Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

929 results found
Article

Arc of Riolan

The arc of Riolan (AOR), also known as the mesenteric meandering artery (of Moskowitz) or central anastomotic mesenteric artery, is an arterio-arterial anastomosis between the superior and inferior mesenteric arteries. Gross anatomy It is an inconstant artery that connects the proximal superio...
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Areae gastricae

Areae gastricae are a normal finding on double contrast images of the stomach. Radiographic features fine reticular network of barium-coated grooves between 1-5 mm islands/areas of gastric mucosa may be seen in ~70-80% of patients if there is adequate high-density barium coating of the stomac...
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Arrowhead sign (caecum)

The arrowhead sign refers to the focal caecal thickening centred on the appendiceal orifice, seen as a secondary sign in acute appendicitis. The contrast material in the caecal lumen assumes an arrowhead configuration, pointing at the appendix.   The arrowhead sign is applicable only when enter...
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Asbestos related diseases

Asbestos related disease, in particular affecting the lung, comprise of a broad spectrum of entities related to the inhalational exposure to asbestos fibres. They can be divided into benign and malignant changes 1-3. Benign pleural and parenchymal lung disease asbestos related benign pleural d...
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Ascariasis

Ascariasis is due to infection with the Ascaris lumbricoides adult worm, and typically presents with gastrointestinal or pulmonary symptoms, depending on the stage of development.   Epidemiology Ascaris lumbricoides is widely distributed in tropical and subtropical regions and in other humid a...
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Ascending colon

The ascending colon is the second part of the large bowel. Gross anatomy The ascending colon is the continuation of the caecum superior to the ileocaecal valve. It is secondarily retroperitoneal, although it has its own mesentery in approximately 25% of patients and is 15 cm in length 1,2. Th...
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Ascites

Ascites is defined as an abnormal amount of intraperitoneal fluid. Clinical presentation Patients with a large volume of ascites can present with abdominal distension (which may be painful), nausea, vomiting, dyspnoea and peripheral oedema 7, 9. Pathology Ascitic fluid is traditionally chara...
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Asplenia

Asplenia refers to absence of the spleen thereby leading to deficient splenic function. Epidemiology Seen in 3% of neonates with structural heart disease and in 30% of patients who die from cardiac malposition. The male-to-female ratio is 2:1. Pathology Asplenia can be classified into two  t...
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Atrio-oesophageal fistula

Atrial-oesophageal fistulas are rare pathological connections between the left atrium and the oesophagus.  Clinical presentation The presentation is non-specific. Patients may complain of fever, malaise, dysphagia or present with neurological symptoms 3.  Pathology The chief cause of atrial-...
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Atrophic gastritis

Atrophic gastritis is a chronic condition of autoimmune and non-autoimmune aetiology.  Pathology Two types of atrophic gastritis have been described 1-3: type A: autoimmune gastric body and fundus atrophy secondary to antiparietal cell antibodies decreased secretion of acid and intrinsic fa...
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Autoimmune pancreatitis

Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) is a form of chronic pancreatitis associated with autoimmune manifestations on clinical, histological, and laboratory grounds 1. Distinguishing this entity from other forms of chronic pancreatitis (such as alcohol-induced) is important as steroid treatment is effec...
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Autosplenectomy

Autosplenectomy denotes spontaneous infarction of the spleen with resulting hyposplenism. Epidemiology Autosplenectomy is most frequently encountered in patients with homozygous sickle cell disease, although it has also been reported in pneumococcal septicaemia 1, and SLE 2. The demographics t...
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Backwash ileitis

Backwash ileitis is seen in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC), where the entire colon is involved. In such cases the terminal ileum is oedematous. Backwash ileitis extends contiguously backward from the caecum without skip regions. One source estimates it to occur in 6% of patients with UC,...
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Ball of wool sign (hydatid cyst)

The ball of wool sign, also referred to as the yarn sign or congealed water lily sign, is an ultrasound appearance, representing degeneration of hydatid cysts (WHO class CE 4). The inner side of the cyst detaches from the cyst wall and folds on itself, causing a change from anechoic (fluid) to a...
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Balthazar score

The Balthazar score is a subscore within the CT severity index (CTSI) for grading of acute pancreatitis.  The CTSI sums two scores: Balthazar score: grading of pancreatitis (A-E) grading the extent of pancreatic necrosis The Balthazar score was originally used alone, but the addition of a sc...
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Bannayan–Riley–Ruvalcaba syndrome

Bannayan–Riley–Ruvalcaba syndrome (BRRS or BRR syndrome) is a very rare autosomal dominant hamartomatous disorder caused by a mutation in the PTEN gene. It is considered in the family of hamartomatous polyposis syndrome. There are no formal diagnostic criteria for this disease, but characterist...
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Bariatric intragastric balloon therapy

Bariatric intragastric balloon therapy is a relatively new form of bariatric surgery, which involves a balloon being endoscopically placed and inflated inside the lumen of the stomach. The balloon resides in the stomach and the mechanism of action is presumably due to stretching the stomach, ind...
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Barium peritonitis

Barium peritonitis is a rare complication of gastrointestinal fluoroscopy, and occurs when there is gastrointestinal tract perforation and spillage of barium into the peritoneal cavity.  Pathology Barium in the peritoneal cavity is treated as a foreign body with resultant immune response that ...
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Barium studies of the small bowel

Barium studies of the small intestine are still considered an effective modality to show the bowel loops in a cost-effective way. Procedure Small bowel follow through (SBFT) or transit study  routine investigation for delineation of all parts the small bowel done with barium meal after havin...
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Barium sulfate

Barium sulfate (BaSO4), often just called barium in radiology parlance, is a salt of barium, a metallic chemical element with atomic number 56. Barium is considered one of the heavy metals. Unlike barium and many of its other salts, barium sulfate is insoluble in water and therefore very little ...
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Barium swallow

Barium swallow is a dedicated test of the pharynx, oesophagus, and proximal stomach, and may be performed as a single or double contrast study. The study is often "modified" to suit the history and symptoms of the individual patient, but it is often useful to evaluate the entire pathway from the...
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Barrett oesophagus

Barrett oesophagus is a term for intestinal metaplasia of the oesophagus. It is considered the precursor lesion for oesophageal adenocarcinoma. Epidemiology Barrett oesophagus is thought to have a prevalence of 3-15% in patients with reflux oesophagitis. Mean age at diagnosis is 55 years old 5...
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Beak sign (pyloric stenosis)

Beak sign in pyloric stenosis is one of the fluoroscopic (barium meal) findings which is useful in the diagnosis of congenital hypertrophic pyloric stenosis.  Radiographic features Barium meal A beak-like tapering projection of barium is seen entering into the narrowed and compressed pyloric ...
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Benign oesophageal lesions

Benign oesophageal lesions are less symptomatic than malignant oesophageal lesions, making up for only 1% of clinically apparent oesophageal lesions. Pathology oesophageal leiomyoma (>50%) may calcify oesophageal fibrovascular polyp (~12.5%) may contain fat oesophageal duplication cyst (10...
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Bethesda criteria of hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer

The Bethesda criteria are an alternative to the Amsterdam criteria for the clinical diagnosis of hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC).  Diagnosis of HNPCC is made if any of the following criteria are fulfilled: Amsterdam criteria are met 2 or more HNPCC related malignancies  pa...
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Bezoar

Bezoars are accumulations of undigestable contents with the gastrointestinal tract 2.  They are known to cause small bowel obstruction and sometimes CT may demonstrate the bezoar as a mass in the obstructed segment of bowel. The bezoar may be outlined by fluid in the proximally dilated small bo...
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Bilateral adrenal gland hyperenhancement

Bilateral adrenal gland hyperenhancement or intense adrenal enhancement may be a feature of hypotension and forms part of the CT hypoperfusion complex. Adrenal gland hyperenhancement has been described in paediatric and small adult series or individual cases of haemorrhagic shock, pancreatitis,...
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Biliopancreatic diversion

Biliopancreatic diversion was a development on the jejunoileal bypass type of bariatric surgery. It can be performed with or without a duodenal switch. The procedure involves distal gastrectomy, with formation of a gastric pouch gastroenterostomy, with formation of a ~250 cm Roux limb (normal...
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Billroth II gastrojejunostomy

Billroth II gastrojejunostomy is a procedure that has been performed for tumour or severe ulcer disease in the distal stomach. There are many variations on the procedure, but they generally involve resection of the diseased portion of the distal stomach and a side-to-side anastomosis of the res...
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Bird beak sign (oesophagus)

The bird's beak sign of the oesophagus is used to refer to the tapering of the inferior oesophagus in achalasia. The same appearance (although it is difficult to see the similarity) is also referred to as the rat-tail sign. The appearance, although classically occurring in primary achalasia, ca...
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Bird beak sign (right colon)

The bird beak sign of the right colon is tapering obstruction of the inferior part of right colon seen on contrast enema or CT scan with rectal contrast indicating caecal volvulus. This sign can help to differentiate caecal volvulus from caecal bascule, in particular on a contrast/barium enema ...
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Bird beak sign (sigmoid colon)

Bird's beak sign of the sigmoid is one of the signs of sigmoid volvulus. It represents gradual narrowing/tapering of sigmoid colon up to the level of obstruction during contrast/barium insertion to the rectum or on CT. When located in the sigmoid colon, it suggests the diagnosis of sigmoid volv...
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Blind loop syndrome

Blind loop syndrome (or "blind pouch syndrome") is an event that may occur after an end-to-end or end-to-side bowel anastomosis. Dilatation and stasis of the bypassed bowel may lead to bacterial overgrowth, breakdown of bile salts, and result in nutritional problems. It may even eventually lead ...
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Bochdalek hernia features (mnemonic)

A helpful mnemonic for remembering the features of a Bochdalek hernia is: BBBBB Mnemonic B: Bochdalek B: big B: back and medial, usually on the left side B: baby B: bad (associated with pulmonary hypoplasia)
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Body packing

Body packing refers to the internal concealment of drugs within the gastrointestinal tract or other orifices. People who do this may be called body packers, (drug) mules, stuffers, couriers or swallowers. Drugs may be concealed within condoms, foil, latex or cellophane.  Epidemiology There is ...
Article

Boerhaave syndrome

Boerhaave syndrome refers to an oesophageal rupture secondary to forceful vomiting and retching. Epidemiology It tends to be more prevalent in males, with alcoholism a risk factor. The estimated incidence is ~ 1:6000. Clinical presentation They are often associated with the clinical triad of...
Article

Bouveret syndrome

Bouveret syndrome refers to a gastric outlet obstruction secondary to impaction of a gallstone in the pylorus or proximal duodenum. Thus, it can be considered a very proximal form of gallstone ileus.  Clinical presentation Bouveret syndrome occurs most commonly in elderly women. The presenting...
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Bowel and mesenteric trauma

Bowel and mesenteric trauma can result from blunt force, penetrating and iatrogenic trauma. Epidemiology The bowel and mesentery are injured in ~2.5% (range 0.3-5%) of blunt force abdominal trauma 1,3,5,8. However not surprisingly, bowel and mesenteric injuries are more frequent after penetrat...
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Bowel dilatation (summary)

Bowel dilatation is a relatively non-specific sign than can be seen on most imaging modalities. In bowel obstruction, dilatation may be demonstrated on a plain radiograph providing the bowel is filled with gas. Reference article This is a summary article; we do not have a more in-depth referen...
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Bowel obstruction

Bowel obstructions are common and account for 20% of admissions with "surgical abdomens". Radiology is important in confirming the diagnosis and identifying the underlying cause. Bowel obstructions are usually divided according to where the obstruction occurs, and since imaging appearances, und...
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Bowel perforation (summary)

Bowel perforation is an acute surgical emergency where there is a release of gastric or intestinal contents into the peritoneal space. Reference article This is a summary article; we do not have a more in-depth reference article. Summary epidemiology depends on cause presentation history ...
Article

Bowel sacculation (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember causes of bowel sacculation is: MISC Mnemonic M: metastasis I: ischaemia S: scleroderma C: Crohn disease
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Bronchogenic cyst vs oesophageal duplication cyst

Bronchogenic cysts and oesophageal duplication cysts are embryological foregut duplication cysts and are also differential diagnoses for a cystic mediastinal mass. Differences Symptoms asymptomatic bronchogenic cyst symptomatic oesophageal cyst in the case of peptic ulceration Plain radiogr...
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Brunner gland adenoma

Brunner gland adenomas are hyperplastic areas of the Brunner glands within the duodenum that are greater than 1 cm. They tend to be 1-2 cm in diameter, although case reports have described tumours of up to 12 cm diameter. Where the diameter of focal hyperplasia is less than 1 cm, the term Brunne...
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Brunner gland hyperplasia

Brunner gland hyperplasia results from disproportionate overgrowth of Brunner glands in the duodenum as a result of hyperacidity. Hyperplasia begins at the pylorus and extends distally within the first 2/3 of the duodenum. Where the focal growth of hyperplastic cells is greater than 1cm in diam...
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Bulging duodenal papilla

Major duodenal papilla is a conic or cylindric protuberance at the medial aspect of the descending or horizontal duodenum at the site of the sphincter of Oddi. It is finding on small bowel follow-though (and endoscopy) and has a relatively long differential. On cross sectional imaging, the unde...
Article

Buried bumper syndrome

Buried bumper syndrome (BBS) is a rare but important complication in patients with percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) tube, occurring by migration of the internal bumper along its track. The tube may get lodged anywhere between the gastric wall and the skin and lead to life-threatening co...
Article

CA 19-9 elevation

CA 19-9 is a serum antigen (monosialoganglioside) that has increased diagnostic use in the management of several malignancies, mainly of hepato-pancreatico-biliary origin. It is nonspecific, however, and can rise in both malignant and nonmalignant conditions. Elevation of serum CA 19-9 has been...
Article

Caecal bar sign

The caecal bar sign is a secondary sign in acute appendicitis. It refers to the appearance of inflammatory soft tissue at the base of the appendix, separating the appendix from the contrast-filled caecum. See also arrowhead sign
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Caecal bascule

Caecal bascule is an uncommon type of caecal volvulus. It occurs in a large and mobile caecum that folds up over itself resulting in closed obstruction to the caecal pole and appendix. Clinical presentation and treatment are not significantly different to the more common axial caecal volvulus. ...
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Caecal volvulus

Caecal volvulus describes torsion of the caecum around its mesentery which often results in obstruction. If unrecognised, it can result in bowel perforation and faecal peritonitis. Epidemiology Caecal volvulus accounts for ~10% of all intestinal volvuluses, and generally occur in somewhat youn...
Article

Caecum

The caecum is the first part of the large bowel and lies in the right lower quadrant of the abdomen.  Gross anatomy Blind-ending sac of bowel that lies below the ileocaecal valve, above which the large intestine continues as the ascending colon. The caecum measures 6 cm in length and can have ...
Article

Candida oesophagitis

Candida oesophagitis is the most common cause of infectious oesophagitis that commonly affects immunocompromised patients. On imaging, it is characterised by irregular plaque-like lesions separated by normal mucosa and small (<1cm) ulcers, which are assessed on oesophagogram studies.   Epidemio...
Article

Cantlie's line

Cantlie's line is a vertical plane that divides the liver into left and right lobes creating the principal plane used for hepatectomy. It extends from the inferior vena cava posteriorly to the middle of the gallbladder fossa anteriorly. It contains the middle hepatic vein which divides the live...
Article

Carbolic acid poisoning symptoms (mnemonic)

The symptoms of carbolic acid poisoning can be recalled using the mnemonic: 5 Cs Mnemonic C: CNS depression C: constricted pupil C: carboluria (smoky urine) C: cartilage C: corneal deposition
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Carcinoembryonic antigen

Serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is a cell-adhesive glycoprotein that was discovered in colorectal cancer in 1965, and is hence one of the oldest and most used tumour markers. Its name derives from its normal expression in fetoembryonic liver, gut and pancreas tissue. Normal range of CEA is...
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Carcinogens

Carcinogens are substances known to cause cancer. They include: Brain vinyl chloride Nasopharynx / nasal passage nickel wood dust chromium Thyroid ionising radiation (not technically a substance) Skin arsenic coal tars polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) Lungs arsenic asbestos chloro...
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Carcinoid syndrome

Carcinoid syndrome refers to a spectrum of symptoms that result from excessive hormone (mainly serotonin) secretion.  Epidemiology Occurs equally between the sexes, most commonly in the 40-70 year age group 3. Clinical presentation Diarrhoea is the most common and earliest symptom but others...
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Carcinoid tumours

Carcinoid tumours are a type of neuroendocrine tumour that can occur in a number of locations. Carcinoid tumours arise from endocrine amine precursor uptake and decarboxylation (APUD) cells that can be found throughout the gastrointestinal tract as well as other organs (e.g. lung). In general, t...
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Carcinosarcoma

Carcinosarcomas are highly malignant biphasic tumours with both carcinomatous (epithelial) and sarcomatous (bone, cartilage, or skeletal muscle) components.  Pathology It can arise in many organs: lung 5: pulmonary carcinosarcoma oesophagus 1: oesophageal carcinosarcoma genitourinary tract ...
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Carman meniscus sign

The Carman meniscus sign describes the lenticular shape of barium in cases of large and flat gastric ulcers, in which the inner margin is convex toward the lumen. It usually indicates a malignant ulcerated neoplasm; in cases of benign gastric ulcers, the inner margin is usually concave toward th...
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Carney triad

The Carney triad (not to be confused with the related Carney Stratakis syndrome, or the unrelated Carney complex) is a rare syndrome defined by the coexistence of three tumours: extra-adrenal paraganglioma (e.g. spinal paraganglioma) initially, only functioning extra-adrenal paragangliomas wer...
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Cases in radiology (video tutorials)

The cases featured in these video lectures are specifically selected to teach important concepts in radiology over a broad range of topics. The tutorials vary in difficulty from basic to advanced. For maximum learning, try the cases for yourself in Radiopaedia quiz mode first.  We love this ser...
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Castleman disease

Castleman disease, also known as angiofollicular lymph node hyperplasia or giant lymph node hyperplasia, is an uncommon benign B-cell lymphoproliferative condition. It can affect several regions of the body although commonly described as a solitary mediastinal mass. There are two distinct subty...
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Causes of pancreatitis (mnemonic)

A catchy and early learnt mnemonic for recalling some of the causes of pancreatitis is: I GET SMASHED Mnemonic I: idiopathic G: gallstones E: ethanol (alcohol) T: trauma S: steroids  M: mumps (and other infections) / malignancy A: autoimmune S: scorpion stings/spider bites H: hyperlip...
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Cavernous venous malformation

Cavernous venous malformation, also traditionally referred to as a cavernous haemangioma (despite it not being a tumour) or cavernomas, are non-neoplastic slow flow venous malformations found in many parts of the body.  Terminology Despite the ubiquity of use of the traditional terms cavernoma...
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Cavitary mesenteric lymph node syndrome

Cavitary mesenteric lymph node syndrome (CMNLS) is seen in association with coeliac disease and is characterised by the triad of: splenic atrophy  low-attenuation lymphadenopathy that sometimes contains fat-fluid levels villous atrophy
Article

CEC syndrome

CEC syndrome refers to the combination of coeliac disease, epilepsy and bilateral occipital calcifications. This is also known as Gobbi syndrome. Patients with cerebral calcifications and coeliac disease without epilepsy are considered as having an incomplete form of CEC syndrome 1. Epidemiolog...
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Centipede sign (mesentery)

The centipede sign is seen as engorged mesenteric vessels in case of acute sigmoid diverticulitis which gives an appearance similar to centipede 1.
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Cervix sign of pyloric stenosis

The cervix sign of pyloric stenosis describes indentation of the pylorus into the fluid-filled antrum, seen in pyloric stenosis. See also antral nipple sign target sign of pyloric stenosis shoulder sign of pyloric stenosis
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Chagas disease

Chagas disease, also referred as trypanosomiasis, is a tropical parasitic infection with a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations, since it can virtually affect any organ, but there are characteristic radiological features. Epidemiology Chagas disease is endemic to Central and South America....
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Chalasia

Chalasia is a condition most commonly identified in infants and young children, and is related to congential incompetence of the lower esophageal sphincter, allowing unrestricted reflux of gastric contents. This contrasts with achalasia, where there is restriction at the gastroesphageal junction...
Article

Chilaiditi syndrome

Chilaiditi syndrome is the anterior interposition of the colon to the liver reaching the under-surface of the right hemidiaphragm with associated upper abdominal pain; it is one of the causes of pseudopneumoperitoneum. Colonic gas in this position may be misinterpreted as true pneumoperitoneum ...
Article

Cholecystoduodenal fistula

Cholecystoduodenal fistula refers to a fistulous connection between the gallbladder and the duodenum. It is considered the most common type of enterobiliary fistulation. Clinical presentation Can vary but some can present with Bouveret syndrome 3 or a gallstone ileus. Radiographic features C...
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Christmas inspired signs

There are many signs in radiology that are related to Christmas: snowcap sign in avascular necrosis snowman sign in total anomalous pulmonary venous return in pituitary macroadenomas snowstorm appearance in complete hydatidiform and testicular microlithiasis holly leaf sign in calcified pl...
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Chronic mesenteric ischaemia

Chronic mesenteric ischaemia is an uncommon type of intestinal ischaemia usually affecting elderly patients as a result of significant stenosis of two or more mesenteric arteries. Epidemiology Normally seen in patients older than 60 years of age and is three times more common in women. Clinic...
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Chronic pancreatitis

Chronic pancreatitis represents the end result of a continuous, prolonged, inflammatory and fibrosing process that affects the pancreas. This results in irreversible morphologic changes and permanent endocrine and exocrine pancreatic dysfunction. Epidemiology The most common cause of chronic p...
Article

Circumferential resection margin

The circumferential resection margin (CRM) is a term used in rectal carcinoma excision surgery (such as total mesorectal excision (TME). Pathologic evaluation of the resection margin on the excised rectum has been considered important for determining the risk of local recurrence. A margin of ≤1...
Article

Cloaca (urogenital)

The cloaca is the terminal portion of the hindgut. It is an embryonic structure (weeks 4-7) in which the distal ends of the gastrointestinal tract and urogenital system share a common channel. The most distal aspect of the cloaca is termed the cloacal membrane. The cloaca, or portions of it, ca...
Article

Clostridium difficile colitis

Clostridium difficile colitis, also known as pseudomembranous colitis, is a common cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea, and increasingly encountered in sick hospitalised patients. If undiagnosed and untreated, it continues to have high mortality. It may be classified as a form of infectious...
Article

Cobblestone appearance (hollow viscera)

Cobblestoning (having a cobblestone appearance) can occur in a number of hollow organs with mucosa, most commonly the bowel, in the setting of Crohn's disease.  Longitudinal and circumferential fissures and ulcers separate islands of mucosa, giving it an appearance reminiscent of cobblestones. ...
Article

Coeliac artery

Coeliac artery (also known as the coeliac axis or trunk) is a major visceral artery in the abdominal cavity.  Gross anatomy Origin Arises anteriorly from abdominal aorta at the T12 level, behind the median arcuate ligament, just as the aorta enters the abdomen.  Course It is typically a sho...
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Coeliac artery compression syndrome

Coeliac artery compression syndrome is also known as coeliac axis syndrome, median arcuate ligament syndrome and Dunbar syndrome. It is characterised by upper abdominal angina secondary to compression of the coeliac trunk by the diaphragmatic crurae. Pathology The median arcuate ligament is th...
Article

Coeliac disease

Coeliac disease, also known as non-tropical sprue, is a T-cell mediated autoimmune chronic gluten intolerance condition characterised by a loss of villi in the proximal small bowel and gastrointestinal malabsorption (sprue). It should always be considered as a possible underlying aetiology in c...
Article

Coeliac plexus block

Coeliac plexus block under image guidance is an easy and safe percutaneous procedure with good outcomes for pain palliation in patients who have chronic abdominal pain related to coeliac ganglia.  This usually includes patients with advanced cancers, especially from upper abdominal viscera such...
Article

Coffee-bean sign (sigmoid colon)

The coffee-bean sign (also known as the kidney bean sign or bent inner tube sign4 ) is a sign on an abdominal plain film of a sigmoid volvulus although some authors have also used the term to refer to closed loop small bowel obstructions. Caecal volvulus may be mistaken with sigmoid volvulus and...
Article

Collar sign in diaphragmatic rupture

The Collar sign (also called the hour glass sign ) is a helpful sign for diagnosis of diaphragmatic rupture on coronal or sagittal CT/ MR images and barium studies. A waist-like or collar-like appearance of herniated organs at the level of the diaphragm, termed the collar sign. See also depen...
Article

Colo-enteric fistula

A colo-enteric fistula is a type of gastrointestinal fistulation wherein there is abnormal communication between the colon and the small bowel.  Pathology It can occur from a number of causes which include: Crohn disease - considered one of the commonest causes colorectal carcinoma prior su...
Article

Colon cut-off sign

Colon cut-off sign describes gaseous distension seen in proximal colon associated with narrowing of the splenic flexure in cases of acute pancreatitis. Though originally described in abdominal radiographs, this sign has also been demonstrated in contrast enemas and computed tomography 1. This a...
Article

Colon polyp

Colon polyps are mucosal outgrowths of the colon wall. They are of interest to physicians and radiologists because of the accepted progression of adenomatous polyps to colon carcinoma. Pathology adenomatous colon polyps tubular polyps tubulovillous polyps villous colon polyps dysplastic co...
Article

Colonic anastomotic leak

Colonic anastomotic leaks occur in the early or late postoperative phase, in which the enteric anastomosis fails. This may be a small leak that can be managed conservatively or less commonly complete dehiscence requiring repeat surgery. Epidemiology In one large surgical series, the incidence ...
Article

Colonic diverticulosis

Colonic diverticulosis refers to the presence of multiple diverticula. It is quite distinct from diverticulitis which describes inflammation and infection of one or multiple diverticula. Epidemiology Diverticulosis is very common in westernised countries and is typically found in older individ...
Article

Colonic oesophageal interposition

Colonic oesophageal interposition is a now rarely performed upper gastrointestinal tract surgical procedure, in which colon is used to replace the distal oesophagus. This was performed for long oesophageal strictures or in some cases malignancy. The haustra of the colon are illustrated on plai...

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