia type I (MEN I). In general...
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Gastrinoma triangle

The gastrinoma triangle, also known as Passaro's triangle, is an anatomical area in the abdomen, from where the majority (90%) of gastrinomas are thought to arise.  Gross anatomy Boundaries The triangle is formed by joining the following three points: superiorly: confluence of the cystic and...
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Gastritis

Gastritis refers any form of mucosal inflammation of the stomach and can sometimes be part of a wider gastroenteritis. It may have acute of chronic forms. Sub types acute gastritis atrophic gastritis emphysematous gastritis phlegmonous gastritis Radiographic features CT While may not may...
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Gastroduodenal artery

The gastroduodenal artery (GDA) is a terminal branch of the common hepatic artery which mainly supplies the pylorus of the stomach, proximal duodenum, and the head of the pancreas. Due to its proximity to the posterior wall of the first part of the duodenum, the gastroduodenal artery is one of t...
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Gastrointestinal amyloidosis

Gastrointestinal amyloidosis is relatively common, although symptomatic involvement is more rare. It is diagnosed if there are persistent gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms with endoscopic biopsy proven amyloid deposition. Epidemiology Tends to affect middle-aged and older patients.  Clinical pre...
Article

Gastrointestinal angiodysplasia

Gastrointestinal angiodysplasias or angioectasias are one of the most common causes of occult gastrointestinal bleeding. Epidemiology Peak incidence occurs in patients in their 60-70s 3. Clinical presentation Patients can present with symptoms and signs upper or lower gastrointestinal bleedi...
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Gastrointestinal cytomegalovirus infection

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection of the gastrointestinal tract is usually seen in patients who are severely immunocompromised, such as solid organ transplantation and is common in HIV/AIDS, and is, in fact, the most common gastrointestinal manifestation of AIDS 1,2.  Epidemiology Approximately ...
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Gastrointestinal leiomyoma

Gastrointestinal leiomyomas are smooth muscle tumors without malignant potential that may develop in any part of the gastrointestinal system: Esophageal leiomyoma Gastric leiomyoma Small bowel leiomyoma Colonic leiomyoma
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Gastrointestinal MRI contrast agents

Gastrointestinal MRI contrast agents are varied and can be either positive or negative agents. Acceptance of the use of MRI in abdominal imaging has been limited in part by difficulty in distinguishing bowel from intra-abdominal masses and normal organs. The use of enteric contrast agents can ai...
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Gastrointestinal neuroendocrine tumors

Gastrointestinal neuroendocrine tumors (GI NETs) can be functional or non-functional: functional NETs can be challenging to localize as:  they are often small in size at the time of diagnosis  arise in many sites throughout the body non-functioning and/or malignant NETs often are larger at p...
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Gastrointestinal nodular lymphoid hyperplasia

Gastrointestinal nodular lymphoid hyperplasia is a type of nodular lymphoid hyperplasia that can be found elsewhere in the body. It is formed out of gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT), and most often is a diagnostic dilemma for radiologists in the stomach and terminal ileum. Pathology Gut-a...
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Gastrointestinal schwannoma

Gastrointestinal schwannomas are extremely rare mesenchymal neoplasms which arise in relation to the gastrointestinal tract. Epidemiology They are reported to typically present at about the 3rd to 5th decades of life 4. Clinical presentation Patients are often asymptomatic but may occasional...
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Gastrointestinal stromal tumor

Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are the most common mesenchymal tumors of the gastrointestinal tract. They account for ~5% of all sarcomas, and are mostly found within stomach and mid-distal small bowel. They respond remarkably well to chemotherapy. Terminology Previously these tumors ...
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Gastrointestinal tract

The gastrointestinal tract (GI tract) includes any part of the oral cavity, oropharynx, hypopharynx, esophagus, stomach, small bowel, colon, rectum and anal canal.  Terminology The non-qualified term bowel , a.k.a. intestines or gut, is used to refer to the combination of the small bowel and l...
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Gastrointestinal tract lipomas

Gastrointestinal tract lipomas are not uncommon and can be found anywhere along the entire length of the gastrointestinal tract.  For a more specific discussion, please refer to the articles on:  esophageal lipoma gastric lipoma Epidemiology Gastrointestinal tract lipomas are most frequentl...
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Gastro-esophageal junction

The gastro-esophageal junction (GEJ) (also known as the esophagogastric junction) is the part of the gastrointestinal tract where the esophagus and stomach are joined. Gross anatomy The GEJ is normally mostly intra-abdominal and is 3-4 cm in length. To some extent, the esophagus slides in and ...
Article

Gastro-esophageal reflux disease

Gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a spectrum of disease that occurs when gastric acid refluxes from the stomach into the lower end of the esophagus across the lower esophageal sphincter (LES). Epidemiology It affects 10% to 20% of the adult population in the United States and Western ...
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Gastro-esophageal reflux disease (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Gastric-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a spectrum of disease that occurs when gastric acid refluxes into the lower esophagus Reference article This is a summary article; read more in our article on gastro-esophageal ...
Article

Gastro-pleural fistula

A gastro-pleural fistula is a very rare situation characterized by a pathological communication between the stomach and the pleural cavity. They can occur in number of situations: trauma (stab injuries 3) iatrogenic (following bariatric, pulmonary or esophageal surgery 1) malignancy (ovarian...
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Gastroptosis

Gastroptosis is characterized by abnormal downward displacement of the stomach. It may be part of a wider spectrum called visceroptosis. Epidemiology There is paucity of literature about the actual prevalence of the condition. It is more common in females. Clinical presentation It has nonspe...
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Gastroschisis

Gastroschisis refers to an extra-abdominal herniation (evisceration) of fetal or neonatal bowel loops (and occasionally portions of the stomach and or liver) into the amniotic cavity through a para-umbilical anterior abdominal wall defect.   Epidemiology The estimated incidence is at around 1-...
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Gastrosplenic ligament

The gastrosplenic ligament is a peritoneal ligament which is formed by ventral part of the dorsal mesentery. Gross anatomy The gastrosplenic ligament extends from the greater curvature of the stomach to the hilum of the spleen.  It contains the short gastric arteries. the left gastroepiploi...
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Gaucher disease

Gaucher disease (GD) is the most common lysosomal storage disorder in humans. It is an autosomal recessive, multisystem disease arising from a deficiency of glucocerebrosidase or beta-glucosidase activity, resulting in the accumulation of a glycolipid (glucocerebroside) within the lysosomes of m...
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Generalized colitis (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember the causes of generalized colitis is: I3NR Mnemonic I: infectious colitis e.g. E. coli, cytomegalovirus I: inflammatory, e.g. pseudomembranous colitis, Crohn disease, ulcerative colitis I: ischemic colitis N: neoplastic, e.g. lymphoma R: radiation colitis
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General topography of the abdomen

To facilitate clinical description, the general topography of the abdomen is divided into four quadrants or nine regions by lines on the surface of the anterior abdominal wall. The four quadrants are created by vertical and horizontal lines passing through the umbilicus, whereas the nine regions...
Article

Geophagy

Geophagy is the intentional ingestion of earth, soil or clay and is a form of pica. This practice is not uncommon in the southern regions of the United States or provinces of Africa. It is found most commonly in children and pregnant women 3,4. Although geophagy may be seen in the context of a v...
Article

Giant colonic diverticulum

Giant colonic diverticula, also referred to as giant colonic pseudodiverticula, are an uncommon form of presentation of colonic diverticulosis and are characterized by large diverticular masses, usually filled with stool and gas, that communicate with the colonic lumen. Terminology Although th...
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Globus pharyngeus

Globus pharyngeus is the subjective feeling of a lump in the throat which can have a variety of causes, it is not a diagnosis in its own right. In modern practice globus is often evaluated by flexible nasoendoscopy in the first instance since many patients present to otorhinolaryngology services...
Article

Glucagon

Glucagon is a polypeptide hormone central to the regulation of glucose homeostasis, acting as an antagonist to insulin. In imaging it is used as an antiperistaltic agent in GI studies, although its clinical efficacy is controversial.  Structure Glucagon is a 29-amino acid polypeptide hormone t...
Article

Glucagonoma

Glucagonomas are pancreatic endocrine tumors that secrete glucagon. Most lesions are malignant. Epidemiology They are very rare with an incidence of ~0.000005% or less than 1 case per 20 million. Equal incidence in middle-aged men and women.  Accounts for 1% of all the neuroendocrine tumors a...
Article

Gluten-related disorders

Gluten-related disorders are a collection of conditions that are the result of a reaction to the consumption of gluten a protein found in wheat, barley and rye 1. Gluten-related disorders can be broadly divided into 1,2:  celiac disease: most common and most widely recognized wheat allergy n...
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Glycogenic acanthosis

Glycogenic acanthosis is a benign finding on esophagography in elderly patients. Epidemiology It most commonly occurs in patients >40 years of age and incidence and numbers of lesions increase by age. No gender predilection exists. Typically patients are asymptomatic.  Pathology It occurs fr...
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Glycogen storage disease type I

Glycogen storage disease type I (GSD-I), also known as von Gierke disease, is a type of glycogen storage disease where there is excess deposition of glycogen primarily in the liver, but also in the kidney and small bowel. Epidemiology It occurs approximately one in every 100,000 live births 2,...
Article

Gossypiboma

A gossypiboma, also called textiloma or cottonoid, refers to a foreign object, such as a mass of cotton matrix or a sponge, that is left behind in a body cavity during surgery. It is an uncommon surgical complication. The manifestations and complications of gossypibomas are so variable that diag...
Article

Graft versus host disease

Graft versus host disease (GvHD) is a frequent complication of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, commonly known as bone marrow transplantation. Anti-rejection drugs have reduced the incidence, although it does still frequently occur.  Pathology Graft versus host disease can p...
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Granular mucosal pattern of the esophagus (differential)

Granular mucosal pattern of the esophagus represents very fine nodularity of the esophageal mucosal surface. This finding is non-specific and may represent: reflux esophagitis (most common) Candida esophagitis glycogenic acanthosis Barrett esophagus superficial spreading esophageal carcinom...
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Great vessel space

The great vessel space is the fourth retroperitoneal space along with the anterior and posterior pararenal spaces, and the perirenal space 1,2. Unlike other retroperitoneal spaces, it is not well-defined by fascial planes and thus disease processes affecting other retroperitoneal spaces can also...
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Grey Turner sign

The Grey Turner sign refers to the clinical finding of atraumatic flank ecchymosis, which is occasionally associated with retroperitoneal hemorrhage, classically due to hemorrhagic pancreatitis 2. It is thought to occur when blood extravasates from the posterior pararenal space and crosses throu...
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Griffiths point

The Griffiths point, also known as Griffiths critical point, refers to the site of watershed anastomosis between the ascending left colic artery and the marginal artery of Drummond occurring in the region of the splenic flexure. Most anatomy texts describe the location as two-thirds along the tr...
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Groin herniation

Groin hernias (herniae also used) may be congenital or acquired, and represent a large proportion of all abdominal wall hernias. The subtypes based on location are: inguinal hernia direct inguinal hernia indirect inguinal hernia: five times commoner than direct Amyand hernia pantaloon hern...
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Gullo syndrome

Gullo syndrome, also known as benign pancreatic hyperenzymemia, is characterized by the abnormal elevation of the serum levels of most or all of the pancreatic enzymes without any evidence of underlying pancreatic pathology. It is a diagnosis of exclusion made when all other laboratory assays an...
Article

Gut fistulation

A gastrointestinal fistula is an abnormal connection between the gut and another epithelial / endothealial - lined surface, such as another organ system, the skin surface, or elsewhere along the gastrointestinal tract. Some authors exclude fistulas involving the large bowel and esophagus when cl...
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Gut signature sign

The gut signature sign is an ultrasound term used to describe the appearance of the gastrointestinal wall. Radiographic features  Ultrasound The bowel wall has five layers, composed of alternating hyperechoic and hypoechoic appearances. Anatomically these layers are as follows (innermost to o...
Article

Hemangiopericytoma of the spleen

Hemangiopericytomas of the spleen are very rare vascular neoplasm with only a few case reports available at the time of writing. Clinical presentation Splenic hemangiopericytomas are typically asymptomatic or can result in splenomegaly. Pathology These are soft tissue vascular neoplasms aris...
Article

Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (abdominal complications)

Abdominal complications of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation can occur early (0-100 days) or late (>100 days) post-transplant.  Complications Early bacterial infections, e.g. pseudomembranous colitis fungal infections, often affecting the esophagus or as hepatic/splenic microabscesses ...
Article

Hemochromatosis (pancreatic manifestations)

Pancreatic manifestations of hemochromatosis typically occur with primary hemochromatosis, as the organ is usually spared in the secondary form of the disease. For a general discussion, and for links to other system specific manifestations, please refer to the article on hemochromatosis. Clini...
Article

Hemoperitoneum

Hemoperitoneum (plural: haemoperitoneums) is the presence of blood within the peritoneal cavity. Pathology Etiology penetrating or non-penetrating abdominal trauma (often with associated organ injury) 1 ruptured ectopic pregnancy ovarian cyst rupture aneurysm or pseudoaneurysm rupture neo...
Article

Hemorrhagic pancreatitis

Hemorrhagic pancreatitis is characterized by bleeding within or around the pancreas, and is usually considered a late sequela of acute pancreatitis. Pathology Hemorrhage can occur in patients with severe necrotizing pancreatitis or as a result of pancreatic pseudoaneurysm rupture when it const...
Article

Haemosuccus pancreaticus

Haemosuccus pancreaticus, also known as pseudohaemobilia or haemoductal pancreatitis, is defined as upper gastrointestinal tract hemorrhage originating from the pancreatic duct into the duodenum via the ampulla of Vater, or major pancreatic papilla. Epidemiology male:female ratio is 7:1 highl...
Article

Haggitt level

The Haggitt level is a histopathological term used for describing the degree of infiltration from a malignant polypoidal lesion. Levels of invasion 0: carcinoma in situ or intramucosal carcinoma 1: invasion of the submucosa, but limited to the head of the polyp 2: invasion extending into the...
Article

Hampton line

The Hampton line is a thin millimetric radiolucent line seen at the neck of a gastric ulcer in barium studies (profile view), indicating its benign nature. It is caused by a thin line of mucosa overhanging the ulcer's crater. History and etymology It was originally described by Aubrey Otis Ham...
Article

H and M lines

The H and M lines are reference lines for the pelvic floor on imaging studies and help detect and grade pelvic floor prolapse on defecography studies. The H line is drawn from the inferior margin of the pubic symphysis to the posterior aspect of the anorectal junction, and represents the diamet...
Article

Hartmann pouch

​Hartmann pouches​ are a technique in colon surgery. After a segment of colon is resected, there are generally two options with regards to what to do with the two ends of the colon: both the upstream end of the colon (the end of the colon through which fecal contents would pass) and the downstr...
Article

Hartmann procedure

Hartmann procedure (HP) (or proctosigmoidectomy) is an operation in which the sigmoid colon is resected and the distal colon brought out as a colostomy in the left iliac fossa. The remnant rectum stump is sewn shut. It is a quick and straightforward intervention and currently finds most favor in...
Article

Haustral folds

The haustral folds (Latin: haustrum, plural: haustra) represent folds of mucosa within the colon. The haustra refer to the small segmented pouches of bowel separated by the haustral folds. They are formed by circumferential contraction of the inner muscular layer of the colon. The outer longitu...
Article

Haustral markings

Haustral markings are the radiological appearance of the haustral folds within the colon. Disappearance of the haustral folds results in the lead pipe appearance of ulcerative colitis.
Article

Hellmer sign

Hellmer sign is a radiographic finding depicting medial displacement of the lateral edge of the liver from the peritoneal wall. It was originally described as a pathognomonic sign of ascites. However, this displacement can also be caused by intraperitoneal fat, extraperitoneal free fluid or a ma...
Article

Hematemesis

Hematemesis is the vomiting of blood, it is an indication of upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Mortality is generally near to 10% 1,2,4. Please see the main article on upper gastrointestinal bleeding for more detail.  Treatment and prognosis In patients with moderate to severe hematemesis, life...

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