Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

984 results found
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Inflammatory bowel disease

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), although occasionally used to encompass a variety of infective and purely inflammatory bowel conditions, usually refers to two idopathic conditions Crohn disease ulcerative colitis Indeterminate colitis is added to the list, and represents approximately 6% of...
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Inflammatory bowel disease (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Inflammatory bowel disease is a generic term used to describe diseases of the GI tract that have an inflammatory cause. Crohns disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) are the commonest causes of inflammatory bowel disease....
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Inflammatory bowel disease (thoracic manifestations)

Thoracic manifestations of both ulcerative colitis and Crohn disease can be variable and cannot be used to differentiate between these entities. They can develop at any time with respect to the clinical onset of the underlying disease. Actually, they can also predate the colonic disease or deve...
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Inflammatory pseudopolyp

An inflammatory pseudopolyp is an island of normal colonic mucosa which only appears raised because it is surrounded by atrophic tissue (denuded ulcerative mucosa). It is seen in long-standing ulcerative colitis. It must be distinguished from inflammatory polyps, which are regions of inflamed a...
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Inframesocolic space

The inframesocolic space is the peritoneal space below the root of the transverse mesocolon. The supramesocolic space lies above the transverse mesocolon's root. Gross anatomy The compartment can be divided into two unequal spaces posteriorly by the mesentery of the small bowel as it runs from...
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Ingested bones

Ingested bones that become lodged in the throat or gastrointestinal tract are a common presentation to the emergency department. Recognition is important because these cases can be potentially fatal.  Pathology Patients may present with a 'foreign body' feeling in the throat after eating fish ...
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Ingested foreign bodies in children

Ingested foreign bodies in children are common as the world is a curious place to young children, who will put anything and everything into their mouth, and will often inadvertently swallow.  The usual practice is for plain films of the chest/abdomen to identify a foreign body. Epidemiology P...
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Inguinal canal

The inguinal canal is a passage in the anterior abdominal wall that transmits structures from the pelvis to the perineum formed by the fetal migration of the gonad from the abdomen into the labioscrotal folds. Gross anatomy The inguinal canal has an oblique course, is 4 cm in length and has tw...
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Inguinal canal lipoma

Inguinal canal lipomas, also known as spermatic cord or round ligament lipomas,  are a relatively common but often under-recognised finding on imaging. Clinical presentation Lipomas are usually asymptomatic but can sometimes cause pain and discomfort. They can present as a mass lesion.  Patho...
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Inguinal hernia

Inguinal herniation is a type of abdominal wall hernia 1. Epidemiology They are the commonest type abdominal wall herniation (up to 80% 3) and are most often acquired. There is a recognised male predilection with a M:F ratio of up to 7:1 3. Classification It is broadly divided into two types...
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Insulinoma

Insulinomas are the most common sporadic endocrine tumour of the pancreas. Epidemiology Account for 40% of syndromic pancreatic endocrine tumours. Overall incidence of ~0.0003%. Clinical presentation Typically insulinomas present with Whipple's triad consisting of: fasting hypoglycaemia (<5...
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Internal hernia

Internal hernias are protrusions of the viscera through the peritoneum or mesentery but remaining within the abdominal cavity. Epidemiology Internal hernias have a low incidence of <1% and represent a relatively small amount of presentations, of ~5% 1. Clinical presentation The most common p...
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Internal hernias due to gastric bypass surgery

Internal hernias due to gastric bypass surgery are more common after laparoscopic gastric bypass than after an open procedure.  Clinical presentation It is a particularly sinister complication with variable, nonspecific clinical presentations. Most patients report a combination of postprandial...
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Internal iliac lymph nodes

The internal iliac lymph nodes can be found adjacent to the internal iliac artery and its branches and drain the regions supplied by these vessels. This encompasses a large area from the genitalia anteriorly, the psoas muscle posteriorly and medial thigh inferiorly (see internal iliac artery for...
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Internal oblique muscle

The internal oblique muscle (IOM) is one of the muscles that form the anterior abdominal wall. Inferiorly, it contributes towards the formation of the inguinal ligament. Summary origin: originates along the whole length of the lumbar fascia, from the anterior two-thirds of the iliac crest and ...
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Interstitial oedematous pancreatitis

Interstitial oedematous pancreatitis is one of the two subtypes of acute pancreatitis. It is normally referred to as "acute pancreatitis" or "uncomplicated pancreatitis" in day-to-day use. Please refer to the article on acute pancreatitis for further details. 
Article

Intestinal angioedema

Intestinal angioedema is oedema into the submucosal space of the bowel wall following protein extravasation from "leaky" vessels. It can affect both the small and large bowel. Clinical presentation Patients often present with non-specific findings of abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting. Path...
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Intestinal failure

Intestinal failure is when a patient's native bowel is unable to digest and absorb  the food, electrolytes and fluids needed for normal growth and development.  Clinical presentation This often includes intractable diarrhoea, weight loss, dehydration, electrolyte imbalance, and malnutrition. ...
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Intestinal ischaemia

Intestinal ischaemia refers to vascular compromise of the bowel which in the acute setting has a very high mortality if not treated expediently. Diagnosis is often straightforward, provided appropriate imaging is obtained and sometimes subtle findings sought out. The disease can be arbitrarily c...
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Intestinal ischaemia (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Intestinal ischaemia refers to vascular compromise of the bowel which in the acute setting has a very high mortality if not treated expediently. Diagnosis is often straight forward provided appropriate imaging is obtained. ...
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Intestinal lymphangiectasia

Intestinal lymphangiectasia is a condition characterised by dilated intestinal lacteals causing loss of lymph into the lumen of the small intestine. This can result in hypoproteinemia, hypogammaglobulinemia, hypoalbuminemia and reduced number of circulating lymphocytes or lymphopaenia.  Epidemi...
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Intestinal malrotation

Intestinal malrotation is a congenital anatomical anomaly that results from an abnormal rotation of the gut as it returns to the abdominal cavity during embryogenesis. Although some individuals live their entire life with malrotated bowel without symptoms, the abnormality does predispose to mid...
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Intestinal nonrotation

Intestinal nonrotation is a congenital anomaly of the intestines that results in the small bowel occupying the right side of the peritoneal cavity and the colon predominantly on the left. It is sometimes thought of as a subtype of intestinal malrotation. Epidemiology Nonrotation is estimated ...
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Intestinal transplant

Intestinal transplantation is a surgical treatment for intestinal failure. It is one of the most rarely performed transplant procedures performed, exclusively involving the transplantation of donor small bowel to a recipient, with an ileostomy formation.  Due to the high risk of complications w...
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Intestinal volvulus

Intestinal volvulus is a broad term that describes the torsion of bowel around its mesentery. Torsion results in narrowing of the lumen at the point of rotation and compromise of the vessels that supply the torted gut.  In order for a vessel to be compressed and obstructed, the force that the t...
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Intra-abdominal calcification

Intra-abdominal calcification is common and the causes may be classified into four broad groups based on morphology: Concretions These are discrete precipitates in a vessel or organ. They are sharp in outline but the density and shape vary but in some cases they may be virtually pathognomonic:...
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Intra-abdominal calcification (neonatal)

Intra-abdominal calcification in a neonate can be caused by a number of pathologies that cause calcification within the peritoneal space or within organs. Pathology Aetiology Meconium peritonitis The commonest cause is meconium peritonitis which is the result of aseptic peritonitis secondary...
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Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm

Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms or tumours (IPMNs or IMPTs) are cystic tumours of the pancreas. Epidemiology These tumours are most frequently identified in older patients (50-60 years of age) 6, and thus are sometimes colloquially referred to as the "grandfather lesion". Main duct ty...
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Intramural bowel gas

Intramural bowel gas, also known as pneumatosis intestinalis, refers to the clinical or radiologically finding of gas within the wall of the bowel. Terminology There are different terminologies in the medical literature, such as pneumatosis intestinalis, pneumatosis coli, and pneumatosis cysto...
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Intraperitoneal focal fat infarction

Intraperitoneal focal fat infarction (IFFI) refers to a group of self-limiting abdominal diseases where the primary insult is acute inflammation of intraperitoneal fat. They commonly mimic the more common causes of acute abdomen such as acute diverticulitis and acute appendicitis. The group incl...
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Intussusception

Intussusception occurs when one segment of bowel is pulled into itself or a neighbouring loop of bowel by peristalsis. It is an important cause of an acute abdomen in children and merits timely ultrasound examination and reduction to preclude significant sequelae including bowel necrosis. Intu...
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Inverted "V" sign (pneumoperitoneum)

The inverted "V" sign, also known as the lateral umbilical ligament sign, is a sign of pneumoperitoneum manifested by the visualization of an inverted "V"  shape in the pelvis on supine view of abdominal radiographs. It represent free gas outlining the lateral umbilical ligaments. In infants, th...
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Investigating abdominal pain (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Investigating abdominal pain is a common request from clinical teams throughout most hospitals. Causes of abdominal pain are vast and as such, appropriate history and examination are necessary to initiate appropriate initia...
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Investigating jaundice (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Investigation of jaundice is heavily reliant on radiology, from the simplest of investigations (the ultrasound) through to much more complicated MRI-based test and intervention. It is important to determine whether jaundic...
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Investigating nausea and vomiting (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Nausea and vomiting (often abbreviated in medical notes to N&V) are non-specific physical manifestations of disease. They may occur together, or in isolation and may be the result of obstructive pathology or as a general ma...
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Investigating PR bleeding (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Investigating PR bleeding radiologically may help to make a diagnosis or give more information after a diagnosis has been established. Radiology should not replace appropriate physical examination or appropriate use of sigm...
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Iron deficiency anaemia

Iron deficiency anaemia is a common cause of anaemia and a common precipitant to radiological investigation. Epidemiology Amongst men and postmenopausal women, the incidence in the developed world is around 2%. Among premenopausal women, the incidence is greater and in most cases, investigatio...
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Ischaemic colitis

Ischaemic colitis refers to inflammation of the colon secondary to vascular insufficiency and ischaemia. It is sometimes considered under the same spectrum as intestinal ischaemia. The severity and consequences of the disease are highly variable. Epidemiology Ischaemic bowel is typically a dis...
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Ischioanal fossa

The ischioanal (or ischiorectal) fossa is a fat-filled space of the perineum.  Gross anatomy The ischioanal fossa is a paired triangular-shaped space lateral to the anal canal with an apex directed anteromedially towards the pubic symphysis. Each ischioanal fossa is separated from the other by...
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Ishikawa classification of venous involvement by pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma

Ishikawa classification system describes the degree of involvement of adjacent portal vein and SMV by pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma based on calibre of the vein: type I: normal  type II: smooth shift/displacement with normal calibre   type III: unilateral narrowing  type IV: bilateral nar...
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Isolated free fluid in trauma

Isolated free fluid in trauma may or may not represent a significant injury, and this creates a diagnostic dilemma in determining appropriate treatment for these patients.  Epidemiology The presence of isolated free fluid in trauma occurs in 3-5% of blunt trauma patients 1-4. Pathology The c...
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Ivor Lewis procedure

Ivor Lewis procedure (also known as a gastric pull-up) is a type of oesophagectomy, an upper gastrointestinal tract operation performed for mid and distal oesophageal pathology, usually oesophageal cancer. Due to the necessity of removing a significant length of the oesophagus, the stomach is "...
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Jejunal and ileal branches of the superior mesenteric artery

The jejunal and ileal branches of the superior mesenteric artery are variable in number. They pass in the two layers of the mesentery to the jejunum and ileum and progressively divide and join in a series of anastomosing arcades. From the arcades, straight arteries (also known as the vasa recta...
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Jejunal atresia

Jejunal atresia is a congenital anomaly characterised by obliteration of the lumen of the jejunum. The site of the atresia can be anywhere from the ligament of Treitz to the jejunoileal junction. There can be more than one atretic segment. This article will focus on jejunal atresia alone but be...
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Jejunocolic bypass

Jejunocolic bypass was an early form of bariatric surgery. It is no longer performed due to severe side effects. For this bypass, the proximal small bowel (jejunum) is transected and anastomosed to the colon (such as the transverse colon). The other end of the small bowel is closed and the dist...
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Jejunoileal bypass

Jejunoileal bypass is an older form of bariatric surgery that was developed to be an improvement on jejunocolic bypass. It is no longer performed due to severe side effects. For this bypass, the proximal small bowel (jejunum) is divided ~35 cm past the ligament of Treitz, and the proximal end i...
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Jejunoileal diverticula

Jejunoileal diverticula, also referred to as jejunal diverticula or diverticulosis as most of the diverticula are located in the jejunum, are outpouchings from the jejunal and ileal wall on their mesenteric border that represent mucosal herniation through sites of wall weakening 1. See also Pl...
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Jejunoileal fold pattern reversal

Jejunoileal fold pattern reversal (a.k.a. jejunisation of the ileum) is one of the signs of coeliac disease, and is seen on small bowel follow-through studies as well as CT. The pattern is one of increased number of ileal folds and reduced number of jejunal folds 1,2, and is considered positive ...
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Jejunum

The jejunum is arbitrarily defined as the proximal two-fifths of the small intestine and is, on average, ~300 cm in length. Gross anatomy The primary method of evaluation of the small bowel is small bowel follow-through examination (SBFT). On SBFT, the jejunum has a delicate feathery appearanc...
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Jejunum vs ileum

There are a few differences that can help differentiate jejunum and ileum 1-3 : location jejunum: upper left part of the peritoneal cavity ileum: lower right part of the peritoneal cavity gross appearance jejunum: greater calibre (<3 cm), thicker walls and more vascular  ileum: lesser cali...
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Juvenile polyposis syndrome

Juvenile polyposis syndrome, also referred as familial juvenile polyposis, is one of the polyposis syndromes and consists of hundreds of juvenile polyps. Epidemiology Presentation in the second decade is most common 2. Clinical presentation Rectal bleeding, bowel obstruction and intussuscept...
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Kikuchi level

The Kikuchi level is a histopathological term used for describing the degree of infiltration of a sessile early invasive colorectal cancer1. Preoperative assessment of the level of invasion using this classification may decrease the incidence of unnecessary surgery for sessile polyps.  Levels o...
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Killian-Jamieson diverticulum

Killian-Jamieson diverticula are oesophageal diverticula. Like the more common Zenker diverticulum, it is a false diverticulum and represents an outpouching of mucosa through a muscular defect, in this case Killian's dehiscence.  Pathology They are located just below the cricopharyngeal muscle...
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Kirklin complex

The Kirklin complex is a combination of the Carman meniscus sign associated with a radiolucent semicircular zone surrounding the elevated ridge of the ulcer. This complex is seen in cases of gastric adenocarcinoma on barium studies. History and etymology Byrl Raymond Kirklin, (1888-1957 2) an ...
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Kirklin sign

The Kirklin sign refers to a deformity of the normal gastric bubble on an upright chest radiograph due to a mass lesion of the gastric cardia or fundus. The differential for a Kirklin sign includes: gastric tumour gastric carcinoma oesophageal carcinoma gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST...
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Kommerell diverticulum

Kommerell diverticula occur in some anomalies of the aortic arch system. It usually refers to the bulbous configuration of the origin of an aberrant left subclavian artery in the setting of a right-sided aortic arch. However, it was originally described as a diverticular outpouching at the origi...
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Krenning score of neuroendocrine tumour uptake

The Krenning score is a proposed semi-quantitative method of assessing the degree of tracer uptake on octreotide scintigraphy. Parameters Initially designed for assessment of 111In-DTPA on planar imaging, the Krenning score is applicable to SPECT or SPECT/CT using various radiopharmaceuticals....
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Ladd bands

Ladd bands are the most commonly encountered form of peritoneal bands in disarrangement of intestines, e.g. intestinal malrotation. Pathology Classically they extend from the abnormally positioned caecum to peritoneum and liver, crossing the duodenum in their course. Extension, however, can in...
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Lane-Hamilton syndrome

Lane-Hamilton syndrome (LHS) refers to the rare concurrent association of idiopathic pulmonary haemosiderosis and coeliac disease 1. Epidemiology It is typically seen in children under the age of 15 but can occasionally be seen in adults. History and etymology It was originally described by ...
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Langerhans cell histiocytosis

Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare multi-system disease with a wide and heterogeneous clinical spectrum and variable extent of involvement.  Terminology Langerhans cell histiocytosis was previously known as histiocytosis X. The newer term is preferred as it's more descriptive of its...
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Large bowel lymphoma

Large bowel (colorectal) lymphoma is a very rare tumour, accounting for <0.5% of primary colorectal malignancies, ~1.5% of all lymphomas, and ~15% of gastrointestinal lymphoma. Large bowel lymphoma differs from gastric and small bowel lymphoma in clinical presentation, management and prognosis. ...
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Large bowel obstruction

Large bowel obstruction (LBO) are often impressive on imaging, on account of the ability of the large bowel to massively distend. This condition requires prompt diagnosis and treatment.  Epidemiology Large bowel obstructions are far less common than small bowel obstructions, accounting for onl...
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Large bowel obstruction (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Large bowel obstruction (LBO) occurs when there is mechanical obstruction of the large bowel and is often impressive on imaging on account of the ability of the large bowel to massively distend. This condition requires prom...
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Large intestine

The large intestine (or large bowel) is a 1.5 metre muscular tube that extends from the caecum to the rectum. It has three outer longitudinal muscular layers called taenia coli, which are about 30 cm shorter than the length of the large bowel causing characteristic sacculations interrupted by in...
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Lateral crescent sign (inguinal hernia)

The lateral crescent sign is a useful diagnostic sign of a direct inguinal hernia on CT scan, the hernia causing compression and lateral displacement of the inguinal canal contents (ductus deferens, testicular vessels, fat, etc.) to form a semicircle of tissue that resembles a moon crescent seen...
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Lateral fossa

The lateral fossae are concave depressions of peritoneum in the paravesical space that lie between the lateral umbilical folds and the lateral parietal peritoneum. The lateral fossae are the smallest of the anterior paravesical fossae, and typically partially contain the cecum and/or sigmoid col...
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Lateral umbilical folds

The lateral umbilical folds are raised ridges of parietal peritoneum in the deep aspect of the anterior abdominal wall overlying the inferior epigastric vessels. The paired folds originate medial to the deep inguinal ring and end at the arcuate line on the posterior aspect of the anterior abdomi...
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Lead pipe sign (colon)

The lead pipe appearance of colon is the classical barium enema finding in chronic ulcerative colitis. There is complete loss of haustral markings in the diseased section of colon, and the organ appears smooth-walled and cylindrical. 
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Left colic artery

The left colic artery is the first branch of the inferior mesenteric artery. Course It ascends retroperitoneally, dividing into two branches: ascending branch passes anteriorly to the left kidney, then enters the transverse mesocolon, and passes superiorly to supply the upper part of the...
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Left colic flexure

Left colic flexure (or splenic flexure) is the bend in the large intestine in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen as the transverse colon continues as the descending colon. The phrenicocolic ligament attaches the the splenic flexure to the left hemidiaphragm. It lies more cranial than the rig...
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Left gastric artery

The left gastric artery is the smallest and first branch of the coeliac artery.   It passes superiorly, giving off an oesophageal branch to the distal oesophagus, then enters the lesser omentum to pass along the lesser curvature of the stomach.  Anastomoses along the lesser curvature with the r...
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Left gastric vein

The left gastric vein (also known as the coronary vein) drains both gastric walls. It forms a loop with the right gastric vein at the lesser curvature of the stomach. The left gastric vein travels in the lesser omentum to drain in the portal vein. It also communicates with the lower oesophageal ...
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Left gastroepiploic artery

The left gastroepiploic artery (LGA) is one of the branches of the splenic artery. Gross Anatomy Course The LGA runs within the two layers of the greater omentum to the right along the greater curvature of the stomach, approximately 1 cm from the gastric wall before it anastomoses with the ri...
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Left perihepatic space

The left perihepatic space is a subdivision of the left supramesocolic space. Gross anatomy The left perihepatic space can be further subdivided into anterior and posterior spaces: anterior perihepatic space lies between the diaphragm and the anterosuperior aspect of the left lobe of the liv...
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Left subphrenic space

The left subphrenic space is a subcompartment of the supramesocolic space located between the diaphragm and the superior surface of the left lobe of liver. It is described to have anterior and posterior parts without clear delineation1. Boundaries  medially: falciform ligament posterior: ant...
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Leiomyosarcoma

Leiomyosarcomas (LMS) are extremely rare malignant neoplasms that originate from smooth muscle cells and may be considered the malignant counterpart of a leiomyoma. They are classified as a soft tissue tumour and account for ~8% of malignant soft tissue tumours 10. Pathology Location  Leiomyo...
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Lemmel syndrome

Lemmel syndrome is defined as an obstructive jaundice caused by a periampullary duodenal diverticulum (of the second part of the duodenum) compressing the intrapancreatic part of the common bile duct with resultant upstream dilatation of the extra- and intrahepatic bile ducts. Clinical presenta...
Article

Lesser sac

The lesser sac or omental bursa is a potential peritoneal space within abdomen, part of the peritoneal cavity. It may be conceptualized as the space posterior to the lesser omentum, between the posterior wall of the stomach and surface of peritoneum which covers the anterior surface of the left ...
Article

Lesser sac hernia

Lesser sac hernias are a type of internal hernia, where abdominal contents protrude through the foramen of Winslow, hence they are also known as foramen of Winslow hernia.  Epidemiology Lesser sac hernias are rare, accounting for <0.1% of abdominal hernias and 8% of internal hernias 1, 2. Pat...
Article

Levator ani

The levator ani, also known as the muscular pelvic diaphragm, is the musculotendinous sheet that forms the majority of the pelvic floor, supports the pelvic viscera, and aids in urinary and faecal evacuation as well as maintaining continence. Gross anatomy The levator ani has three main compon...
Article

Li-Fraumeni syndrome

Li-Fraumeni syndrome is a hereditary cancer syndrome due to mutations in the tumour suppressor gene TP53. Approximately half of affected individuals are thought to develop invasive cancer by 30 years of age 1. Associated malignancies sarcomas osteosarcoma rhabdomyosarcoma CNS tumours gliom...
Article

Ligamentum venosum

The ligamentum venosum is a fibrous remnant which travels superiorly from porta hepatis to the liver and then reaches the inferior vena cava. It is often obliterated in adults.  In the fetus, it is patent and known as ductus venosus, shunting blood from the umbilical vein to inferior vena cava ...
Article

Light bulb sign (phaeochromocytoma)

The light bulb sign of an adrenal phaeochromocytoma is MRI feature of this tumour. This refers to marked hyperintensity seen on T2 weighted sequences however this finding is neither sensitive nor specific and phaeochromocytomas are more often heterogeneous with intermediate or high T2 signal int...
Article

Linea alba

The line alba (Latin for white line) is a single midline fibrous line in the anterior abdominal wall formed by the median fusion of the layers of the rectus sheath medial to the bilateral rectus abdominis muscles. It attaches to the xiphoid process of the sternum and the pubic symphysis. The umb...
Article

Linitis plastica

Linitis plastica is a descriptive term usually referring to the appearance of the stomach, although the rectum can also be described this way (see: linitis plastica of the rectum). The appearance is said to be reminiscent of an old leather water-bottle. Pathology The underlying cause is usuall...
Article

Lipoma

Lipomas are benign tumours composed of mature adipocytes. They are the most common soft tissue tumour, seen in ~2% of the population.  Epidemiology Patients typically present in adulthood (5th-7th decades). Clinical presentation Typically lipomas are subcutaneous in location and present in a...
Article

Lipomatosis

Lipomatosis is a condition where there is diffuse excessive fat deposition within the body. This can especially affect certain regions. neck and upper region of trunk Madelung disease mediastinal lipomatosis heart lipomatous hypertrophy of the interatrial septum lipomatous metaplasia of th...
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Lipomatosis of the ileocaecal valve

Lipomatosis of the ileocaecal valve is a benign condition usually detected incidentally during investigation of other conditions. However, it may itself cause certain vague abdominal symptoms and may be missed on preliminary ultrasound unless a high level of suspicion is present. Epidemiology ...
Article

Liposarcoma

Liposarcomas are malignant tumours of fatty tissue and are the malignant counterpart to a benign lipoma. They are the second commonest type of soft-tissue sarcoma. Epidemiology Liposarcomas are typically found in adults, typically between the ages of 40 and 60, and are rare in children. Clini...
Article

Littoral cell angioma of the spleen

Littoral cell angioma of the spleen (LCA) is a rare and relatively recently (1991) described vascular tumour of the spleen. Epidemiology Littoral cell angiomas may occur at any age and have no gender predilection. Clinical presentation Typically, patients with littoral cell angioma are found...
Article

Littre hernia

Littre hernia is a hernia containing a Meckel's diverticulum. Also known as a persistent omphalomesenteric duct hernia. It is most frequently encountered in the inguinal region. Radiographic features CT blind ending tubular structure arising from antimesentric border of small bowel and extend...
Article

Liver

The liver is the largest abdominal organ that plays a major role in metabolism and has a number of functions, including glycogen storage, decomposition of red blood cells, plasma protein synthesis, hormone production, and detoxification. It is one of very few organs that has the ability to regen...
Article

Loop-to-loop colon

The loop-to-loop colon describes an abnormal colonic course associated with the absence of the left kidney from the renal fossa.  The transverse colon extends to the lateral margin of the abdominal wall and the descending colon courses medially to fill the renal fossa, resulting in a "looped" c...

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