Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

931 results found
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Emphysematous gastritis

Emphysematous gastritis is a cause of gastric emphysema, and specifically refers to infectious gastritis. It is an uncommon entity with a high mortality rate. In this condition, microorganisms (e.g. Escherichia coli, Clostridium perfringens) produce the gas, which is identified within the stomac...
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Emphysematous pancreatitis

Emphysematous pancreatitis is an unusual complication of acute pancreatitis caused by necrotising infection of the pancreas. It is associated with gas-forming bacteria and characterized by the presence of gas within or around the pancreas.  Pathology Infection with gas-forming bacteria such as...
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Endocrine tumours of the pancreas

Endocrine tumours of the pancreas arise from the pancreatic islet cells and include some distinct tumours that match the cell type of origin.  Terminology Pancreatic endocrine tumours have commonly been referred to as "islet cell tumours", referring to the islets of Langerhans, from which they...
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Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography

Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is a diagnostic and interventional procedure technique using both endoscopy and fluoroscopy for examination and intervention of the biliary tree and pancreatic ducts. It is typically performed by doctors with endoscopic qualifications (e.g. g...
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Endoscopic ultrasound

Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) is a procedure combining the range of endoscopy with the diagnostic abilities of ultrasound. EUS is used in the imaging of the upper GI tract and surrounding structures as well as the respiratory tract (where it is referred to as endobronchial ultrasound, EBUS).  A hi...
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Enteritis

Enteritis refers to inflammation of the small bowel. When associated with inflammation of the stomach, the term gastroenteritis is used which is usually caused by infection. Pathology Aetiology infection infective enteritis eosinophilic enteritis ischaemia inflammatory bowel disease radi...
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Entero-cutaneous fistula

An entero-cutaenous fistula is one between a loop of bowel and the skin.  The content of the bowel being released into the skin surface, such as the anterior abdominal wall.
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Entero-enteric fistula

An entero-enteric fistula is one formed between two parts of the small bowel. The can result for a number of reasons most commonly with inflammatory bowel diease, in particular Crohns.
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Enteroclysis

Enteroclysis is a gastrointestinal technique designed to provide improved evaluation of the small bowel. The conventional fluoroscopic technique is not widely used since it is somewhat invasive, time and labour intensive, and not particularly pleasant for the patient. The exam also requires a de...
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Enterovirus 71

Enterovirus 71 is one of the viruses that causes hand-foot-and-mouth disease in children. It is an enterovirus, one of the picornaviruses. Infection with enterovirus 71 predominantly results in a vesicular rash of the hands and feet that follows a prodrome of symptoms including fever, vomiting ...
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Eosinophilic gastroenteritis

Eosinophilic gastroenteritis (EG) is an uncommon disease characterised by diffuse infiltration of any or all layers of gut wall by eosinophils.  Epidemiology  EG is an uncommon but not rare disease with slight male predominance, it can affect any age group but usually patients present in their...
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Epidermolysis bullosa

Epidermolysis bullosa refers to a rare group of genetically determined conditions characterised by blistering of the skin. This can be limited to the soles and palms or extensive whole body involvement.  Radiographic features Gastrointestinal manifestations: limited to the mucosa of the gastr...
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Epigastric hernia

An epigastric hernia occurs ventrally through a defect in linea alba superior the umbilicus. It is also known as a fatty hernia of linea alba. Risk factors obesity  pregnancy Radiographic features Ultrasound Shows a midline defect which is usually small with or without herniation of omenta...
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Epiphrenic diverticulum

Epiphrenic diverticula are pulsion diverticula of the distal oesophagus arising just above the lower oesophageal sphincter, more frequently on the right posterolateral wall. They are less frequent than traction mid oesophageal diverticula, but may have more clinical relevance.   Clinical prese...
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Epiploic appendages

Epiploic appendages (or appendix epiploica, plural: appendices epiploicae) are peritoneum-lined protrusions of subserosal fat that arise from the surface of the large bowel.  Gross anatomy Epiploic appendages typically measure 1.5 x 3.5 cm but have been reported to measure up to 15 cm in lengt...
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Epiploic appendagitis

Epiploic appendagitis is a rare self limiting inflammatory/ischaemic process involving an appendix epiploica of the colon, and may either be primary or secondary to adjacent pathology. This article pertains to primary (spontaneous) epiploic appendagitis. The term along with omental infarction is...
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Epiploic foramen

The epiploic foramen, also called the foramen of Winslow), is a passage between the greater (general peritoneal space) and lesser sac (omental bursa) allowing communication between these two spaces. Gross anatomy Boundaries It has the following borders: anterior: the free edge of the lesser ...
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Erect chest x-ray (summary)

Erect chest x-rays are standard positioning but are also a specific examination performed for the assessment of subdiaphragmatic free gas (pneumoperitoneum). Reference article This is a summary article; we do not have a more in-depth reference article. Summary indications (acute) concern fo...
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Evacuation proctography

Evacuation proctography (defecography) is a fluoroscopic technique to evaluate pelvic floor disorders. The technique traditionally involves fluoroscopy and barium, but an analogous MRI technique has also been developed (see: MR defaecating proctography). Indications incomplete defecation / con...
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Extramural vascular invasion

Extramural vascular invasion (EMVI) is the direct invasion of a blood vessel (usually a vein) by tumour. In rectal cancer, this can occur on a macroscopic level and be detected on staging MRI. It is a significant prognostic factor, being a predictor of haematogenous spread.  Radiographic featur...
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Extrapulmonary tuberculosis

Extrapulmonary tuberculosis (TB) refers to the haematogenous spread of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Pathology Extrapulmonary tubercuosis can occur as a primary form of the disease, i.e. direct infection of an extrapulmonary organ without the presence of primary pulmonary tuberculosis or it can ...
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Faecaloma

A faecaloma is a mass of faeces most frequently noted in the rectum and sigmoid colon, that is much harder than a faecal impaction due to coprostasis. Pathology Usually, the faecal matter accumulates in the intestine, then stagnates and increases in volume until the intestine becomes deformed ...
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Falciform ligament

The falciform ligament is a broad and thin peritoneal ligament. It is sickle-shaped (Latin: "falciform") and a remnant of the ventral mesentery of the fetus. It is situated in an anteroposterior plane, but lies obliquely so that one surface faces forward and is in contact with the peritoneum be...
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Falciform ligament sign

The falciform ligament sign (also called the Silver's sign) is a sign seen with a pneumoperitoneum. It is almost never seen in isolation. If there is enough free air to outline the falciform ligament, there is usually enough air to also provide at least a Rigler's sign.  The falciform ligamen...
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Familial adenomatous polyposis syndrome

Familial adenomatous polyposis syndrome (FAPS) is characterised by the presence of hundreds of adenomatous polyps in the colon. It is the most common of the polyposis syndromes. Terminology Familial polyposis coli, attenuated familial adenomatous polyposis and Gardner syndrome are all variants...
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Fascial tail sign

The fascial tail sign is the linear extension along the fascia/muscular aponeurosis from a deeper tumor. Radiographic features It appears as a tail and is best appreciated on MRI, classically seen in desmoid tumours as T2 hypointense bands that progressively enhance particularly on delayed pha...
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Fat halo sign (inflammatory bowel disease)

The fat halo sign refers to a feature seen on CT examination of the abdomen, and represents infiltration of the submucosa with fat, between the muscularis propria and the mucosa. It is characterised by an inner (mucosa) and outer (muscularis propria and serosa) ring of enhancing bowel wall along...
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Fat ring sign

The fat ring sign (also known as a  fat halo sign) describes preservation of fat around the mesenteric vessels and around soft tissue nodules on back ground of diffuse fat stranding in patients with mesenteric panniculitis or mesenteric lipomas.  This finding may help distinguish mesenteric pan...
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Fat stranding on CT

Fat stranding is a common sign on CT seen anywhere fat can be found but is most commonly seen in the abdomen/pelvis, but also in the retroperitoneum, thorax and subcutaneous tissues. It can be helpful in localising both acute and chronic pathology. Radiographic features CT Fat stranding can a...
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Fat-stranding (summary)

Fat stranding is a sign that is seen on CT. It describes the change in attenuation of fat around an inflamed structure and is a very helpful signpost for intra-abdominal pathology. Reference article This is a summary article; read more in our article on fat stranding on CT. Summary pathophys...
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Feline oesophagus

Feline oesophagus also known as oesophageal shiver, refers to the transient transverse bands seen in the mid and lower oesophagus on a double contrast barium swallow. The appearance is almost always associated with active gastro-oesophageal reflux 2,3 and is thought to be due to contraction of ...
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Femoral canal

The femoral canal, or the medial compartment of the femoral sheath, is the inverted cone-shaped fascial space medial to the femoral vein within the upper femoral triangle. It is only 1-2 cm long and opens superiorly as the femoral ring. It serves two purposes: allows the femoral vein to expand ...
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Femoral hernia

A femoral hernia is a type of groin herniation and comprises of a protrusion of a peritoneal sac through the femoral ring into the femoral canal, posterior and inferior to the inguinal ligament. The sac may contain preperitoneal fat, omentum, small bowel, or other structures. Epidemiology Ther...
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Femoral ring

The femoral ring is the superior opening of the femoral canal. It boundaries are: medial: lacunar ligament anterior: medial part of the inguinal ligament lateral: femoral vein within the intermediate compartment of the femoral sheath posterior: pectineal ligament overlying the pectineus and ...
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Fetal enteric duplication cyst

Fetal enteric duplication cysts are enteric duplication cysts presenting in utero. Pathology They result from an abnormal recanalisation of the gastrointestinal tract. They comprise of a two-layer smooth muscle wall and an internal epithelium of a respiratory or intestinal type. These cysts ma...
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Fibrosing colonopathy

Fibrosing colonopathy a condition characterised by progressive submucosal fibrosis, particularly of the proximal colon. It is associated with high dose lipase supplementation used to treat exocrine insufficiency of the pancreas, such as in treatment for cystic fibrosis. Epidemiology It is more...
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Fleischner sign (tuberculosis of ileocaecal junction)

The Fleischner sign refers to a widely gaping, thickened, patulous ileocaecal valve and a narrowed, ulcerated terminal ileum associated with tuberculous involvement of the ileocaecum. See also gastrointestinal tuberculosis Stierlin sign Fleischner sign (enlarged pulmonary artery)
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Floating aorta sign

The floating aorta sign refers to displacement of the abdominal aorta away from the vertebral column. It is a radiographic/ CT sign of retroperitoneal masses. Radiographic findings On lateral lumbar spine radiographs, the expected location of posterior aortic wall is expected to be <= 10mm fr...
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Flocculation

Flocculation refers to the breakdown of a barium suspension during a fluoroscopic study. The small bowel environment eventually separates out a barium suspension, and this can occur during the normal course of a barium study (15 minutes to three hours). When the suspension flocculates, it no lo...
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Fluoroscopic nasojejunal tube insertion

Fluoroscopic nasojejunal (NJT) or nasogastric tube (NGT) insertion is a valuable procedure offered by radiologists in patient care. The majority of nasogastric tubes are inserted on the ward level and nasojejunal tubes may be placed in theatre at the time of surgery. In difficult cases, inserti...
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Foamy oesophagus sign

Foamy oesophagus is an appearence seen on a single contrast barium study in Candida oesophagitis with associated scleroderma/achalasia (stasis). Pathophysiology Pathophysiologic basis of the foamy oesophagus is uncertain. Stasis is a predisposing factor.  Foam is produced directly by the funga...
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Focussed Assessment with Sonography for Trauma (FAST) scan

Focussed Assessment with Sonography for Trauma (FAST) scan is a point-of-care ultrasound examination performed at the time of presentation of a trauma patient.  It is invariably performed by a clinician, who should be formally trained, and is considered as an 'extension' of the trauma clinical ...
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Football sign (pneumoperitoneum)

The football sign is seen in cases of massive pneumoperitoneum, where the abdominal cavity is outlined by gas from a perforated viscus. The median umbilical ligament and falciform ligament are sometimes included in the description of this sign, as representing the sutures. Which football is use...
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Foramen of Morgagni

The foramina of Morgagni, also known as the sternocostal triangles, are small defects in the posterior aspect of the anterior thoracic wall between the sternal and costal attachments of the diaphragm. The internal thoracic vessels descend through these foramina to become the superior epigastric ...
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Foregut duplication cyst

Foregut duplication cysts are type congenital duplication cyst. They are sometimes classified under broncho-pulmonary  foregut malformations. Entities that fall under forgut duplication cysts include: bronchogenic cysts neurenteric cysts other enteric cysts oesophageal duplication cysts li...
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Free intraperitoneal fluid (summary)

Free intraperitoneal fluid may be termed free fluid or (less correctly) free intra-abdominal fluid. It may be seen in small volumes in female patients, particularly around the time of menses and in some healthy young men. Reference article This is a summary article; we do not have a more in-de...
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Frey procedure

The Frey procedure is a type of pancreaticojejunostomy designed to treat chronic pancreatitis. The fundamental technique is similar to the Puestow procedure, with a lateral incision of the pancreatic duct from an anterior approach, and then a side-to-side anastomosis between the pancreas and a ...
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Frimann-Dahl sign

Frimann-Dahl sign is a diagnostic sign demonstrated when three dense lines representing the sigmoid walls seen converging to the site of obstruction in sigmoid volvulus and associated with empty rectal gas.
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Frostberg inverted 3 sign

Frostberg inverted 3 sign is a radiological sign seen on a barium examination where there are effacement and distortion of the mucosal pattern on the medial wall of the second part of the duodenum due to focal mass and local oedema. It is most commonly associated with carcinoma of the head of th...
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Fundic gland polyp

Fundic gland polyps (FGP) are the most common type of gastric polyp. Epidemiology FGPs occur most commonly in middle-aged females. They have been reported to be identified in ~1% of gastroscopies 3,4.  Clinical presentation FGPs are usually an asymptomatic, incidental finding 1.  Pathology ...
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Fundoplication

Fundoplications are forms of antireflux surgery used as a second line of treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease after failure of medical treatment and first line of treatment of paraesophageal hernia. Technique A gastric fold is wrapped around the distal esophagus which enforces the lowe...
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Gallbladder agenesis

Agenesis of the gallbladder is a rare congenital anomaly. Epidemiology The incidence is <0.1% (range 0.04-0.1%). There is strong female predominance present among the symptomatic cases. Clinical presentation Most patients with agenesis of the gallbladder are asymptomatic. Although some patie...
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Gallbladder triplication

Gallbladder triplication is an extremely rare anomaly. There are three types of gallbladder triplication are described according to the number of cystic duct and their insertion: Three gallbladders and three cystic ducts which unite to form a common cystic duct before joining the common bile du...
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Gallstone ileus

Gallstone ileus is an uncommon cause of a mechanical small bowel obstruction (SBO). It is a rare complication of chronic cholecystitis 7 and occurs when a gallstone passes through a fistula between the gallbladder and small bowel before becoming impacted at the ileocaecal valve.  Epidemiology ...
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Gallstone pancreatitis

Gallstone pancreatitis refers to pancreatitis caused by gallstones, specifically distal choledocholithiasis. Gallstones is the cause for 35-40% of acute pancreatitis but this number has a wide regional variance.  Epidemiology Gallstone pancreatitis has a higher incidence in women (compared to ...
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Gardner syndrome

Gardner syndrome is one of the polyposis syndromes. It is characterised by: familial adenopolyposis (FAP) multiple osteomas especially of the mandible, skull and long bones epidermal cysts fibromatoses desmoid tumours of mesentery and anterior abdominal wall  Other abnormalities include: ...
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Gasless abdomen

A specific cause of the gasless abdomen can usually be made when the patient's history is known. Common causes include: small bowel obstruction bowel ischaemia congenital atresia ascites pancreatitis large abdominal mass - due to displacement
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Gastric adenocarcinoma

Gastric adenocarcinoma, commonly referred to as gastric cancer, refers to a primary malignancy arising from the gastric epithelium. It is the most common gastric malignancy.  Epidemiology Gastric cancer is rare before the age of 40, but its incidence steadily climbs after that and peaks in the...
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Gastric antral vascular ectasia

Gastric antral vascular ectasia (GAVE), also known as watermelon stomach, is a rare condition affecting the stomach. It is one of the diagnoses to consider in older patients with severe anaemia and occult or profuse gastrointestinal bleeding (especially in those with cardiac, liver, or renal dis...
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Gastric antral web

Gastric antral webs are a ring of mucosa in the distal stomach (gastric antrum) that can lead to gastric outlet obstruction. A circumferential ring of mucosa has also been termed a "gastric antral diaphragm". Epidemiology Gastric antral webs are rare. There is an association with trisomy 21 an...
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Gastric band

A gastric band is a surgically placed device, used to assist in weight loss. It is now the most popular form of bariatric surgery, largely replacing gastric bypass procedures 1. Performed laparoscopically, a silicone band device is placed around the stomach to reduce its volume. The band is adj...
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Gastric band erosion

Gastric band erosion or penetration is a potentially serious complication following laparoscopic gastric band surgery for obesity.  Epidemiology Gastric band erosion is a delayed complication observed in between 0.3-14% of patients 1-2. Clinical presentation Patients often present non-specif...
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Gastric band malposition

Gastric band malposition is an early complication from laparoscopic gastric band procedures which are performed for obesity. It can occur as in isolation or with other gastric band complications. As surgical experience of lap gastric banding has accumulated, it has become a relatively rare comp...
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Gastric band slippage

Gastric band slippage is a late complication of laparoscopic gastric banding surgery performed for obesity. It is reported to occur in 4-13% of cases 1-3. It can occur in either an anterior or posterior direction. Clinical presentation Patients can present with cessation of weight loss, sever...
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Gastric cancer (summary)

Gastric cancer, also known as stomach cancer or gastric carcinoma, refers to a cancer that arises from the mucosal lining of the stomach. It is the commonest gastric malignancy. Reference article This is a summary article; read more in our article on gastric cancer. Summary epidemiology unc...
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Gastric cancer (TNM staging)

Gastric cancer staging is routinely performed using the TNM staging system. This article is based on the 7th edition of the TNM classification of malignant tumours. TNM staging (7th edition) T T1 T1a: tumour invades the lamina propria and or muscularis mucosae  T1b: tumour invades submucosa...
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Gastric diverticulum

Gastric diverticula are sac-like projections that usually originate from the gastric fundus, most commonly on the posterior surface. They are the least common gastrointestinal diverticulum.  Epidemiology Gastric diverticula are rare and commonly detected incidentally. The incidence varies from...
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Gastric duplication cyst

A gastric duplication cyst is a rare congenital foregut duplication cyst affecting the stomach. It accounts for less than 10% of all gastrointestinal duplications. The most common site of gastrointestinal tract duplication cysts (GTDC's) are the ileum, followed by oesophagus, large bowel and jej...
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Gastric emphysema

Gastric emphysema, referring to the presence of gas in the wall of the stomach is a relatively rare imaging finding 1. The stomach is the least common location for intramural gas in the gastrointestinal tract.  Differential diagnosis There is a wide range of causes, ranging from life-threateni...
Article

Gastric lipoma

Gastric lipomas are a location-specific subtype of gastrointestinal lipomas and represent a rare benign mesenchymal tumours of the stomach. They can be definitively diagnosed on CT.  Epidemiology Gastric lipomas are rare, accounting for <5% of gastrointestinal lipomas and <1% of all gastric ne...
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Gastric lymph node stations

Gastric lymph node stations were originally divided into 16 groups proposed by the Japanese Research Society for Gastric Cancer in 1963. Gross anatomy The areas of stomach which drain into regional lymph nodes: cardia and proximal lesser curvature drain into left gastric lymph nodes, then int...
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Gastric metastases

Gastric metastases are rare, found in less than 2% of patients who die of a carcinoma 6. Epidemiology Usually affects the middle-aged and elderly population. Affects males and females equally without predilection. Clinical presentation The patient may be asymptomatic, but the most common sig...
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Gastric outlet obstruction

Gastric outlet obstruction is a syndrome resulting from mechanical obstruction of stomach emptying. Pathology Aetiology Gastric outlet obstruction can be due to malignant or benign causes. Malignant adenocarcinoma (second most common 4) GIST lymphoma (less commonly than other malignancies...
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Gastric polyps

Gastric polyps are uncommon findings, even on endoscopy where they are encountered in only 2-6% of patients.  Pathology There are a number of gastric polyp subtypes 1-3: non-neoplastic polyps hyperplastic polyps virtually no malignant potential typically small (<1cm), multiple, and sessile...
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Gastric ulcer evaluation (barium)

Gastric (peptic) ulcers can be detected on multiple imaging modalities, but are best evaluated on a double contrast barium upper GI study. This article discusses their appearance on a double contrast study, for a more complete description, see the full article on peptic ulcers. Radiographic fea...
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Gastric volvulus

Gastric volvulus is a specific type of volvulus that occurs when the stomach twists on its mesentery. It should be at least 180° and cause bowel obstruction to be called gastric volvulus. Merely gastric rotation on its root is not considered gastric volvulus. Epidemiology Organo-axial volvulus...
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Gastrinoma

Gastrinomas are the second most common pancreatic endocrine tumour and the most common type in the setting of multiple endocrine neoplasia type I (MEN I). Epidemiology Most gastrinomas are sporadic, although some are seen in the setting of multiple endocrine neoplasia type I (MEN I). In genera...
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Gastrinoma triangle

The gastrinoma triangle is an anatomical area in the abdomen, from where the majority (90%) of gastrinomas are thought to arise.  Gross anatomy Boundaries The triangle is formed by joining the following three points: superiorly: confluence of the cystic and common bile ducts   inferiorly: j...
Article

Gastro-oesophageal junction

The gastro-oesophageal junction (GOJ) (also known as the oesophagogastric junction) is the part of the gastrointestinal tract where the oesophagus and stomach are joined. Gross anatomy The GOJ is normally mostly intra-abdominal and is 3-4 cm in length. To some extent, the oesophagus slides in ...
Article

Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease

Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) is a spectrum of disease that occurs when gastric acid refluxes from the stomach into the lower end of the oesophagus across the lower oesophageal sphincter (LOS). Pathology Minor reflux disease In most patients with reflux disease, reflux is initiated...
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Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (summary)

Gastric-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) is a spectrum of disease that occurs when gastric acid refluxes into the lower oesophagus Reference article This is a summary article; read more in our article on gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. Summary epidemiology prevalence >10% in most region...
Article

Gastroduodenal artery

The gastroduodenal artery is a terminal branch of the common hepatic artery which mainly supplies the pylorus, proximal duodenum, and the head of the pancreas. Due to its proximity to the anterior wall of the first part of the duodenum, the gastroduodenal artery is one of the most important sour...
Article

Gastrointestinal amyloidosis

Gastrointestinal amyloidosis is relatively common, although symptomatic involvement is more rare. It is diagnosed if there is persistent gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms with endoscopic biopsy proven amyloid deposition. Epidemiology Tends to affect middle-aged and older patients.  Clinical pres...
Article

Gastrointestinal angiodysplasia

Gastrointestinal angiodysplasias or angioectasias are one of the most common causes of occult gastrointestinal bleeding. Clinical presentation Patients can present with symptoms and signs upper or lower gastrointestinal bleeding although they can commonly be an incidental finding.  Epidemiolo...
Article

Gastrointestinal cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection

Cytomegalovirus infection of the gastrointestinal tract is usually seen in patients who are severely immunocompromised, such as solid organ transplantation and is common in HIV/AIDS, and is, in fact, the most common gastrointestinal manifestation of AIDS 1-2.  Epidemiology Approximately 30% of...
Article

Gastrointestinal MRI contrast agents

Gastrointestinal MRI contrast agents are varied and can be either positive or negative agents. Acceptance of the use of MRI in abdominal imaging has been limited in part by difficulty in distinguishing bowel from intra-abdominal masses and normal organs. The use of enteric contrast agents can ai...
Article

Gastrointestinal neuroendocrine tumours

Gastrointestinal neuroendocrine tumours (GI NETS) can be functional or non-functional: functional NETS can be challenging to localise as:  they are often small in size at the time of diagnosis  arise in many sites throughout the body non-functioning and/or malignant NETs often are larger at ...
Article

Gastrointestinal nodular lymphoid hyperplasia

Gastrointestinal nodular lymphoid hyperplasia is a type of nodular lymphoid hyperplasia that can be found elsewhere in the body. It is formed out of gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT), and most often is a diagnostic dilemma for radiologists in the stomach and terminal ileum. Pathology Gut-a...
Article

Gastrointestinal schwannoma

A gastrointestinal schwannoma is an extremely rare mesenchymal neoplasm which arises in relation to the gastrointestinal tract. Epidemiology They are reported to typically present at about the 3rd to 5th decades of life 4. Clinical presentation Patients are often asymptomatic but may occasio...
Article

Gastrointestinal stromal tumour

Gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GIST) are the most common mesenchymal tumours of the gastrointestinal tract. They account for ~5% of all sarcomas. They respond remarkably well to chemotherapy.  Terminology Previously these tumours have been variably referred to as leiomyomas, leiomyosarcomas...
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Gastrointestinal tract

The gastrointestinal tract includes any part of the oral cavity, oropharynx, hypopharynx, oesophagus, stomach, small bowel, colon, rectum and anal canal. 
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Gastrointestinal tract lipomas

Gastrointestinal tract (GIT) lipomas are not common and can be found anywhere along the entire length of the gastrointestinal tract.  Epidemiology GIT lipomas are most frequently encountered between the ages of 50 and 70 years 3. Clinical presentation The majority of lipomas are asymptomatic...
Article

Gastrointestinal tuberculosis

Gastrointestinal tuberculosis refers to the infection of abdominal organs with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It generally affects the following organs: ileocaecal junction (terminal ileum and caecum): most commonly due to the abundance of lymphoid tissue 1 colon liver spleen peritoneum lymph...

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