Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

1,093 results found
Article

PPP syndrome

PPP syndrome is the extremely rare association of pancreatitis, panniculitis, and polyarthritis. Epidemiology Most commonly affects middle-aged male patients with a history of heavy alcohol use 1,2.  Clinical presentation In the majority of cases, abdominal symptoms are mild or absent, makin...
Article

Pre-aortic lymph nodes

Pre-aortic nodes are part of the abdominopelvic lymph nodes. They include 3 main groups:  celiac nodes drainage from gastric nodes, hepatic nodes and pancreaticosplenic nodes superior mesenteric nodes drainage from mesenteric nodes inferior mesenteric nodes drainage from mesenteric nodes
Article

Presacral space

The presacral space is located between the rectum and the sacrococcygeal part of the spine. Gross anatomy Contents The presacral space contains a variety of tissue: fat mesenchymal tissue lymph nodes nerve plexuses blood vessels Boundaries superior - peritoneal reflections inferior - ...
Article

Presbyoesophagus

Presbyoesophagus is term that has been traditionally used to describe the manifestations of degenerating motor function in the aging esophagus. Presbyoesophagus remains controversial given it was initially described in elderly patients with significant co-morbidities (e.g. dementia, diabetes), ...
Article

Primary cutaneous melanoma

Primary cutaneous melanoma is the most common subtype of malignant melanoma, a malignant neoplasm that arises from melanocytes. Melanocytes predominantly occur in the basal layer of the epidermis but do occur elsewhere in the body. Primary cutaneous melanoma is by far the most common type of pri...
Article

Primary peritoneal neoplasms

Primary peritoneal neoplasms comprise an uncommon group of heterogenous entities. The list includes: mesothelial derivatives primary (malignant) peritoneal mesothelioma primary peritoneal multicystic mesothelioma primary peritoneal well-differentiated papillary mesothelioma primary periton...
Article

Primary pneumatosis intestinalis

Primary pneumatosis intestinalis (PPI) is a benign idiopathic condition in which multiple gas-filled cystic lesions are seen in the gastrointestinal tract wall. The changes are usually seen initially on radiography or CT with CT being the more sensitive test. Epidemiology Primary pneumatosis i...
Article

Primary retroperitoneal neoplasms

Primary retroperitoneal neoplasms are an extremely rare group of tumors (lymphoma is not included in this definition). The most common type is soft tissue sarcoma (90%). Epidemiology The most common age for presentation is 40-50 years.  Clinical presentation Frequently tumors have relatively...
Article

Primary serous papillary carcinoma of the peritoneum

A primary serous papillary carcinoma of the peritoneum (PSPCP) is an extremely rare primary peritoneal tumor. Epidemiology They usually present in postmenopausal women. Clinical presentation Patients tend to present with non-specific complaints such as abdominal pain, anorexia, and abdominal...
Article

Proctalgia fugax

Proctaglia fugax is a disorder characterized by rectal pain that is considered to be functional in etiology, and thus is a diagnosis of exclusion. Clinical presentation The classic presentation, which form the Rome IV diagnostic criteria if all present for three months, include 1,2: recurrent...
Article

Proctitis

Proctitis refers to inflammation of the lining of the rectum (rectal mucosa) it may be acute or chronic. When is involves the rest of the wider colon, it is then termed proctocolitis. Clinical presentation Proctitis may have a range clinical symptoms which include rectal bleeding, discharge, u...
Article

Properitoneal fat

The properitoneal fat, deep to the transversalis fascia, fills the posterior pararenal space. Laterally it thickens and forms the properitoneal fat pad, which is an anterior extension of posterior pararenal space. Terminology The properitoneal fat pad is known as a plane in surgical anatomy, a...
Article

Pseudoachalasia

Pseudoachalasia is achalasia-pattern dilatation of the esophagus due to the narrowing of the distal esophagus from causes other than primary denervation. One of the most common causes is malignancy (often submucosal gastric cancer) with extension in the lower esophagus. The clinical and imaging ...
Article

Pseudokidney (intussusception)

The pseudokidney of intussusception is an ultrasound finding in some cases of intestinal intussusception. It refers to the longitudinal ultrasound appearance of the intussuscepted segment of bowel which mimics a kidney.  The fat-containing mesentery which is dragged into the intussusception, co...
Article

Pseudomyxoma peritonei

Pseudomyxoma peritonei refers to the intraperitoneal accumulation of a gelatinous ascites secondary to rupture of a mucinous tumor. The most common cause is a ruptured mucinous tumor of the appendix/appendiceal mucocoele 10.   Occasionally, mucinous tumors of the colon, rectum, stomach, pancrea...
Article

Pseudopancreatitis

Pseudopancreatitis refers to the presence of fluid in or around the pancreas in the setting of trauma but in the absence of direct signs of traumatic pancreatic injury. Most patients will have a normal serum lipase level, but amylase has a limited sensitivity and specificity for pancreatic traum...
Article

Pseudopneumoperitoneum

Pseudopneumoperitoneum describes any gas within the abdominal cavity that masquerades as free intraperitoneal gas or pneumoperitoneum when it is in fact contained within an organ. Correctly identifying pneumoperitoneum is important, but making the diagnosis in error may lead to further unnecessa...
Article

Pseudopneumoretroperitoneum

Pseudopneumoretroperitoneum is the radiographic finding of gas within the abdominal region that mimics the appearance of pneumoretroperitoneum (cf. the analogous pseudopneumoperitoneum i.e. abdominal gas that erroneously suggests pneumoperitoneum).  Causes of pseudopneumoretroperitoneum include...
Article

Pseudovein sign (bowel)

The pseudovein sign can occur with active gastrointestinal bleeding where contrast extravasation during angiography may have a curvilinear appearance as it pools in the gastric rugae or mucosal folds of bowel, mimicking the appearance of a vein. However, contrast in the “pseudovein” persists bey...
Article

Psoas sign (abdominal x-ray)

The psoas sign is a classic non-specific finding on the abdominal radiograph, potentially representing retroperitoneal pathology. Normally on an abdominal radiograph, the lateral margins of both the psoas muscles are clearly visible due to adjacent fat. When the lateral edge of one, or both, ps...
Article

Pyloric stenosis

Hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (HPS) refers to the idiopathic thickening of gastric py­loric musculature which then results in progressive gastric outlet obstruction. Epidemiology Pyloric stenosis is relatively common, with an incidence of approximately 2-5 per 1,000 births, and has a male pred...
Article

Radiation colitis

Radiation colitis refers to injury-inflammation to to the colon caused by radiation therapy. It is usually associated with treatment for prostate cancer or cervical cancer. It can be part of the spectrum of radiation enteritis (which can occur together). Radiation colitis may develops 6 months t...
Article

Radiation enteritis

Radiation enteritis is a bowel pathology resulting from toxic effects of radiotherapy on the bowel wall and vasculature.  Epidemiology 5-15% of patients treated with radiotherapy (usually > 4500cGy) develop chronic radiation enteropathy. Clinical presentation The clinical presentation is non...
Article

Radiologically inserted gastrostomy (RIG)

A radiologically inserted gastrostomy (RIG) is a procedure where a tube is inserted percutaneously in the stomach, principally to provide nutritional support for patients with swallowing disorders 1. Indications inadequate oral intake due to dysphagia (neurologic disorder, oesophagal obstructi...
Article

Radiological signs (gastrointestinal tract)

Radiological signs are described across the disciplines of imaging, including the gastrointestinal tract. Fruit-inspired, nature-related, and more feature in the list of signs described for a wide array of pathology. How fascinating are the minds of radiologists work in describing pathology?
Article

Ranson criteria

Ranson's criteria are useful in assessing prognosis in early acute pancreatitis. The more of the criteria are met the higher the mortality. Ranson's criteria are assessed both at admission and at 48 hours. Criteria On admission age: >55 years white blood count: >16 000/mm blood glucose leve...
Article

Rapunzel syndrome

Rapunzel syndrome is the term for a trichobezoar (gastric 'hair ball') which has a tail-like extension into the small bowel through the pylorus causing gastric outlet obstruction. For discussion of other gastrointestinal foreign bodies, please see: bezoars. Clinical presentation The patient u...
Article

RASopathy

RASopathies are a class of developmental disorders caused by germline mutations in genes that encode for components or regulators of the Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. Epidemiology As a group, RASopathies represent one of the most common malformation syndromes, with an in...
Article

Rat-tail sign (esophagus)

The rat-tail sign is used to refer to the tapering of the inferior esophagus in achalasia. The same appearance (although it is difficult to see the similarity) is also referred to as the ​bird beak sign (esophagus). 
Article

Recreational drug use (radiological manifestations)

Radiological manifestations of recreational drug use are not infrequently seen as the use of recreational drugs is widespread. Epidemiology Interestingly, recent reports have suggested a decreasing incidence of reported drug use in the general population over the past decade, but it remains th...
Article

Rectal cancer

Rectal cancer, although sharing many of the features of generic colorectal carcinoma (CRC), has some features that make it unique. These are predominantly related to its anatomical location which has implications in both preoperative imaging assessment and surgical technique. Demographics and c...
Article

Rectal cancer protocol (MRI)

Pelvic MRI protocol for rectal cancer includes: through tumor (always ensure planes are exactly perpendicular to the wall) three-plane T2 axial T1 narrow field of view images to be included overviews axial T2FS axial T1 See also MRI protocols
Article

Rectal cancer (staging)

Staging strongly influences the success of and rate of local recurrence following rectal cancer resection. MRI is the modality of choice for the staging of rectal cancer, to guide surgical and non-surgical management options. MRI is used at diagnosis, following downstaging chemoradiotherapy, and...
Article

Rectal foreign bodies

Rectal foreign bodies are not uncommon in emergency departments around the world, and although they are often the source of endless amusement do potentially cause management difficulties. Epidemiology The incidence varies according to the region, said to be uncommon in Asia and most common in ...
Article

Rectal prolapse

Rectal prolapses refer to the prolapse of the rectum into the anal canal. They can involve the entire wall of the rectum or only the mucosal layer. Epidemiology Rectal prolapse in Western populations is more common in females (M:F 1:4). In women, it is more common over the age of 50 years. In ...
Article

Rectocele

Rectocele refers to a herniation or bulge of the rectal wall, with the most common type being an anterior rectocele where the bulge is into the posterior vaginal wall in a female patient. Rectocoeles can also occur posteriorly or laterally. Rectocoele is the term most commonly used by colorectal...
Article

Rectosigmoid ratio

The rectosigmoid ratio is a measurement of the diameter of the rectum divided by that of the sigmoid colon during contrast enema. It is of particular use in the diagnosis of Hirschsprung disease. Normal children have a rectum that is larger than the sigmoid (i.e. rectosigmoid ratio >1). In fact...
Article

Rectovesical pouch

Rectovesical pouch is the forward reflection of the peritoneum from the lower third of the rectum to the upper part of the bladder in males. Gross anatomy The rectovesical pouch is the lowest part of the peritoneal cavity and usually contains loops of small bowel or sigmoid colon. It is 7.5 cm...
Article

Rectum

The rectum is the last part of the large intestine. It is located within the pelvis and is the continuation of the sigmoid colon after the rectosigmoid junction and continues as the anal canal at the anorectal angle created by puborectalis.  Gross anatomy At the level of the S3 vertebral body,...
Article

Reflux management systems

Reflux management systems refer to medical devices that offer an alternative to surgical based treatments for severe and medically refractory gastro-esophageal reflux disease. Indications for the surgical management of gastro-esophageal reflux disease include gastro-esophageal reflux disease re...
Article

Refractory celiac disease

Refractory celiac disease is a rare subtype of celiac disease typified by a lack of resolution of symptoms despite 6-12 months of a strict gluten-free diet, and in the absence of other factors that may affect disease response or the presence of malignancy. Epidemiology Precise figures for the ...
Article

Renal cysts and diabetes syndrome

Renal cysts and diabetes syndrome (RCAD), also known as maturity-onset diabetes of the young, type 5 (MODY5), refers to the combination of renal cortical cysts and diabetes mellitus in patients with mutations in the HNF1B gene. When renal cysts are associated with these mutations without disturb...
Article

Replogle tube

A Replogle tube is a medical device used in the treatment of babies with esophageal atresia. The tube is double-lumen and is inserted through the nostril and into the blind-ending esophageal pouch where it is then used to drain the pooled saliva. This prevents the secretions overflowing into the...
Article

Retained barium in appendix

Retained barium in appendix refers to the presence of barium in appendix beyond 72 hours from the start of procedure. Proposed significance Previously used as a sign of appendicitis. Actual significance Retained barium outlining the appendiceal lumen allows evaluation of its width and contou...
Article

Retroperitoneal fasciitis

Retroperitoneal fasciitis is a rare potentially life-threatening infection of the retroperitoneum. It is the retroperitoneal equivalent of necrotizing fasciitis or non-necrotizing soft tissue fasciitis, and just like its soft tissue counterpart, can also be either necrotizing or not. Clinical p...
Article

Retroperitoneal hemangioma

Retroperitoneal hemangiomas  are almost  always of  the  cavernous hemangioma2.  Clinical presentation They tend to be asymptomatic, especially in  the early stages of their development, but when present, symptoms are non-specific and  due  to  mass effect on adjacent anatomic structure. Radi...
Article

Retroperitoneal hydatid infection

Retroperitoneal hydatid infection refers to the presence of hydatid cyst in the retroperitoneal region of the abdomen. For a general discussion, and for links to other system specific manifestations, please refer to the article on hydatid disease.  Pathology It is generally seen secondary to ...
Article

Retroperitoneal liposarcoma

Retroperitoneal liposarcoma is a subtype of liposarcoma, and is a malignant tumor of mesenchymal origin that may arise in any fat-containing region of the body. It is one of the most common primary retroperitoneal neoplasms 2. Pathology Histology There are five histological types: well-diffe...
Article

Retroperitoneal organs (mnemonic)

A useful for mnemonic to remember which organs are retroperitoneal is: SAD PUCKER Mnemonic S: suprarenal (adrenal) gland A: aorta/IVC D: duodenum (second and third part) P: pancreas (except tail) U: ureters C: colon (ascending and descending) K: kidneys E: (o)esophagus R: rectum
Article

Retroperitoneum

The retroperitoneum is the part of the abdominal cavity that lies between the posterior parietal peritoneum and anterior to the transversalis fascia. It is divided into three spaces by the perirenal fascia and is best visualized using CT or MRI. The three spaces are: anterior pararenal space ...
Article

Reverse figure 3 sign

The reverse figure 3 sign (also known as the E sign) is seen on barium swallows in patients with a coarctation of the aorta and is the medial equivalent of the figure 3 sign seen on plain chest radiographs. It is formed by prestenotic dilatation of the ascending aorta, indentation of the coarcta...
Article

Revised Atlanta classification of acute pancreatitis

The Revised Atlanta classification of acute pancreatitis is an international multidisciplinary classification of the severity of acute pancreatitis, updating the 1992 Atlanta classification. It was initially revised in 2012 and then further updated in 2016 6. The worldwide consensus aims for an...
Article

Richter hernia

Richter hernias are an abdominal hernia where only a portion of the bowel wall is herniated and comprise 10% of strangulated hernias. These hernias progress more rapidly to gangrene than other strangulated hernias but obstruction is less frequent.  Pathology In contrast to most other types of ...
Article

Right colic artery

The right colic artery may arise directly from the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) but often arises from a common trunk with the ileocolic artery or middle colic artery. It courses to the right to the ascending colon and divides into a descending branch that supplies the lower portion of the a...
Article

Right colic flexure

Right colic flexure (or hepatic flexure) is used to describe the bend in the colon as the ascending colon continues as the transverse colon.  Gross anatomy Connective tissue connects this part of the colon to the anterior pararenal fascia, descending part of the duodenum (D2) and head of pancr...
Article

Right gastric artery

The right gastric artery is a branch of the common hepatic artery which supplies the lesser curvature of the stomach. Gross Anatomy Course The right gastric artery branches off from the common hepatic artery as it turns into the lesser omentum. It runs along the lesser curvature of the stomac...
Article

Right gastroepiploic artery

The right gastroepiploic artery (RGA) arises from the gastroduodenal artery as it divides into its two terminal branches, the right gastroepiploic artery and the superior pancreaticoduodenal artery. Gross Anatomy Course The RGA passes between the first part of the duodenum and the pancreas, ...
Article

Right iliac fossa mass (differential)

Right iliac fossa mass is a common clinical presentation and has a range of differentials that need to be excluded. Radiology plays an important role in this differentiation. Differential diagnosis appendicular mass appendicular abscess appendicular mucocele appendicular neoplasms ileoceca...
Article

Right subhepatic space

The right subhepatic space, or hepatorenal pouch, lies between the upper pole of the right kidney and the inferior surface of the right lobe of the liver. Gross anatomy This is a subcompartment of the right supramesocolic space. The space can be further subdivided in to two other spaces by it...
Article

Right subphrenic space

The right subphrenic space (a.k.a. right anterior space, right subdiaphragmatic space) is a potential space that lies between the right lobe of the liver and the inferior surface of the diaphragm. Gross anatomy This is a subcompartment of the supracolic compartment. It reaches as far as the up...
Article

Right supramesocolic space

The right supramesocolic space is an arbitrary subdivision of the supramesocolic space, which lies between the diaphragm and the transverse colon. Gross anatomy The right supramesocolic space is separated from the left supramesocolic space by the falciform ligament, and can be divided into thr...
Article

Rigler sign

The Rigler sign, also known as the double wall sign, is seen on a radiograph of the abdomen when the air is present on both sides of the intestine, i.e. when there is air on both the luminal and peritoneal side of the bowel wall. Pneumoperitoneum may be a result of perforation or, recent instru...
Article

Rigler triad

Rigler triad consists of three findings seen in gallstone ileus: pneumobilia small bowel obstruction ectopic gallstone, usually in the right iliac fossa History and etymology It is named after Leo George Rigler, American radiologist (1896-1979) 1. Practical points Rigler triad should not ...
Article

Ring shadow (disambiguation)

Ring shadows are radiographic signs seen on either chest x-rays or on upper gastrointestinal fluoroscopy: ring shadow (chest) ring shadow (abdomen)
Article

Rokitansky-Aschoff sinuses

Rokitansky-Aschoff sinuses are diverticula of the gallbladder wall which may be microscopic or macroscopic. Histologically, they are outpouchings of gallbladder mucosa that sit within the gallbladder muscle layer. Related pathology They are not of themselves considered abnormal, but may be ass...
Article

Root of the mesentery

The root of the mesentery, or root of the small bowel mesentery to be exact, is the origin of the mesentery of the small intestine (i.e. jejunum and ileum) from the posterior parietal peritoneum., attached to the posterior abdominal wall. It extends from the duodenojejunal flexure to the ileocec...
Article

Rose-thorn ulcers

Rose-thorn ulcers or rose-thorn appearance refers to deep penetrating linear ulcers or fissuring typically seen within stenosed terminal ileum with a thickened wall. They appear as thorn-like extraluminal projections on barium studies and this appearance is one of the typical signs of Crohn dise...
Article

Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery

In many centers, laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass has become the most common bariatric procedure for morbid obesity.  In this operation, the stomach is stapled or divided to form a small pouch (typically <30 mL in volume), which empties into a Roux limb of the jejunum of varying length (ty...
Article

Roux limb

A Roux limb may be formed in multiple different gastrointestinal surgeries, including bariatric surgery, e.g. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass biliopancreatic diversion partial gastrectomy total gastrectomy partial pancreaticoduodenectomy (Whipple procedure) In these surgeries the small bowel is ...
Article

Rugal folds

The rugal folds are the mucosal folds within the stomach that give the distinctive appearance on barium studies.
Article

Rule of 2s in Meckel diverticulum

The rule of 2s is a useful mnemonic for Meckel diverticulum. Meckel diverticula: occur in 2% of the population are 2 inches (5 cm) long are 2 feet (60 cm) from the ileocecal valve 2/3rds have ectopic mucosa 2 types of ectopic tissue are commonly present (mostly gastric and pancreatic)  an...
Article

Ruptured omphalocoele

Ruptured omphalocoele occurs when there is rupture of the outer membrane of an omphalocoele. When this happens the eviscerated fetal bowel looks free floating and distinction from gastroschisis becomes difficult. However the abdominal defect generally tends to be larger and may contain liver wit...
Article

Saber sign in pneumobilia

The saber sign refers to a pattern of gas distribution seen in supine abdominal radiographs of patients with pneumobilia.  A sword-shaped lucency is apparent in the right paraspinal region of the upper abdomen representing arching gas extending from the common bile duct into the left hepatic duc...
Article

Sacral nerve stimulator

Sacral nerve stimulators are a form of neuromodulation therapy. They are used for urogenital disorders such as urge urinary incontinence and detrusor hyperactivity, and colorectal disorders such as chronic constipation refractory to conventional medical therapy, and fecal incontinence. There is ...
Article

Sandwich sign (mesentery)

A sandwich sign, sometimes known as a hamburger sign, refers to a mesenteric nodal mass, either para-aortic or not, giving an appearance of a hamburger. Confluent lymphadenopathy on both sides of the mesenteric vessels gives rise to an appearance described as the sandwich sign 2. The sign is sp...
Article

Schatzki ring

A Schatzki ring, also called Schatzki-Gary ring, is symptomatically narrow esophageal B-ring occurring in the distal esophagus and usually associated with a hiatus hernia.  Epidemiology Relatively common, lower esophageal rings are found in ~10% of oesophagrams.  Clinical presentation Most c...
Article

Scirrhous carcinoma of the gastrointestinal tract

Scirrhous carcinoma of the gastrointestinal tract is a subtype of primary adenocarcinoma of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Epidemiology It is the least common type of primary adenocarcinoma involving mainly the stomach and the colon. Pathology The tumor demonstrates an infiltrative behavio...
Article

Scleroderma

Scleroderma, also known as systemic sclerosis, is an autoimmune connective tissue disorder characterized by multisystem fibrosis and soft tissue calcification. As such, it affects many separate organ systems, which are discussed separately: musculoskeletal manifestations of scleroderma pulmona...
Article

Scleroderma (gastrointestinal manifestations)

Gastrointestinal manifestations of scleroderma can occur in up to 90% of patients with scleroderma 2 with the commonest site of GI involvement being the esophagus. As the clinical presentation, radiographic appearances and differential diagnosis vary with the location of involvement these are d...
Article

Sclerosing mesenteritis

Sclerosing mesenteritis, also referred to as mesenteric panniculitis, is an uncommon idiopathic disorder characterized by chronic non-specific inflammation involving the adipose tissue of the bowel mesentery. Epidemiology   Typically this condition afflicts adults in their sixties with mild ma...
Article

Seatbelt sign (abdomen)

The seatbelt sign is both a clinical and radiological sign. It is simply the presence of bruising/abrasions in the distribution of a seatbelt (i.e. horizontal and/or diagonal) across the abdomen, chest and sometimes neck.  A positive seatbelt sign, in combination with abdominal pain or tenderne...
Article

Seatbelt syndrome

The seatbelt syndrome is the constellation of traumatic injuries associated with three-point seatbelts: bowel perforation mesenteric tear sternal fracture lumbar spine fracture
Article

Segmental arterial mediolysis

Segmental arterial mediolysis (SAM) is an increasingly recognised vascular disease of the middle-aged and elderly and a leading cause of spontanoeus intra-abdominal hemorrhage. It is characterized by fusiform aneurysms, stenoses, dissections and occlusions within splanchnic arterial branches. Im...
Article

Segmental pancreatitis

Segmental pancreatitis is not a distinct entity in itself but describes an imaging differential. Clinical presentation With segmental pancreatitis, a patient presents with clinical pancreatitis (signs, symptoms, laboratory markers), but on imaging, only a portion of the gland appears to have c...
Article

SeHCAT

SeHCAT™ (23-seleno-25-homo-tauro-cholic acid or tauroselcholic acid) is a radiopharmaceutical used in the investigation of bile salt malabsorption, which is a cause of chronic diarrhea.  Characteristics physical half-life: 118 days Uses, dosage and timings A capsule containing SeHCAT is inge...
Article

Semilunar line

The semilunar line, linea semilunaris or Spigelian line is a bilateral vertical curved line in the anterior abdominal wall where the layers of the rectus sheath fuse lateral to the rectus abdominis muscle and medial to the oblique muscles. Related pathology It is the site of a Spigelian hernia.
Article

Sentinel loop

A sentinel loop is a short segment of adynamic ileus close to an intra-abdominal inflammatory process. The sentinel loop sign may aid in localising the source of inflammation. For example, a sentinel loop in the upper abdomen may indicate pancreatitis, while one in the right lower quadrant may ...
Article

Serous cystadenoma of pancreas

Serous cystadenoma of the pancreas, also referred as microcystic adenoma, is an uncommon type of benign cystic pancreatic neoplasm.  Epidemiology There is a recognised strong female predilection (M:F ~ 1:4) and usually presents in middle age to elderly patients (>60 years of age).  Clinical p...
Article

Serrated polyposis syndrome

Serrated polyposis syndrome (SPS), also called hyperplastic polyposis syndrome, is one of numerous polyposis syndromes and is characterized by the presence of multiple serrated polyps or a mixture of serrated and hyperplastic polyps, with the exact number required for diagnosis dependent on loca...
Article

Seurat spleen

Seurat spleen is an angiographic appearance seen following blunt trauma to the spleen. Multiple small punctate regions of intraparenchymal contrast extravasation lead to a spotted appearance. History and etymology The term refers to a likeness between the angiographic appearance and the artwor...
Article

Shading sign (endometrioma)

Shading sign is an MRI finding typically seen in an endometrioma. It may also be seen with some endometrioid tumors (e.g endometrioid carcinoma of the ovary) It helps to distinguish endometriomas from other blood-containing lesions (e.g. hemorrhagic corpus luteum cysts), with a sensitivity of 9...
Article

Shock bowel

Shock bowel is the appearance of the bowel in a state of hypotension.  It is usually seen as part of the CT hypoperfusion complex. Radiographic features CT thickened bowel loops (>3 mm) with enhancing walls (the reason the condition was previously known as "shock bowel") on non-contrasted im...
Article

Short gastric arteries

The short gastric arteries are a group of short arteries arising from the terminal splenic artery and the left gastroepiploic artery which supply the fundus of the stomach along it's greater curvature. The vessels are short in length, variable in number and course through the gastrosplenic liga...

Updating… Please wait.

 Unable to process the form. Check for errors and try again.

 Thank you for updating your details.