Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

1,293 results found
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Intraperitoneal focal fat infarction

Intraperitoneal focal fat infarction (IFFI) refers to a group of self-limiting abdominal diseases where the primary insult is acute inflammation of intraperitoneal fat. They commonly mimic the more common causes of acute abdomen such as acute diverticulitis and acute appendicitis. The group incl...
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Intraperitoneal organs (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic to remember which organs are intraperitoneal is: SALTD SPRSS (pronounced 'salted spurs') Mnemonic S: stomach A: appendix L: liver T: transverse colon D: duodenum (first part)  S: small intestines (jejunum and ileum) P: pancreas (only tail) R: rectum (upper third) S: ...
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Intrathoracic sleeve migration

Intrathoracic sleeve migration is a rare complication following a sleeve gastrectomy. Pathology  Several factors have been postulated, including 3 gastric narrowing progressive enlargement of the esophageal hiatal orifice division of natural attachments such as the phreno-esophageal membran...
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Intussusception

Intussusception occurs when one segment of bowel is pulled into itself or a neighboring loop of the bowel by peristalsis. It is an important cause of an acute abdomen in children and merits timely ultrasound examination and reduction to preclude significant sequelae including bowel necrosis. Whe...
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Inverted V sign (disambiguation)

The inverted V sign has been described in several different pathologies: inverted V sign (pneumoperitoneum) inverted V sign (spinal cord)
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Inverted "V" sign (pneumoperitoneum)

The inverted "V" sign, also known as the lateral umbilical ligament sign, is a sign of pneumoperitoneum manifested by the visualization of an inverted "V"  shape in the pelvis on supine view of abdominal radiographs. It represents free gas outlining the lateral umbilical ligaments. In infants, t...
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Investigating abdominal pain (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Investigating abdominal pain is a common request from clinical teams throughout most hospitals. Causes of abdominal pain are vast and as such, appropriate history and examination are necessary to initiate appropriate initia...
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Investigating jaundice (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Investigation of jaundice is heavily reliant on radiology, from the simplest of investigations (the ultrasound) through to much more complicated MRI-based test and intervention. It is important to determine whether jaundic...
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Investigating nausea and vomiting (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Nausea and vomiting (often abbreviated in medical notes to N&V) are non-specific physical manifestations of disease. They may occur together, or in isolation and may be the result of obstructive pathology or as a general ma...
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Investigating PR bleeding (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Investigating PR bleeding radiologically may help to make a diagnosis or give more information after a diagnosis has been established. Radiology should not replace appropriate physical examination or appropriate use of sigm...
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Irish node

An Irish node is an enlarged axillary lymph node, often associated with advanced gastric cancer1.
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Iron deficiency anemia

Iron deficiency anemia is a common cause of anemia and a common precipitant to radiological investigation. Epidemiology Amongst men and postmenopausal women, the incidence in the developed world is around 2%. Among premenopausal women, the incidence is greater and in most cases, investigation ...
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Irritable bowel syndrome

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is the commonest of the functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs). Its key presenting features are recurrent abdominal pain and change in bowel habit (diarrhea and/or constipation), which may be severe, such that for an individual, there may be a marked negativ...
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Ischemic colitis

Ischemic colitis refers to inflammation of the colon secondary to vascular insufficiency and ischemia. It is sometimes considered under the same spectrum as intestinal ischemia. The severity and consequences of the disease are highly variable. Epidemiology Ischemic bowel is typically a disease...
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Ischioanal fossa

The ischioanal (or ischiorectal) fossa is a fat-filled space of the perineum.  Gross anatomy The ischioanal fossa is a paired triangular-shaped space lateral to the anal canal with an apex directed anteromedially towards the pubic symphysis. Each ischioanal fossa is separated from the other by...
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Ishikawa classification of venous involvement by pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma

Ishikawa classification system describes the degree of involvement of adjacent portal vein and SMV by pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma based on caliber of the vein: type I: normal  type II: smooth shift/displacement with normal caliber   type III: unilateral narrowing  type IV: bilateral nar...
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Isolated free fluid in trauma

Isolated free fluid in trauma may or may not represent a significant injury, and this creates a diagnostic dilemma in determining appropriate treatment for these patients.  Epidemiology The presence of isolated free fluid in trauma occurs in 3-5% of blunt trauma patients 1-4. Pathology The c...
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Isthmus (disambiguation)

Isthmus (plural isthmi) is an anatomical term and refers to a slender structure joining two larger components. Some of these uses of the word isthmus are now rarely used or only seen in older texts and articles: isthmus (aorta) isthmus (auditory tube) isthmus (auricle of the ear) isthmus (ci...
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Ivor Lewis procedure

Ivor Lewis procedure (also known as a gastric pull-up) is a type of esophagectomy, an upper gastrointestinal tract operation performed for mid and distal esophageal pathology, usually esophageal cancer. Due to the necessity of removing a significant length of the esophagus, the stomach is "pull...
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Jejunal and ileal branches of the superior mesenteric artery

The jejunal and ileal branches of the superior mesenteric artery are variable in number. They pass in the two layers of the mesentery to the jejunum and ileum and progressively divide and join in a series of anastomosing arcades. From the arcades, straight arteries (also known as the vasa recta...
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Jejunal atresia

Jejunal atresia is a congenital anomaly characterized by obliteration of the lumen of the jejunum. The site of the atresia can be anywhere from the ligament of Treitz to the jejunoileal junction. There can be more than one atretic segment. This article will focus on jejunal atresia alone but be...
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Jejunocolic bypass

Jejunocolic bypass was an early form of bariatric surgery. It is no longer performed due to severe side effects. For this bypass, the proximal small bowel (jejunum) is transected and anastomosed to the colon (such as the transverse colon). The other end of the small bowel is closed and the dist...
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Jejunoileal bypass

Jejunoileal bypass is an older form of bariatric surgery that was developed to be an improvement on jejunocolic bypass. It is no longer performed due to severe side effects. For this bypass, the proximal small bowel (jejunum) is divided ~35 cm past the ligament of Treitz, and the proximal end i...
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Jejunoileal diverticula

Jejunoileal diverticula, also referred to as jejunal diverticula or diverticulosis as most of the diverticula are located in the jejunum, are outpouchings from the jejunal and ileal wall on their mesenteric border that represent mucosal herniation through sites of wall weakening 1. Jejunoileal ...
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Jejunoileal diverticulitis

Jejunoileal diverticulitis (plural diverticulitides), an acute inflammation of diverticula of the jejunum or ileum is much rarer than colonic diverticulitis. Epidemiology The jejunum is a more common site of acquired diverticula of the small bowel than the ileum 1. Clinical presentation Dive...
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Jejunoileal fold pattern reversal

Jejunoileal fold pattern reversal (a.k.a. jejunisation of the ileum) is one of the signs of celiac disease, and is seen on small bowel follow-through studies as well as CT. The pattern is one of increased number of ileal folds and reduced number of jejunal folds 1,2, and is considered positive w...
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Jejunum

The jejunum is arbitrarily defined as the proximal two-fifths of the small intestine and is, on average, about 3 m in length. Gross anatomy Compared to the ileum, the jejunum has more valvulae conniventes and fewer folds per unit length. Like the ileum, the normal jejunal wall thickness is les...
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Jejunum vs ileum

There are a few differences that can help differentiate jejunum and ileum 1-3: location jejunum: upper left part of the peritoneal cavity ileum: lower right part of the peritoneal cavity gross appearance jejunum: greater caliber (<3 cm), thicker walls and more vascular  ileum: lesser calib...
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Juvenile polyposis syndrome

Juvenile polyposis syndrome, also referred as familial juvenile polyposis, is one of the polyposis syndromes and consists of hundreds of juvenile polyps. Epidemiology Presentation in the second decade is most common 2. Clinical presentation Rectal bleeding, bowel obstruction and intussuscept...
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Kikuchi level

The Kikuchi level is a histopathological term used for describing the degree of infiltration of a sessile early invasive colorectal cancer1. Preoperative assessment of the level of invasion using this classification may decrease the incidence of unnecessary surgery for sessile polyps.  Levels o...
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Killian-Jamieson diverticulum

Killian-Jamieson diverticula are esophageal diverticula. Like the more common Zenker diverticulum, it is a false diverticulum and represents an outpouching of mucosa through a muscular defect (in this case the Killian-Jamieson space 2).  Pathology They are located just below the cricopharyngeu...
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Kirklin complex

The Kirklin complex is a combination of the Carman meniscus sign associated with a radiolucent semicircular zone surrounding the elevated ridge of the ulcer. This complex is seen in cases of gastric adenocarcinoma on barium studies. History and etymology Byrl Raymond Kirklin, (1888-1957 2) an ...
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Kirklin sign

The Kirklin sign refers to a deformity of the normal gastric bubble on an upright chest radiograph due to a mass lesion of the gastric cardia or fundus. The Kirklin sign is different from the Kirklin complex, a gastric finding on upper GI fluoroscopy. History and etymology Byrl Raymond Kirkli...
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KRAS mutation

KRAS (shortened name for the gene Kirsten RAt Sarcoma viral oncogene homolog) mutations are associated in a number of malignancies including:  certain adenocarcinomas of the lung colorectal carcinoma 1 pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma Several germline KRAS mutations have also been found to b...
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Krenning score of neuroendocrine tumor uptake

The Krenning score is a proposed semi-quantitative method of assessing the degree of tracer uptake on octreotide scintigraphy. Parameters Initially designed for assessment of 111In-DTPA on planar imaging, the Krenning score is applicable to SPECT or PET/CT using various radiopharmaceuticals. ...
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Kwashiorkor

Kwashiorkor is a condition characterized by bilateral edema caused by protein deficiency. Epidemiology The largest population at risk for the condition are children who have begun weaning from breast milk or formula towards diets without sufficient protein. Therefore, kwashiorkor often affects...
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Labeled imaging anatomy cases

This article lists a series of labeled imaging anatomy cases by system and modality. Brain CT head: non-contrast axial CT head: non-contrast coronal CT head: non-contrast sagittal CT head: angiogram axial CT head: angiogram coronal CT head: angiogram sagittal CT head: venogram axial CT ...
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Ladd bands

Ladd bands are the most commonly encountered form of peritoneal bands in disarrangement of intestines, e.g. intestinal malrotation. Pathology Classically they extend from the abnormally positioned cecum to peritoneum and liver, crossing the duodenum in their course. Extension, however, can inc...
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Lane-Hamilton syndrome

Lane-Hamilton syndrome (LHS) refers to the rare concurrent association of idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis and celiac disease 1. Epidemiology It is typically seen in children under the age of 15 but can occasionally be seen in adults. History and etymology It was originally described by D ...
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Langerhans cell histiocytosis

Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare multisystem disease with a wide and heterogeneous clinical spectrum and variable extent of involvement.  Terminology Langerhans cell histiocytosis was previously known as histiocytosis X. The newer term is preferred as it is more descriptive of its...
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Lanthanum therapy

Lanthanum therapy is used to treat hyperphosphatemia in end-stage renal disease 1. It is taken as oral tablets (usually in the chemical form lanthanum carbonate) which dissociate in the acidic environment of the stomach. The released trivalent lanthanum cation has a high affinity for dietary pho...
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Large bowel lymphoma

Large bowel (colorectal) lymphoma is a very rare tumor, accounting for <0.5% of primary colorectal malignancies, ~1.5% of all lymphomas, and ~15% of gastrointestinal lymphoma. Large bowel lymphoma differs from gastric and small bowel lymphoma in clinical presentation, management, and prognosis. ...
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Large bowel obstruction

Large bowel obstruction (LBO) is often impressive on imaging, on account of the ability of the large bowel to massively distend. This condition requires prompt diagnosis and treatment.  Epidemiology Large bowel obstructions are far less common than small bowel obstructions, accounting for only...
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Large bowel obstruction (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Large bowel obstruction (LBO) occurs when there is mechanical obstruction of the large bowel and is often impressive on imaging on account of the ability of the large bowel to massively distend. This condition requires prom...
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Large intestine

The large intestine (also known as the large bowel) is a 1.5 meter muscular tube that extends from the cecum to the rectum. It has three outer longitudinal muscular layers called taenia coli, which are about 30 cm shorter than the length of the large bowel causing characteristic sacculations int...
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Lateral crescent sign (inguinal hernia)

The lateral crescent sign is a useful diagnostic sign of a direct inguinal hernia on CT scan, the hernia causing compression and lateral displacement of the inguinal canal contents (ductus deferens, testicular vessels, fat, etc.) to form a semicircle of tissue that resembles a moon crescent seen...
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Lateral fossa

The lateral fossae are concave depressions of peritoneum in the paravesical space that lie between the lateral umbilical folds and the lateral parietal peritoneum. The lateral fossae are the smallest of the anterior paravesical fossae, and typically partially contain the cecum and/or sigmoid col...
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Lateral umbilical folds

The lateral umbilical folds are bilateral raised ridges of parietal peritoneum in the deep aspect of the anterior abdominal wall overlying the inferior epigastric vessels. The paired folds originate medial to the deep inguinal ring and end at the arcuate line on the posterior aspect of the anter...
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Lead pipe sign (colon)

The lead pipe appearance of colon is the classical barium enema finding in chronic ulcerative colitis, and is also seen with other modalities such as CT or MRI. There is a complete loss of the haustral markings in the diseased segment of the colon, appearing smooth-walled and cylindrical.  This...
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Leaping dolphin sign

The leaping dolphin sign (also known as the diaphragm muscle slip sign) may be seen in pneumoperitoneum on a supine abdominal radiograph. It represents the outlining of the diaphragmatic muscle slips by free intraperitoneal gas and usually requires a moderate to large volume of pneumoperitoneum ...
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Left colic artery

The left colic artery is the first branch of the inferior mesenteric artery and supplies the marginal artery. Course It ascends retroperitoneally to the left, dividing into two branches: ascending branch passes anteriorly to the left kidney, then enters the transverse mesocolon, and passes s...
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Left colic flexure

Left colic flexure (or splenic flexure) is the bend in the large intestine in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen as the transverse colon continues as the descending colon. The phrenicocolic ligament attaches the splenic flexure to the left hemidiaphragm. It lies more cranial than the right c...
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Left gastric artery

The left gastric artery is the smallest and first branch of the celiac artery.   It passes superiorly over the left crus of the diaphragm, approaching the esophageal opening of the diaphragm, giving off an esophageal branch to the distal esophagus, then enters the lesser omentum to pass along t...
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Left gastric vein

The left gastric vein (also known as the coronary vein) drains both gastric walls. It forms a loop with the right gastric vein at the lesser curvature of the stomach. The left gastric vein travels in the lesser omentum to drain in the portal vein. It also communicates with the lower esophageal v...
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Left gastroepiploic artery

The left gastroepiploic artery (LGA) is one of the branches of the splenic artery. Gross Anatomy Course The LGA arises from the splenic artery, and runs within the gastrosplenic ligament. It then runs within the two layers of the greater omentum to the right along the greater curvature of the...
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Left inframesocolic space

The left inframesocolic space is a component of the inframesocolic space bounded superiorly by the attachment of the transverse mesocolon, to the left by the mesentery of the descending colon, to the right border by the root of the small bowel mesentery. It is quadrilateral in shape and is large...
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Left paracolic gutter

The left paracolic gutter is a component of the left inframesocolic space partially separated from the left subphrenic spaces by the phrenicocolic ligament. It is smaller than the right paracolic gutter. Both paracolic spaces are in continuity with the pelvic peritoneal spaces.
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Left perihepatic space

The left perihepatic space (also known as the left subhepatic space) is a potential space located between the stomach and the visceral surface of left lobe of the liver. Gross anatomy The left perihepatic space can be further subdivided into anterior and posterior spaces. It is a subcompartmen...
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Left subphrenic space

The left subphrenic space is a subcompartment of the left supramesocolic space located between the diaphragm and, the diaphragmatic surface of the spleen and gastric fundus. It is described to have anterior and posterior parts without clear delineation1. Boundaries  medially: falciform ligame...
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Left supramesocolic space

The left supramesocolic space is an arbitrary subdivision of the supramesocolic space, which lies between the diaphragm and the transverse colon 1,2. Gross anatomy The left supramesocolic space is separated from the right supramesocolic space by the falciform ligament 3. The left supramesocoli...
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Leiomyosarcoma

Leiomyosarcomas are extremely rare malignant neoplasms that originate from smooth muscle cells and may be considered the malignant counterpart of a leiomyoma. They are classified as a soft tissue tumor and account for ~8% of malignant soft tissue tumors 10. Pathology Location  Leiomyosarcomas...
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Lemmel syndrome

Lemmel syndrome is defined as obstructive jaundice caused by a periampullary duodenal diverticulum compressing the intrapancreatic common bile duct with resultant bile duct dilatation. Clinical presentation Patients may present with recurrent episodes of jaundice, pancreatitis and/or cholangit...
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Lesser sac

The lesser sac or omental bursa is a potential peritoneal space within the abdomen, part of the peritoneal cavity.  Gross anatomy The lesser sac may be conceptualized as the space posterior to the lesser omentum, between the posterior wall of the stomach and surface of peritoneum that covers t...
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Lesser sac hernia

Lesser sac hernias (alternative plural: herniae) are a type of internal hernia, where abdominal contents protrude through the foramen of Winslow, hence they are also known as foramen of Winslow hernia.  Epidemiology Lesser sac hernias are rare, accounting for <0.1% of abdominal hernias and 8% ...
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Levator ani muscle

The levator ani muscle, also known as the muscular pelvic diaphragm, is the musculotendinous sheet that forms the majority of the pelvic floor, supports the pelvic viscera, and aids in urinary and fecal evacuation as well as maintaining continence. Gross anatomy The levator ani has three main ...
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Levator ani syndrome

Levator ani syndrome (LAS) is a musculoskeletal pain syndrome involving the pelvic floor, thought to be caused by spasm or scarring of the levator ani muscles. Clinical presentation Levator ani syndrome is characterized by recurrent pain, pressure or discomfort in the region of the rectum, sac...
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Li-Fraumeni syndrome

Li-Fraumeni syndrome is a hereditary cancer syndrome due to mutations in the tumor suppressor gene TP53. Approximately half of affected individuals are thought to develop invasive cancer by 30 years of age 1. Associated malignancies sarcomas osteosarcoma rhabdomyosarcoma CNS tumors gliomas...
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Ligament of Treitz

The ligament of Treitz, also known as the suspensory ligament of the duodenum, is a double fold of peritoneum suspending the duodenojejunal flexure from the retroperitoneum. It is often used interchangeably with duodenojejunal flexure. Anatomy The ligament of Treitz comprises two parts:  acc...
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Ligamentum teres (abdomen)

The ligamentum teres or round ligament is the fibrous cord formed by the obliterated fetal umbilical vein that runs in the free edge of the falciform ligament from the umbilicus into the left lobe of the liver.  
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Ligamentum venosum

The ligamentum venosum is a fibrous remnant which travels superiorly from the porta hepatis of the liver to the inferior vena cava. It is often obliterated in adults.  In the fetus, it is patent and known as the ductus venosus which shunts blood returning from the placenta in the umbilical vein...
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Light bulb sign (pheochromocytoma)

The light bulb sign of an adrenal pheochromocytoma is an MRI feature of this tumor. It refers to marked hyperintensity on T2 weighted sequences, however, this finding is neither sensitive nor specific and pheochromocytomas are more often heterogeneous with intermediate or high T2 signal intensit...
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Limberg score

Limberg score is a semiquantitative color Doppler ultrasound assessment of the bowel wall vascularity in inflammatory bowel disease.  grade 0: normal bowel wall with no thickening, well-delineated mural stratification, no mural flow (no color Doppler signal)     grade 1: wall thickening (hypoe...
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Linea alba

The linea alba (Latin for white line) is a single midline fibrous line in the anterior abdominal wall formed by the median fusion of the layers of the rectus sheath medial to the bilateral rectus abdominis muscles. It attaches to the xiphoid process of the sternum and the pubic symphysis. The um...
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Linitis plastica

Linitis plastica is a descriptive term usually referring to the appearance of the stomach, although the rectum can also be described this way. The appearance is said to be reminiscent of an old leather water-bottle. Pathology The underlying cause is usually a scirrhous adenocarcinoma with diff...
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Lipase

Lipase, more specifically pancreatic lipase, is an enzyme produced in the pancreas and is responsible for the digestion of fat molecules. It may be raised (hyperlipasemia) in numerous pancreatic, hepatobiliary and other diseases but is most commonly associated with acute pancreatitis. Physiolog...
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Lipoma

Lipomas are benign tumors composed of mature adipocytes. They are the most common soft tissue tumor, seen in ~2% of the population.  Epidemiology Patients typically present in adulthood (5th-7th decades). Associations In some cases, multiple lipomas are associated with syndromes and other di...
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Lipoma of ileocecal valve

Lipomas of the ileocecal valve are a rarer entity than the more commonly occurring lipomatosis of the ileocecal valve. They can be differentiated from the latter as they have a demarcating capsule around the fatty tissue and are confined to only one of the ileocecal valve lips 1. Pathologically ...
Article

Lipomatosis

Lipomatosis is a condition where there is diffuse excessive fat deposition within the body. This can especially affect certain regions. neck and upper region of trunk Madelung disease mediastinal lipomatosis heart lipomatous hypertrophy of the interatrial septum lipomatous metaplasia of th...
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Lipomatosis of the ileocecal valve

Lipomatosis of the ileocecal valve is a benign condition usually detected incidentally during investigation of other conditions. However, it may itself cause certain vague abdominal symptoms and may be missed on preliminary ultrasound unless a high level of suspicion is present. Epidemiology T...
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Liposarcoma

Liposarcomas are malignant tumors of fatty tissue and are the malignant counterpart to a benign lipoma. They are the second most common type of soft-tissue sarcoma. Epidemiology Liposarcomas are typically found in adults, typically between the ages of 40 and 60, and are rare in children. Clin...
Article

Littoral cell angioma of the spleen

Littoral cell angioma of the spleen is a rare, benign primary vascular tumor of the spleen. Epidemiology Littoral cell angiomas may occur at any age and have no gender predilection. Associations Littoral cell angiomas have been diagnosed in association with various malignancies outside the s...
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Littre hernia

Littre hernias are hernias (alternative plural: herniae) containing a Meckel diverticulum, and are also known as persistent omphalomesenteric duct hernias. They are most frequently encountered in the inguinal region. Radiographic features CT blind-ending tubular structure arising from antimes...
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Liver

The liver is the largest abdominal organ. It plays a major role in metabolism and has a number of functions, including glycogen storage, decomposition of red blood cells, plasma protein synthesis, hormone production, and detoxification. It is one of the very few organs that has the ability to re...
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Liver overlap sign (sigmoid volvulus)

The liver overlap sign can be seen in sigmoid volvulus wherein the sigmoid loop is seen, usually on an abdominal radiograph, ascending to the right upper quadrant and projecting over the liver shadow. In one study of 21 patients with confirmed sigmoid volvulus, the sign was present in 9 patient...
Article

Loop-to-loop colon

The loop-to-loop colon describes an abnormal colonic course associated with the absence of the left kidney from the renal fossa.  The transverse colon extends to the lateral margin of the abdominal wall and the descending colon courses medially to fill the renal fossa, resulting in a "looped" c...
Article

Low attenuation lymphadenopathy

Low attenuation lymphadenopathy refers to abnormal lymph nodes that on CT appear to have lower attenuation than other soft tissues. This category can be split into two types: cystic (necrotic) lymph nodes metastatic carcinoma (or lymphoma) infections (tuberculous or fungal) cavitating mesent...
Article

Lower abdominal/pelvic calcification

Causes of calcifications in the lower abdomen and pelvis include: vascular calcifications atherosclerosis aneurysm phlebolith urogenital uterine fibroid ovarian dermoid prostatic calcification seminal vesicle and ductus deferens calcification bladder stones gallstones dropped stones ...
Article

Lower gastrointestinal bleeding

Lower gastrointestinal bleeding (LGIB) is defined as that occurring distal to the ligament of Treitz (i.e. from the jejunum, ileum, colon, rectum or anus) and presenting as either hematochezia (bright red blood/clots or burgundy stools) or melena. Epidemiology The incidence of lower gastrointe...
Article

Lower gastrointestinal bleeding (differential)

Lower gastrointestinal bleeding usually occurs distal to the ligament of Treitz, and has a wide differential diagnosis: diverticular disease enterocolitis infective Crohn’s disease ulcerative colitis ischemic colitis vascular malformation vascular ectasia angiodysplasia arteriovenous m...
Article

Low-grade appendiceal mucinous neoplasm

Low-grade appendiceal mucinous neoplasms (LAMN), previously known as appendiceal mucinous cystadenomas, are rare mucinous tumors of the appendix showing low-grade cytologic atypia, c.f. high-grade appendiceal mucinous neoplasms. Terminology  Considerable controversy still exists on mucinous ne...
Article

Lucent liver sign

The lucent liver sign is represented by a reduction of hepatic radiodensity on supine radiograph when there is a collection of free intraperitoneal gas located anterior to the liver.
Article

Lumbar hernia

Lumbar hernias (alternative plural: herniae) are a rare form of posterior abdominal hernia.  Epidemiology Most common in patients aged between 50 and 70 years with a male predominance 1.  Clinical presentation Patients with lumbar hernias can present with a variety of symptoms, including a p...
Article

Lymphocele of the thoracic duct

Lymphoceles of the thoracic duct, also known as thoracic duct cysts, are lymph-filled collections/dilatations that can arise from any portion of the thoracic duct. The clinical significance of a thoracic duct cyst lies in its misidentification as a pathological lesion at radiological assessment...

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