Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

1,019 results found
Article

Right subphrenic space

The right subphrenic space (a.k.a. right anterior space, right subdiaphragmatic space) is a potential space that lies between the right lobe of the liver and the inferior surface of the diaphragm. Gross anatomy This is a subcompartment of the supracolic compartment. It reaches as far as the up...
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Right supramesocolic space

The right supramesocolic space is an arbitrary subdivision of the supramesocolic space, which lies between the diaphragm and the transverse colon. Gross anatomy The right supramesocolic space is separated from the left supramesocolic space by the falciform ligament, and can be divided into thr...
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Rigler sign

The Rigler sign, also known as the double wall sign, is seen on a radiograph of the abdomen when the air is present on both sides of the intestine, i.e. when there is air on both the luminal and peritoneal side of the bowel wall. Pneumoperitoneum may be a result of perforation or, recent instru...
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Ring shadow (disambiguation)

Ring shadows are radiographic signs seen on either chest x-rays or on upper gastrointestinal fluoroscopy: ring shadow (chest) ring shadow (abdomen)
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Rokitansky-Aschoff sinuses

Rokitansky-Aschoff sinuses are diverticula of the gallbladder wall which may be microscopic or macroscopic. Histologically, they are outpouchings of gallbladder mucosa that sit within the gallbladder muscle layer. Related pathology They are not of themselves considered abnormal, but may be ass...
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Rose-thorn ulcers

Rose-thorn ulcers or rose-thorn appearance refers to deep penetrating linear ulcers or fissuring typically seen within stenosed terminal ileum with a thickened wall. They appear as thorn-like extraluminal projections on barium studies and this appearance is one of the typical signs of Crohn dise...
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Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery

In many centers, laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass has become the most common bariatric procedure for morbid obesity.  In this operation, the stomach is stapled or divided to form a small pouch (typically <30 mL in volume), which empties into a Roux limb of the jejunum of varying length (ty...
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Roux limb

A Roux limb may be formed in multiple different gastrointestinal surgeries, including bariatric surgery, e.g. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass biliopancreatic diversion partial gastrectomy total gastrectomy partial pancreaticoduodenectomy (Whipple procedure) In these surgeries the small bowel is ...
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Rugal folds

The rugal folds are the mucosal folds within the stomach that give the distinctive appearance on barium studies.
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Rule of 2s in Meckel diverticulum

The rule of 2s is a useful mnemonic for Meckel diverticulum. Meckel diverticula: occur in 2% of the population are 2 inches (5cm) long are 2 feet (60cm) from the ileocaecal valve 2/3rds have ectopic mucosa 2 types of ectopic tissue are commonly present (mostly gastric and pancreatic)  and...
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Ruptured omphalocoele

Ruptured omphalocoele occurs when there is rupture of the outer membrane of an omphalocoele. When this happens the eviscerated fetal bowel looks free floating and distinction from gastroschisis becomes difficult. However the abdominal defect generally tends to be larger and may contain liver wit...
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Saber sign in pneumobilia

The saber sign refers to a pattern of gas distribution seen in supine abdominal radiographs of patients with pneumobilia.  A sword-shaped lucency is apparent in the right paraspinal region of the upper abdomen representing arching gas extending from the common bile duct into the left hepatic duc...
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Sandwich sign (mesentery)

A sandwich sign, sometimes known as a hamburger sign, refers to a mesenteric nodal mass, either para-aortic or not, giving an appearance of a hamburger. Confluent lymphadenopathy on both sides of the mesenteric vessels gives rise to an appearance described as the sandwich sign 2. The sign is sp...
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Schatzki ring

A Schatzki ring, also called Schatzki-Gary ring, is symptomatically narrow oesophageal B-ring occurring in the distal oesophagus and usually associated with a hiatus hernia.  Epidemiology Relatively common, lower oesophageal rings are found in ~10% of oesophagrams.  Clinical presentation Mos...
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Scirrhous carcinoma of the gastrointestinal tract

Scirrhous carcinoma of the gastrointestinal tract is a subtype of primary adenocarcinoma of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Epidemiology It is the least common type of primary adenocarcinoma involving mainly the stomach and the colon. Pathology The tumour demonstrates an infiltrative behavi...
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Scleroderma

Scleroderma, also known as systemic sclerosis, is an autoimmune connective tissue disorder characterised by multisystem fibrosis and soft tissue calcification. As such, it affects many separate organ systems, which are discussed separately: musculoskeletal manifestations of scleroderma pulmona...
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Scleroderma (gastrointestinal manifestations)

Gastrointestinal manifestations of scleroderma can occur in up to 90% of patients with scleroderma 2 with the commonest site of GI involvement being the oesophagus. As clinical presentation, radiographic appearances and differential diagnosis vary with the location of involvement these are disc...
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Sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis

Sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis is a rare benign cause of acute or subacute small bowel obstruction. It is characterised by total or partial encasement of the small bowel within a thick fibrocollagenous membrane. Terminology The condition was originally termed abdominal cocoon. It has als...
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Sclerosing mesenteritis

Sclerosing mesenteritis (or mesenteric panniculitis) is an uncommon idiopathic disorder characterised by chronic non-specific inflammation involving the adipose tissue of the bowel mesentery. Epidemiology   Typically this condition afflicts adults in their sixties with mild male predilection, ...
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Seatbelt sign (abdomen)

The seatbelt sign is both a clinical and radiological sign. It is simply the presence of bruising/abrasions in the distribution of a seatbelt (i.e. horizontal and/or diagonal) across the abdomen, chest and sometimes neck.  A positive seatbelt sign, in combination with abdominal pain or tenderne...
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Seatbelt syndrome

The seatbelt syndrome is the constellation of traumatic injuries associated with three-point seatbelts: bowel perforation mesenteric tear sternal fracture lumbar spine fracture
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Segmental arterial mediolysis

Segmental arterial mediolysis (SAM) is an increasingly recognised vascular disease of the middle-aged and elderly and a leading cause of spontanoeus intra-abdominal haemorrhage. It is characterised by fusiform aneurysms, stenoses, dissections and occlusions within splanchnic arterial branches. I...
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Segmental pancreatitis

Segmental pancreatitis is not a distinct entity in itself but describes an imaging differential. Clinical presentation With segmental pancreatitis, a patient presents with clinical pancreatitis (signs, symptoms, laboratory markers), but on imaging, only a portion of the gland appears to have c...
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SeHCAT

SeHCAT (23-seleno-25-homo-tauro-cholic acid) is a radiopharmaceutical used in the investigation of bile salt malabsorption, which is a cause of chronic diarrhoea.  Characteristics physical half-life: 118 days Uses, dosage and timings A capsule containing SeHCAT is ingested with water. The pa...
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Semilunar line

The semilunar line, linea semilunaris or Spigelian line is a bilateral vertical curved line in the anterior abdominal wall where the layers of the rectus sheath fuse lateral to the rectus abdominis muscle and medial to the oblique muscles. Related pathology It is the site of a Spigelian hernia.
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Sentinel loop

A sentinel loop is a short segment of adynamic ileus close to an intra-abdominal inflammatory process. The sentinel loop sign may aid in localising the source of inflammation. For example, a sentinel loop in the upper abdomen may indicate pancreatitis, while one in the right lower quadrant may ...
Article

Serous cystadenoma of pancreas

Serous cystadenoma of the pancreas (or microcystic adenoma) is an uncommon type of benign cystic pancreatic neoplasm.  Epidemiology There is a recognised strong female predilection (M:F ~ 1:4) and usually presents in middle age to elderly patients (>60 years of age).  Clinical presentation M...
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Serrated polyposis syndrome

Serrated polyposis syndrome (SPS), also called hyperplastic polyposis syndrome, is characterised by the presence of multiple serrated polyps or a mixture of serrated and hyperplastic polyps, with the exact number required for diagnosis dependent on location and family history. SPS has an hetero...
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Seurat spleen

Seurat spleen is an angiographic appearance seen following blunt trauma to the spleen. Multiple small punctate regions of intraparenchymal contrast extravasation lead to a spotted appearance. History and etymology The term refers to a likeness between the angiographic appearance and the artwor...
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Shading sign (endometrioma)

Shading sign is an MRI finding typically seen in an endometrioma. It may also be seen with some endometrioid tumours (e.g endometrioid carcinoma of the ovary) It helps to distinguish endometriomas from other blood-containing lesions (e.g. haemorrhagic corpus luteum cysts), with a sensitivity of...
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Shock bowel

Shock bowel is the appearance of the bowel in a state of hypotension.  It is usually seen as part of the CT hypoperfusion complex. Radiographic features CT thickened bowel loops (>3 mm) with enhancing walls (the reason the condition was previously known as "shock bowel") on non-contrasted im...
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Short gastric arteries

The short gastric arteries are a group of short arteries arising from the terminal splenic artery and the left gastroepiploic artery which supply the fundus of the stomach along it's greater curvature. The vessels are short in length, variable in number and course through the gastrosplenic liga...
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Shwachman-Diamond syndrome

The Shwachman-Diamond syndrome (SDS) or Shwachman-Bodian-Diamond syndrome (SBDS) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterised by 1 : exocrine pancreatic insufficiency metaphyseal chondroplasia bone marrow hypoplasia (cyclic neutropenia) Clinical presentation Patients with Shwachman-...
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Sigmoid arteries

The sigmoid arteries are branches, between two-to-four, of the inferior mesenteric artery (IMA) and supply the sigmoid colon.  Summary origin: inferior mesenteric artery course: after arising from IMA, these branches descend to the left in the sigmoid mesocolon anastomosis: superiorly with ...
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Sigmoid colon

The sigmoid colon is the continuation of the descending colon. Gross anatomy After the distal descending colon has curved medially it enters the pelvis, where it gains a mesentery and is then called the sigmoid colon. It measures approximately 15 cm in length.  It has a "S" (Greek letter sigm...
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Sigmoid mesocolon

The sigmoid mesocolon is a fold of peritoneum that attaches the sigmoid colon to the pelvic wall and one of the four mesenteries in the abdominal cavity. It has an "inverted V" line of attachment, the apex of which is near the division of the left common iliac artery. The left limb descends...
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Sigmoid mesocolon hernia

Intersigmoid hernias, also known as sigmoid mesocolon hernias, occur when small bowel loops protrude into a peritoneal pocket (intersigmoid fossa) formed between two adjacent sigmoid segments and their mesentery. Epidemiology Sigmoid mesocolon hernias account for ~5% of all internal hernias 1,...
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Sigmoid volvulus

Sigmoid volvulus is a cause of large bowel obstruction and occurs when the sigmoid colon twists on its mesentery, the sigmoid mesocolon. Epidemiology Large bowel volvulus accounts for ~5% of all large bowel obstructions, with ~60% of intestinal volvulus involving the sigmoid colon 6. It is mor...
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Sigmoid volvulus versus caecal volvulus

The following points may be helpful to distinguish between sigmoid volvulus and caecal volvulus on plain film. Sigmoid volvulus arises in the pelvis (left lower quadrant) extends towards the right upper quadrant ahaustral in appearance sigmoid volvulus causes obstruction of the proximal lar...
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Simple pancreatic cyst

Simple pancreatic cysts, also known as true epithelial cysts or retention cysts, are unilocular cysts within the pancreas, lined by a monolayer of epithelium, which lack communication with the pancreatic ducts 1,5. In contradistinction to other solid viscera, simple cysts in the pancreas are a r...
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Single contrast barium enema

Single contrast barium enema is a method of imaging the colon with fluoroscopy and is similar in concept to the double contrast barium enema. "Single contrast" refers to imaging with barium or water-soluble contrast only, without addition of air or CO2. Indications The single contrast techniqu...
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Sister Mary Joseph nodule

A Sister Mary Joseph nodule is a metastatic lesion involving the umbilicus. The most common primary source is an intra-abdominal adenocarcinoma. Epidemiology Umbilical metastases are uncommon, reportedly present in 1-3% of all intra-abdominal and/or pelvic malignancy 7. Clinical presentation ...
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Sitz marker study

The Sitz marker study is an older technique to estimate colonic transit time.  Indications In constipation it can help distinguish between slow colonic transit and a defecation disorder. Procedure The patient ingests a number of radio-opaque markers (plastic rings containing radio-opaque mat...
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Skin changes of mercury poisoning (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for the skin changes associated with mercury poisoning is: 5 Ps Mnemonic P: pink P: puffy P: painful P: paraesthesia P: peeling
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Sleeve gastrectomy

Sleeve gastrectomy is a bariatric surgical procedure involving resection of the greater curvature of the fundus and body of the stomach to leave approximately 15% of the original gastric volume (60 to 100 cc), thus creating a restrictive physiology. The post-surgical gastric pouch resembles a ba...
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Small bowel

The small bowel (or small intestine) is the section of bowel between the stomach and the colon. It has distinctive mucosal folds, valvulae conniventes, and is made up of three functional units: duodenum jejunum ileum Radiographic features Fluoroscopy See main article: barium studies of sma...
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Small bowel atresia

Small bowel atresia corresponds to malformations where there is a narrowing or absence of a portion of the small bowel, which includes: duodenal atresia jejunal atresia ileal atresia
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Small bowel carcinoid tumour

The small bowel carcinoid tumours are the most common gastrointestinal carcinoid tumours. Within the small bowel, the most common site is at the terminal ileum. Epidemiology Small bowel carcinoid tumours account for ~40% of gastrointestinal carcinoid tumours 1.  Clinical presentation Small b...
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Small bowel faeces sign

The small bowel faeces sign can be observed on abdominal CT scans. The sign has been described as a finding specific for small bowel obstruction or another severe small bowel abnormality (e.g. metabolic or infectious disease). While the reported prevalence of the sign in small bowel obstruction ...
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Small bowel folds (differential)

Regular, smooth generalised thickening oedema congestive cardiac failure (CCF) hypoalbuminaemia lymphatic obstruction angioneurotic oedema infection radiation ischaemia haemorrhage anticoagulation or bleeding diathesis vasculitides IgA vasculitis (Henoch-Schonlein purpura) Buerger d...
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Small bowel follow through

Small bowel follow through (SBFT) is a fluoroscopic technique designed to obtain high resolution images of the small bowel. The function of the small bowel can also be evaluated. Indications The small bowel follow through can be used for evaluation of small bowel abnormalities, including: str...
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Small bowel imaging

Small bowel imaging aims at assessment of the disorders of small intestine. Imaging techniques barium follow through fluoroscopic enteroclysis conventional CT CT enteroclysis MR enteroclysis CT enterography MR enterography capsule endoscopy
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Small bowel ischaemia

Small bowel or mesenteric ischaemia may be a life-threatening condition, arising from any one of numerous causes of disturbance of the normal blood flow through the small bowel wall.  Pathology It can be divided into acute and chronic forms, with the main underlying aetiologies (each discussed...
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Small bowel lymphoma

Small bowel lymphoma is the most common small bowel malignancy, accounting accounts for ~25% of all primary small bowel malignancies and ~40% of all primary gastrointestinal lymphomas. Epidemiology Small bowel lymphoma is most commonly secondary extranodal involvement in widespread systemic ly...
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Small bowel mesentery internal hernia

Small bowel mesentery internal hernias are a form internal bowel herniation, involving protrusions of viscera through defects in the peritoneum or bowel mesentery. This type of internal herniation is more often seen in neonates than in adults. There are two types: transmesenteric small bowel i...
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Small bowel obstruction

Small bowel obstruction (SBO) accounts for 80% of all mechanical intestinal obstruction, the remaining 20% results from large bowel obstruction. It has a mortality rate of ~5%. Clinical presentation Classical presentation is cramping abdominal pain and abdominal distension with nausea and vomi...
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Small bowel obstruction (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Small bowel obstruction (SBO) accounts for 80% of all mechanical intestinal obstruction; the remaining 20% result from large bowel obstruction. It has a mortality rate of 5.5%. Reference article This is a summary article;...
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Soft-tissue sarcoma

Soft-tissue sarcomas are a heterogeneous group of malignant tumours of mesenchymal origin (sarcoma) that originate from the soft tissues rather than bone. They are classified on the basis of tissue seen on histology. The commoner sarcomas in the adult and paediatric population are listed below. ...
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Solid and hollow abdominal viscera

The solid abdominal viscera (singular: viscus) is a collective term for those internal organs of the upper abdomen that are primarily solid in nature, namely the liver, pancreas, spleen, adrenals, and kidneys. It is used in contradistinction to the hollow abdominal viscera, which includes, the s...
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Solitary rectal ulcer syndrome

This article is currently under editorial board review for errors Solitary rectal ulcer syndrome (SRUS) is a chronic, benign disorder characterised by the presence of a benign abnormality of the rectum in persons who have a long history of straining during defecation. it is a misnomer but has g...
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Somatostatinoma

Somatostatinomas are a rare type of neuroendocrine tumour. They may represent around 1% of all gastro-entero-pancreatic endocrine neoplasms. Clinical presentation Presentation van be variable. Patients with functional stomatostatinomas may present with an "inhibitory syndrome" which is a triad...
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Sonographic features of malignant lymph nodes

Lymphadenopathy is quite common, and it can be very difficult to differentiate malignant lymphadenopathy from reactive nodal enlargement. Several gray scale and colour Doppler features favour malignancy in a lymph node. Gray scale parameters that favour malignancy size: larger-more likely mal...
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Sphincter of Oddi

The sphincter of Oddi (or sphincter of ampulla) is a complex of four smooth muscle sphincters within the duodenal wall. It surrounds, and helps fix to the duodenum, the duct of Wirsung, common bile duct and the ampulla of Vater 1-2.  When relaxed it allows the passage of bile into the intestine...
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Spigelian-cryptorchidism syndrome

Spigelian-cryptorchidism syndrome is the association of Spigelian hernias and cryptorchidism in children.  Pathology It is reported that ~50% (range 28-75%) range of paediatric patients with Spigelian hernias will have ipsilateral cryptorchidism 1,2.  Along with Spigelian hernia and cryptorch...
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Spigelian hernia

Spigelian hernia, also known as lateral ventral hernia, is a type of abdominal hernia along the semilunar line, resulting in herniation between the muscles of the abdominal wall. Epidemiology They are rare and account for ~1% (range 0.1-2%) of ventral hernias 2,3. The incidence is thought to p...
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Spleen

The spleen is an organ of the haematological system and has a role in immune response, storage of red blood cells and haematopoiesis. Gross anatomy The spleen is a wedge-shaped organ lying mainly in the left upper quadrant (left hypochondrium and partly in the epigastrium) and is protected by ...
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Spleen size (paediatric)

The spleen size varies with a child's age. The three numbers below represent the 10th percentile, median, and 90th percentile for the long axis of the spleen (cm) 0-3 months: (3.3, 4.5, 5.8 cm) 3-6 months: (4.9, 5.3, 6.4 cm) 6-12 months: (5.2, 6.2, 6.8 cm) 1-2 years: (5.4, 6.9, 7.5 cm) 2-4...
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Splenic amyloidosis

Splenic amyloidosis is rare as an isolated entity. Most often it is associated with either systemic amyloidosis or hepatic amyloidosis. Epidemiology In general splenic involvement in amyloidosis is rather frequent (5-10% of cases 6). Clinical presentation Symptoms include abdominal mass and ...
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Splenic artery

The splenic artery is one of three branches coeliac trunk and supplies the spleen as well as large parts of the stomach and pancreas. Gross anatomy Origin and course The splenic artery is one of the terminal branches of the coeliac trunk, passing from the coeliac axis toward the splenic hilum...
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Splenic artery pseudoaneurysm

Splenic artery pseudoaneurysms are a rare type of pseudoaneurysm arising from any portion of the splenic artery and its branches.  Clinical presentation Unlike splenic artery true aneurysms, splenic artery pseudoaneurysms will nearly always present with symptoms 2. Fewer than 200 cases of sple...
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Splenic brucellosis

Brucellosis is a common zoonosis, which is particularly prevalent in Mediterranean countries. It produces a multisystemic illness that can present with a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations and complications 1. This article is focusing on the splenic involvement by brucellosis. For genera...
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Splenic calcification

Splenic calcifications can occur is various shapes and forms and can occur from a myriad of aetiological factors. The usual calcification observed in radiographs are the multiple, miliary form presenting numerous small rounded densities averaging from three to five millimeters in diameter where...
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Splenic cyst

Splenic epithelial cysts, also referred as splenic epidermoid cysts or primary splenic cysts, are unilocular fluid lesions with thin and smooth walls and no enhancement. They represent ~20% of cysts found in the spleen, and are usually an innocuous incidental imaging finding. Note that most (~8...
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Splenic haemangioma

Splenic haemangiomas, also known as splenic venous malformations, splenic cavernous malformations, or splenic slow flow venous malformations, while being rare lesions, are considered the second commonest focal lesion involving the spleen after simple splenic cysts 5,12 and the most common primar...
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Splenic haemangiomatosis

Splenic haemangiomatosis involves multiple, diffuse splenic haemangiomas replacing its entire parenchyma. It is a very rare entity. Pathology It can occur as a manifestation of systemic angiomatosis or, less commonly, confined to the spleen (diffuse isolated splenic haemangiomatosis). There is...
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Splenic infarction

Splenic infarction is a result of ischaemia to the spleen, and in many cases requires no treatment. However, identification of the cause of infarction is essential.   Epidemiology Splenic infarcts can occur due to a number of processes, involving either arterial supply, the spleen itself or th...
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Splenic lesions and anomalies

There are a number of splenic lesions and anomalies: Congenital anomalies accessory spleen wandering spleen asplenia polysplenia splenogonadal fusion retrorenal spleen Mass lesions Benign mass lesions splenic cyst (mnemonic) splenic pseudocyst splenic haemangioma: commonest benign sp...
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Splenic lymphangioma

Splenic lymphangiomas are relatively rare benign tumours that correspond to abnormal dilatation of lymphatic channels that can be either congenital or acquired.   On imaging, they usually present as lobulated and multiloculated cystic lesions without solid component or significant enhancement. ...
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Splenic siderotic nodules

Splenic siderotic nodules, also known as Gamna-Gandy bodies, of the spleen, are most commonly encountered in portal hypertension. The pathophysiological process is the result of microhaemorrhage resulting in haemosiderin and calcium deposition followed by fibroblastic reaction. Pathology Gross...
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Splenic trauma

Splenic trauma can occur after blunt or penetrating trauma or secondary to medical intervention (i.e. iatrogenic). The spleen is the most frequently injured internal organ after blunt trauma. Epidemiology In blunt trauma, the spleen can account for up to 49% of abdominal organ injuries 2. Cli...
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Splenic vein

The splenic vein drains the spleen, part of the pancreas, and part of the stomach.  Gross anatomy Origin and course The splenic vein is formed by splenic tributaries emerging at the splenic hilum in the splenorenal ligament at the tip of the tail of pancreas. It runs in the splenorenal ligame...
Article

Splenomegaly

Splenomegaly is a term which refers to enlargement of the spleen. The normal adult splenic length upper limit is usually around 12-15 cm. Also one should know how to calculate splenic index, volume and mass by CT and MR techniques. Massive splenomegaly is a term used when the spleen weighs >1000...
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Splenorenal ligament

Splenorenal ligament is a peritoneal ligament. It represents the dorsal most part of dorsal mesentery.  It contains pancratic tail. In settings of portal hypertension, collateral circulation may establish within the splenorenal ligament.  
Article

Splenosis

Splenosis is one type of ectopic splenic tissue (the other being accessory spleen). It is an acquired condition and is defined as autoimplantation one or more focal deposits of splenic tissue in various compartments of the body. Abdominal splenosis is seen after abdominal trauma or surgery (e.g...
Article

Spontaneous splenic rupture

Spontaneous splenic rupture (SSR) (or atraumatic splenic rupture) is rare, especially when compared to traumatic splenic rupture.  Pathology The pathogenesis of atraumatic splenic rupture is not well understood. Splenomegaly is present in almost all patients (~95%), although rupture of normal ...
Article

Sprue

Sprue is the collective term for the malabsorptive gastrointestinal enteropathies although it may be used to refer directly to tropical sprue. It is composed of two entities: tropical sprue non-tropical sprue / coeliac disease In each, the radiologic features are not sensitive enough to confi...
Article

Stab wound: overview

Stab wounds are a form of penetrating trauma that may be self-inflicted or inflicted by another person either accidentally or intentionally. They may be caused from a variety of objects and may occur anywhere in the body. Terminology Although commonly caused by a knife as well, slash injuries ...
Article

Stack of coins sign (bowel)

Stack of coins sign refers to the appearance of small bowel folds that are smoothly and uniformly thickened 1. The margins between the folds are sharply delineated and the arrangement of clearly demarcated parallel folds is likened to a stack of coins or a picket fence. This sign is distinct fro...
Article

Stepladder sign (disambiguation)

Stepladder sign may refer to: intracapsular breast implant rupture (ultrasound) gas-fluid levels in obstructed small bowel (erect abdominal radiograph)
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Stepladder sign (small bowel obstruction)

Stepladder sign represents the appearance of gas-fluid distended small bowel loops that appear to be stacked on top of each other, typically observed on erect abdominal radiographs in the setting of small bowel obstruction. 
Article

Stercoral colitis

Stercoral colitis refers to a condition where the presence of impacted faeces in the colonic lumen is associated with inflammation and distention of the affected colon segment. Epidemiology It is seen primarily in elderly patients (often bedbound as a consequence of dementia, stroke, or orthop...
Article

Stercoral perforation

Stercoral perforation is defined as a bowel perforation due to pressure necrosis from a faecal mass (faecaloma) 1. It is an uncommon, but life-threatening, complication of unresolved faecal impaction and can be a cause of acute abdomen secondary to faecal peritonitis. Epidemiology It may repre...
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Stierlin sign (tuberculosis of ileocaecal junction)

The Stierlin sign refers to repeated emptying of the caecum, seen radiographically as barium remaining in the terminal part of the ileum and in the transverse colon. This occurs due to irritation of the caecum caused by M. tuberculosis. It is not specific for tuberculosis and can also be seen in...

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