Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

931 results found
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Recreational drug use (radiological manifestations)

Radiological manifestations of recreational drug use are not infrequently seen as the use of recreational drugs is widespread. Epidemiology Interestingly, recent reports have suggested a decreasing incidence of reported drug use in the general population over the past decade, but it remains th...
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Rectal cancer

Rectal cancer, although sharing many of the features of generic colorectal carcinoma (CRC), has some features that make it unique. These are predominantly related to its anatomical location which has implications in both preoperative imaging assessment and surgical technique. Demographics and c...
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Rectal cancer (staging)

Staging strongly influences the success of, and rate of local recurrence following rectal cancer resection. In rectal cancer, pre-treatment MRI is the evaluation of choice, guiding surgical and non-surgical management options.  TNM staging See: TNM staging system for a general description. Pr...
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Rectal cancer protocol (MRI)

Pelvic MRI protocol for rectal cancer includes: through tumour (always ensure planes are exactly perpendicular to the wall) three-plane T2 axial T1 narrow field of view images to be included overviews axial T2FS axial T1 See also MRI protocols
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Rectal foreign bodies

Rectal foreign bodies are not uncommon in emergency departments around the world, and although they are often the source of endless amusement do potentially cause management difficulties. Epidemiology The incidence varies according to the region, said to be uncommon in Asia and most common in ...
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Rectocoele

Rectocoele refers to a herniation or bulge of the rectal wall, with the most common type being an anterior rectocoele where the bulge is into the posterior vaginal wall in a female patient. Rectocoeles can also occur posteriorly or laterally. Rectocoele is the term most commonly used by colorect...
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Rectosigmoid ratio

The rectosigmoid ratio is a measurement of the diameter of the rectum divided by that of the sigmoid colon during contrast enema. It is of particular use in the diagnosis of Hirschsprung disease. Normal children have a rectum that is larger than the sigmoid (i.e. rectosigmoid ration >1). In fac...
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Rectovesical pouch

Rectovesical pouch is the forward reflection of the peritoneum from the lower third of the rectum to the upper part of the bladder in males. Gross anatomy The rectovesical pouch is the lowest part of the peritoneal cavity and usually contains loops of small bowel or sigmoid colon. It is 7.5 cm...
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Rectum

The rectum is the last part of the large intestine. It is located within the pelvis and is the continuation of the sigmoid colon after the rectosigmoid junction and continues as the anal canal at the angle created by puborectalis.  Gross anatomy At the level of the S3 vertebral body, the sigmo...
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Retained barium in appendix

Retained barium in appendix refers to the presence of barium in appendix beyond 72 hours from the start of procedure. Proposed significance Previously used as a sign of appendicitis. Actual significance Retained barium outlining the appendiceal lumen allows evaluation of its width and contou...
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Retroperitoneal fasciitis

Retroperitoneal fasciitis is a rare potentially life-threatening infection of the retroperitoneum. It is the retroperitoneal equivalent of necrotizing fasciitis or non-necrotizing soft tissue fasciitis, and just like its soft tissue counterpart, can also be either necrotizing or not. Pathology ...
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Retroperitoneal haemangioma

Retroperitoneal haemangiomas  are almost  always of  the  cavernous haemangioma2.  Clinical presentation They tend to be asymptomatic, especially in  the early stages of their development, but when present, symptoms are non-specific and  due  to  mass effect on adjacent anatomic structure. Ra...
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Retroperitoneal hydatid infection

Retroperitoneal hydatid infection refers to the presence of hydatid cyst in the retroperitoneal region of the abdomen. See Hydatid disease for a general discussion. It is generally seen secondary to intraperitoneal (mainly hepatic) infection. Isolated occurrence is rare. See also hepatic hyda...
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Retroperitoneal liposarcoma

Retroperitoneal liposarcoma is a subtype of liposarcoma, and is a malignant tumour of mesenchymal origin that may arise in any fat-containing region of the body. It is one of the most common primary retroperitoneal neoplasms 2. Pathology Histology There are five histological types: well-diff...
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Retroperitoneal organs (mnemonic)

A useful for mnemonic to remember which organs are retroperitoneal is: SAD PUCKER Mnemonic S: suprarenal (adrenal) gland A: aorta/IVC D: duodenum (second and third part) P: pancreas (except tail) U: ureters C: colon (ascending and descending) K: kidneys E: (o)esophagus R: rectum
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Retroperitoneum

The retroperitoneum is the part of the abdominal cavity that lies between the posterior parietal peritoneum and anterior to the transversalis fascia. It is divided into three spaces by the perirenal fascia and is best visualised using CT or MRI. The three spaces are: anterior pararenal space ...
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Reverse figure 3 sign

The reverse figure 3 sign (also known as the E sign) is seen on barium swallows in patients with a coarctation of the aorta and is the medial equivalent of the figure 3 sign seen on CXR. It is formed by prestenotic dilatation of the ascending aorta, indentation of the coarctation site (or "tuck"...
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Revised Atlanta classification of acute pancreatitis

The Revised Atlanta classification of acute pancreatitis (2012) is an international multidisciplinary classification of acute pancreatitis severity. It is an update of the 1991 Atlanta classification of acute pancreatitis. The worldwide consensus aims for an internationally agreed-upon classifi...
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Richter hernia

Richter hernias are an abdominal hernia where only a portion of the bowel wall is herniated and comprise 10% of strangulated hernias. These hernias progress more rapidly to gangrene than other strangulated hernias but obstruction is less frequent.  Pathology In contrast to most other types of ...
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Right colic artery

The right colic artery may arise directly from the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) but often arises from a common trunk with the ileocolic artery or middle colic artery. It courses to the right to the ascending colon and divides into a descending branch that supplies the lower portion of the a...
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Right colic flexure

Right colic flexure (or hepatic flexure) is used to describe the bend in the colon as the ascending colon continues as the transverse colon.  Gross anatomy Connective tissue connects this part of the colon to the anterior pararenal fascia, descending part of the duodenum (D2) and head of pancr...
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Right gastric artery

The right gastric artery is a branch of the common hepatic artery which supplies the lesser curvature of the stomach. Gross Anatomy Course The right gastric artery branches off from the common hepatic artery as it turns into the lesser omentum. It runs along the lesser curvature of the stomac...
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Right gastroepiploic artery

The right gastroepiploic artery (RGA) arises from the gastroduodenal artery as it divides into its two terminal branches, the right gastroepiploic artery and the superior pancreaticoduodenal artery. Gross Anatomy Course The RGA passes between the first part of the duodenum and the pancreas, ...
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Right iliac fossa mass (differential)

Right iliac fossa mass is a common clinical presentation and has a range of differentials that need to be excluded. Radiology plays an important role in this differentiation. Differential diagnosis appendicular mass appendicular abscess appendicular mucocele appendicular neoplasms ileocaec...
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Right subphrenic space

The right subphrenic space (a.k.a. right anterior space, right subdiaphragmatic space) is a potential space that lies between the right lobe of the liver and the inferior surface of the diaphragm. Gross anatomy This is a subcompartment of the supracolic compartment. It reaches as far as the up...
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Rigler sign

The Rigler sign, also known as the double wall sign, is seen on a radiograph of the abdomen when the air is present on both sides of the intestine, i.e. when there is air on both the luminal and peritoneal side of the bowel wall. Pneumoperitoneum may be a result of perforation or, from recent i...
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Ring shadow (disambiguation)

Ring shadows are radiographic signs seen on either chest x-rays or on upper gastrointestinal fluoroscopy: ring shadow (chest) ring shadow (abdomen)
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Rokitansky-Aschoff sinuses

Rokitansky-Aschoff sinuses are diverticula of the gallbladder wall which may be microscopic or macroscopic. Histologically, they are outpouchings of gallbladder mucosa that sit within the gallbladder muscle layer. Related pathology They are not of themselves considered abnormal, but may be ass...
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Roux limb

A Roux limb may be formed in multiple different gastrointestinal surgeries, including bariatric surgery, e.g. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass biliopancreatic diversion partial gastrectomy total gastrectomy partial pancreaticoduodenectomy (Whipple procedure) In these surgeries the small bowel is ...
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Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery

In many centers, laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass has become the most common bariatric procedure for morbid obesity.  In this operation, the stomach is stapled or divided to form a small pouch (typically <30 mL in volume), which empties into a Roux limb of the jejunum of varying length (ty...
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Rugal folds

The rugal folds are the mucosal folds within the stomach that give the distinctive appearance on barium studies.
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Rule of 2s in Meckel diverticulum

The rule of 2s is a useful mnemonic for Meckel diverticulum. Meckel diverticula: occur in 2% of the population are 2 inches (5cm) long are 2 feet (60cm) from the ileocaecal valve 2/3rds have ectopic mucosa 2 types of ectopic tissue are commonly present (mostly gastric and pancreatic)  and...
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Sandwich sign (mesentery)

A sandwich sign, sometimes known as a hamburger sign, refers to a mesenteric nodal mass, either para-aortic or not, giving an appearance of a hamburger. Confluent lymphadenopathy on both sides of the mesenteric vessels gives rise to an appearance described as the sandwich sign 2. The sign is sp...
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Schatzki ring

A Schatzki ring, also called Schatzki-Gary ring, is symptomatically narrow oesophageal B-ring occurring in the distal oesophagus and usually associated with a hiatus hernia.  Epidemiology Relatively common, lower oesophageal rings are found in ~10% of oesophagrams.  Clinical presentation Mos...
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Scirrhous carcinoma of the gastrointestinal tract

Scirrhous carcinoma of the gastrointestinal tract is a subtype of primary adenocarcinoma of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Epidemiology It is the least common type of primary adenocarcinoma involving mainly the stomach and the colon. Pathology The tumour demonstrates an infiltrative behavi...
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Scleroderma

Scleroderma, also known as systemic sclerosis, is a multi-system autoimmune connective tissue disorder. As such, it affects many separate organ systems, which are discussed separately: musculoskeletal manifestations of scleroderma pulmonary manifestations of scleroderma cardiac manifestations...
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Scleroderma (gastrointestinal manifestations)

Gastrointestinal manifestations of scleroderma can occur in up to 90% of patients with scleroderma 2 with the commonest site of GI involvement being the oesophagus. As clinical presentation, radiographic appearances and differential diagnosis vary with the location of involvement these are disc...
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Sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis

Sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis is a rare benign cause of acute or subacute small bowel obstruction. It is characterised by total or partial encasement of the small bowel within a thick fibrocollagenous membrane. Terminology The condition was originally termed abdominal cocoon. It has als...
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Sclerosing mesenteritis

Sclerosing mesenteritis (or mesenteric panniculitis) is an uncommon idiopathic disorder characterised by chronic non-specific inflammation involving the adipose tissue of the bowel mesentery. Epidemiology   Typically this condition afflicts adults in their sixties with mild male predilection, ...
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Seatbelt sign (abdomen)

The seatbelt sign is both a clinical and radiological sign. It is simply the presence of bruising/abrasions in the distribution of a seatbelt (i.e. horizontal and/or diagonal) across the abdomen, chest and sometimes neck.  A positive seatbelt sign, in combination with abdominal pain or tenderne...
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Seatbelt syndrome

The seatbelt syndrome is the constellation of traumatic injuries associated with three-point seatbelts: bowel perforation mesenteric tear sternal fracture lumbar spine fracture
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Segmental arterial mediolysis

Segmental arterial mediolysis (SAM) is an increasingly recognised vascular disease of the middle-aged and elderly and a leading cause of spontanoeus intra-abdominal haemorrhage. It is characterised by fusiform aneurysms, stenoses, dissections and occlusions within splanchnic arterial branches. I...
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Segmental pancreatitis

Segmental pancreatitis is not a distinct entity in itself but describes an imaging differential. Clinical presentation With segmental pancreatitis, a patient presents with clinical pancreatitis (signs, symptoms, laboratory markers), but on imaging, only a portion of the gland appears to have c...
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SeHCAT

SeHCAT (23-seleno-25-homo-tauro-cholic acid) is a radiopharmaceutical used in the investigation of bile salt malabsorption, which is a cause of chronic diarrhoea.  Characteristics physical half-life: 118 days Uses, dosage and timings A capsule containing SeHCAT is ingested with water. The pa...
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Semilunar line

The semilunar line, linea semilunaris or Spigelian line is a bilateral vertical curved line in the anterior abdominal wall where the layers of the rectus sheath fuse lateral to the rectus abdominis muscle and medial to the oblique muscles. It is the site of a Spigelian hernia.
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Sentinel loop

A sentinel loop is a focal area of adynamic ileus close to an intra-abdominal inflammatory process. The sentinel loop sign may aid in localising the source of inflammation. For example, a sentinel loop in the upper abdomen may indicate pancreatitis, while one in the right lower quadrant may be ...
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Serous cystadenoma of pancreas

Serous cystadenoma of the pancreas (or microcystic adenoma) is an uncommon type of benign cystic pancreatic neoplasm.  Epidemiology There is a recognised strong female predilection (M:F ~ 1:4) and usually presents in middle age to elderly patients (>60 years of age).  Clinical presentation M...
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Serrated polyposis syndrome

Serrated polyposis syndrome (SPS), also called hyperplastic polyposis syndrome, is characterised by the presence of multiple serrated polyps or a mixture of serrated and hyperplastic polyps, with the exact number required for diagnosis dependent on location and family history. SPS has an hetero...
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Seurat spleen

Seurat spleen is an angiographic appearance seen following blunt trauma to the spleen. Multiple small punctate regions of intraparenchymal contrast extravasation lead to a spotted appearance. History and etymology The term refers to a likeness between the angiographic appearance and the artwor...
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Shading sign (endometrioma)

Shading sign is an MRI finding typically seen in an endometrioma. It may also be seen with some endometrioid tumours (e.g endometrioid carcinoma of the ovary) It helps to distinguish endometriomas from other blood containing lesions (e.g. haemorrhagic corpus luteum cysts), with a sensitivity of...
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Shwachman-Diamond syndrome

The Shwachman-Diamond syndrome (SDS) or Shwachman-Bodian-Diamond syndrome (SBDS) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterised by 1 : exocrine pancreatic insufficiency metaphyseal chondroplasia bone marrow hypoplasia (cyclic neutropenia) Clinical presentation Patients with Shwachman-...
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Sigmoid arteries

The sigmoid arteries are branches, between two-to-four, of the inferior mesenteric artery (IMA) and supply the sigmoid colon.  Summary origin: inferior mesenteric artery course: after arising from IMA, these branches descend to the left in the sigmoid mesocolon anastomosis: superiorly with ...
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Sigmoid colon

The sigmoid colon is the continuation of the descending colon. Gross anatomy After the distal descending colon has curved medially it enters the pelvis, where it gains a mesentery and is then called the sigmoid colon. It measures approximately 15 cm in length.  It has a "S" (Greek letter sigm...
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Sigmoid mesocolon

The sigmoid mesocolon is a fold of peritoneum that attaches the sigmoid colon to the pelvic wall and one of the four mesenteries in the abdominal cavity. It has an "inverted V" line of attachment, the apex of which is near the division of the left common iliac artery. The left limb descends...
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Sigmoid mesocolon hernia

Intersigmoid hernias, also known as sigmoid mesocolon hernias, occur when small bowel loops protrude into a peritoneal pocket (intersigmoid fossa) formed between two adjacent sigmoid segments and their mesentery. Epidemiology Sigmoid mesocolon hernias account for ~5% of all internal hernias 1-...
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Sigmoid volvulus

Sigmoid volvulus is a cause of large bowel obstruction and occurs when the sigmoid colon twists on the sigmoid mesocolon. Epidemiology Large bowel volvulus accounts for ~5% of all large bowel obstructions, with ~60% of intestinal volvulus involving the sigmoid colon 6. It is more common in the...
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Single contrast barium enema

Single contrast barium enema is a method of imaging the colon with fluoroscopy and is similar in concept to the double contrast barium enema. "Single contrast" refers to imaging with barium or water-soluble contrast only, without addition of gas or CO2. Indications The single contrast techniqu...
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Sister Mary Joseph nodule

A Sister Mary Joseph nodule is a metastatic lesion involving the umbilicus. The most common primary source is an intra-abdominal adenocarcinoma. Epidemiology Umbilical metastases are uncommon, reportedly present in 1-3% of all intra-abdominal and/or pelvic malignancy 7. Clinical presentation ...
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Sitz marker study

The Sitz marker study is an older technique to estimate colonic transit time.  Indications In constipation it can help distinguish between slow colonic transit and a defecation disorder. Procedure The patient ingests a number of radio-opaque markers (plastic rings containing radio-opaque mat...
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Skin changes of mercury poisoning (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for the skin changes associated with mercury poisoning is: 5 Ps Mnemonic P: pink P: puffy P: painful P: paraesthesia P: peeling
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Sleeve gastrectomy

Sleeve gastrectomy is a bariatric surgical procedure involving resection of the greater curvature of the fundus and body of the stomach to leave approximately 15% of the original gastric volume (60 to 100 cc), thus creating a restrictive physiology. The post-surgical gastric pouch resembles a ba...
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Small bowel

The small bowel (or small intestine) is the section of bowel between the stomach and the colon. It has distinctive mucosal folds, valvulae conniventes, and is made up of three functional units: duodenum jejunum ileum Radiographic features Fluoroscopy See main article: barium studies of sma...
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Small bowel atresia

Small bowel atresia corresponds to malformations where there is a narrowing or absence of a portion of the small bowel, which includes: duodenal atresia jejunal atresia ileal atresia
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Small bowel faeces sign (bowel)

The small bowel faeces sign can be observed on abdominal CT-scans. The sign has been described as a finding indicative of small bowel obstruction or another severe small-bowel abnormality (i.e. metabolic or infectious disease). While the reported prevalence of the sign in SBO is low (7-8%)1, the...
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Small bowel folds (differential)

Regular, smooth generalised thickening oedema congestive cardiac failure (CCF) hypoalbuminaemia lymphatic obstruction angioneurotic oedema infection radiation ischaemia haemorrhage anticoagulation or bleeding diasthesis vasculitidies Henoch-Schonlein purpura Buerger disease graft v...
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Small bowel follow through

Small bowel follow through (SBFT) is a fluoroscopic technique designed to obtain high resolution images of the small bowel. The function of the small bowel can also be evaluated. Indications The small bowel follow through can be used for evaluation of small bowel abnormalities, including: str...
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Small bowel imaging

Small bowel imaging aims at assessment of the disorders of small intestine. Imaging techniques barium follow through fluoroscopic enteroclysis conventional CT CT enteroclysis MR enteroclysis CT enterography MR enterography capsule endoscopy
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Small bowel ischaemia

Small bowel or mesenteric ischaemia may be a life-threatening condition, arising from any one of numerous causes of disturbance of the normal blood flow through the small bowel wall.  Pathology It can be divided into acute and chronic forms, with the main underlying aetiologies (each discussed...
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Small bowel lymphoma

Lymphoma of the small bowel is the most common small bowel malignancy, accounting accounts for ~25% of all primary small bowel malignancies and ~40% of all primary gastrointestinal lymphomas. Epidemiology Small bowel lymphoma is most commonly secondary extranodal involvement in widespread syst...
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Small bowel mesentery internal hernia

Small bowel mesentery internal hernias are a form internal bowel herniation, involving protrusions of viscera through defects in the peritoneum or bowel mesentery. This type of internal herniation is more often seen in neonates than in adults. There are two types transmesenteric small bowel in...
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Small bowel obstruction

Small bowel obstruction (SBO) accounts for 80% of all mechanical intestinal obstruction with the remaining 20% result from large bowel obstruction. It has a mortality rate of ~5%. Clinical presentation Classical presentation is cramping abdominal pain and abdominal distension with nausea and v...
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Small bowel obstruction (summary)

Small bowel obstruction (SBO) accounts for 80% of all mechanical intestinal obstruction; the remaining 20% result from large bowel obstruction. It has a mortality rate of 5.5%. Reference article This is a summary article; read more in our article on small bowel obstruction. Summary epidemiol...
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Solid and hollow abdominal viscera

The solid abdominal viscera is a collective term for those internal organs of the upper abdomen that are primarily solid in nature, namely the liver, pancreas, spleen, adrenals, and kidneys. It is used in contradistinction to the hollow abdominal viscera, which includes, the stomach, small bowel...
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Solitary rectal ulcer syndrome

This article is currently under editorial board review for errors Solitary rectal ulcer syndrome (SRUS) is a chronic, benign disorder characterized by the presence of a benign abnormality of the rectum in persons who have a long history of straining during defecation. it is a misnomer but has g...
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Somatostatinoma

Somatostatinomas are a rare type of neuroendocrine tumour. They may represent around 1% of all gastro-entero-pancreatic endocrine neoplasms. Clinical presentation Presentation van be variable. Patients with functional stomatostatinomas may present with an "inhibitory syndrome" which is a triad...
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Sphincter of Oddi

The sphincter of Oddi (or sphincter of ampulla) is a complex of four smooth muscle sphincters within the duodenal wall. It surrounds, and helps fix to the duodenum, the duct of Wirsung, common bile duct and the ampulla of Vater 1-2.  When relaxed it allows the passage of bile into the intestine...
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Spigelian hernia

Spigelian hernia, also known as lateral ventral hernia, is a type of abdominal hernia along the semilunar line, resulting in herniation between the muscles of the abdominal wall. Epidemiology They are rare and account for ~1% (range 0.1-2%) of ventral hernias 2-3. The incidence is thought to p...
Article

Spigelian-cryptorchidism syndrome

Spigelian-cryptorchidism syndrome is the association of Spigelian hernias and cryptorchidism in children.  Pathology It is reported that ~50% (range 28-75%) range of paediatric patients with Spigelian hernias will have ipsilateral cryptorchidism 1,2.  Along with Spigelian hernia and cryptorch...
Article

Spleen

The spleen is an organ of the haematological system and has a role in immune response, storage of red blood cells and hematopoiesis. Gross anatomy The spleen is a wedge-shaped organ lying mainly in the left upper quadrant (left hypochondrium and partly in the epigastrium) and is protected by t...
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Spleen size (paediatric)

The spleen size varies with a child's age. The three numbers below represent the 10th percentile, median, and 90th percentile for the long axis of the spleen (cm) 0-3 months: (3.3, 4.5, 5.8 cm) 3-6 months: (4.9, 5.3, 6.4 cm) 6-12 months: (5.2, 6.2, 6.8 cm) 1-2 years: (5.4, 6.9, 7.5 cm) 2-4...
Article

Splenic amyloidosis

Splenic amyloidosis is rare as an isolated entity. Most often it is associated with either systemic amyloidosis or hepatic amyloidosis. Epidemiology In general splenic involvement in amyloidosis is rather frequent (5-10% of cases 6). Clinical presentation Symptoms include abdominal mass and ...
Article

Splenic artery

The splenic artery is one of three branches coeliac trunk and supplies the spleen as well as large parts of the stomach and pancreas. Gross anatomy Origin and course The splenic artery is one of the terminal branches of the coeliac trunk, passing from the coeliac axis toward the splenic hilum...
Article

Splenic artery pseudoaneurysm

Splenic artery pseudoaneurysms are a rare type of pseudoaneurysm arising from any portion of the splenic artery and its branches.  Clinical presentation Unlike splenic artery true aneurysms, splenic artery pseudoaneurysms will nearly always present with symptoms 2. Fewer than 200 cases of sple...
Article

Splenic calcification

Splenic calcifications can occur is various shapes and forms and can occur from a myriad of aetiological factors. The usual calcification observed in radiographs are the multiple, miliary form presenting numerous small rounded densities averaging from three to five millimeters in diameter where...
Article

Splenic cyst

Splenic cysts, although not particularly common, are the most common focal lesion of the spleen. They may be congenital or secondary. Epidemiology The incidence is ~0.75 per 100,000. Clinical features Usually asymptomatic and incidentally discovered at imaging. Left upper quadrant pain and t...
Article

Splenic epidermoid cyst

Splenic epidermoid cysts are a type of non-parasitic primary splenic cyst. Epidemiology They are thought to account for 10-25% of benign non-parasitic cysts of the spleen 3. There may be an increased female predilection. Clinical presentation The clinical presentation can vary ranging from b...
Article

Splenic haemangioma

Splenic haemangiomas (also known as splenic venous malformations) while being rare lesions, are considered the second commonest focal lesion involving the spleen after simple splenic cysts 5,12. Most splenic venous malformations are so called cavernous malformations, which are found throughout ...
Article

Splenic haemangiomatosis

Splenic haemangiomatosis is a situation there are multiple, diffuse splenic haemangiomas replacing its entire parenchyma. It is a very rare entity . Pathology It can occur as a manifestation of systemic angiomatosis or, less commonly, confined to the spleen (diffuse isolated splenic haemangiom...
Article

Splenic hamartoma

Splenic hamartomas are very rare and usually solitary although may be present as multiple nodules present in tuberous sclerosis or Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome. The only recently described entity sclerosing angiomatoid nodular transformation (SANT) of the spleen, a non-neoplastic vascular entity de...
Article

Splenic infarction

Splenic infarction is a result of ischaemia to the spleen, and in many cases requires no treatment. However, identification of the cause of infarction is essential.   Epidemiology Splenic infarcts can occur due to a number processes, involving either arterial supply, the spleen itself and the ...
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Splenic lesions and anomalies

There are number of splenic lesions and anomalies: Congenital anomalies accessory spleen wandering spleen asplenia polysplenia splenogonadal fusion retrorenal spleen Mass lesions Benign mass lesions splenic cysts: see cystic lesions of the spleen splenic haemangioma: commonest benign ...
Article

Splenic lymphangioma

Splenic lymphangiomas are relatively rare benign tumours that correspond to malformations of the lymphatic system.  Epidemiology Most occur in children, were rarely reported in adults2.  Clinical presentation  Presentation ranges from asymptomatic incidental finding to a large multicentric, ...
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Splenic rupture

Atraumatic or spontaneous splenic rupture is rare, especially when compared to traumatic splenic rupture.  Pathology The pathogenesis of atraumatic splenic rupture is not well understood. Splenomegaly is present in almost all patients (~95%), although rupture of normal spleens (both in size an...

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