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Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

596 results found
Article

Uterine perforation

Uterine perforation represents a serious complication that can occur as a result of any type of intrauterine procedure or implantation. Some authors use the term uterine rupture synonymously with the term uterine perforation. Pathology Causes IUCD insertion: IUCD related uterine perforation ...
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Uterine restricted diffusion

Uterine restricted diffusion refers to a hyperintense signal involving the endometrium, myometrium, or cervix on DWI images with a corresponding low signal on ADC images, with a mean cut-off ADC value for malignancy of 1.15 x 10-3 mm2/s 7. Endometrial restricted diffusion malignant endometrial...
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Uterine rupture

Uterine rupture is a rare but nevertheless potentially catastrophic complication that can occur in pregnancy.  Epidemiology The incidence rate in pregnancy is 0.05% 6.   Clinical presentation Uterine rupture is usually an acute presentation with hemodynamic instability and abdominal discomfo...
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Uterine sarcoma

Uterine sarcoma is a malignant uterine tumor thats is composed of part or all sarcomatous (mesodermal) elements. They however account for a minority of all uterine malignancies (1-6% 3-4).  Pathology Classification They can be broadly classified as pure or mixed 4: mixed malignant mixed Mul...
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Uterine smooth muscle tumors of uncertain malignant potential

Uterine smooth muscle tumors of uncertain malignant potential (STUMP) is a recently defined entity by the World Health Organization for a heterogeneous group of uterine smooth muscle tumors that cannot be histologically diagnosed as unequivocally benign or malignant 1. See also malignant neopl...
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Uterine venous plexus

The uterine venous plexus is a network of veins surrounding the uterus and has extensive anastomoses with the vaginal venous plexus inferiorly and ovarian venous plexuses laterally. Gross anatomy The uterine venous plexus lies along the lateral aspects and superior angles of the uterus within ...
Article

Uterosacral ligament

The paired uterosacral ligaments are one of the supporting structures of the uterus. Uterosacral ligaments are not infrequently affected in cases of deep infiltrating endometriosis. Gross anatomy The paired uterosacral ligaments are extraperitoneal structures which extend posteriorly from the ...
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Uterus

The uterus is an extraperitoneal hollow, thick-walled, muscular organ of the female reproductive tract that lies in the lesser pelvis. Gross anatomy The uterus has an inverted pear shape. It measures about 7.5 cm in length, 5 cm wide at its upper part, and nearly 2.5 cm in thickness in adults....
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Uterus didelphys

Uterus didelphys is a type of Müllerian duct anomaly (class III) where there is a complete duplication of uterine horns as well as duplication of the cervix, with no communication between them.   Epidemiology Didelphic uteri account for approximately ~8% (range 5-11%) of Müllerian duct anomali...
Article

VACTERL association

VACTERL is an acronym that describes a non-random constellation of congenital anomalies. It is not a true syndrome as such and is equivalent to the VATER anomaly. Epidemiology The estimated incidence is 1 in 10,000-40,000 births 3. Pathology The acronym VACTERL derives from: V: vertebral an...
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VACTERL-H association

The VACTERL-H association is a rare non-random association which bears the features of the standard VACTERL association with added fetal hydrocephalus. Unlike the standard VACTERL association which is sporadic, the VACTERL-H is hereditary with both X-linked 3 and autosomal recessive 2 inheritan...
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Vagina

The vagina is a midline fibromuscular tubular organ positioned in the female perineum extending superiorly from the vulva, to the cervix and uterus in the pelvis.  Gross anatomy The vagina is 6-8 cm in length, extending posterosuperior from the vestibule through the urogenital diaphragm to the...
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Vaginal atresia

Vaginal atresia refers to a spectrum of anomalies comprising of failure to form a part or all of the vagina.   Epidemiology It is considered the second most common cause of primary amenorrhea. The estimated  Incidence is at ~ 2 in 10000 women. Clinical presentation The most common symptom...
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Vaginal cancer (staging)

The staging of primary vaginal cancer covers all histological subtypes and is as follows FIGO staging system stage 0: carcinoma in situ stage I: tumor confined to vagina stage II: invasion of paravaginal tissues but no extension beyond pelvic side walls stage III: extension to pelvic side w...
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Vaginal cuff

The vaginal cuff (also known as the vaginal remnant) is the remnant tissue after a hysterectomy. The cuff may be evaluated for tumor recurrence (often with ultrasound) if the uterus was removed for cervical or endometrial carcinoma. Radiographic findings The appearance of the cuff depends on w...
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Vaginal leiomyoma

Vaginal leiomyomas are an extremely rare entity and fall under extra-uterine pelvic leiomyomas.  Epidemiology They are extremely rare with only ~ 300 cases reported in literature 3. Pathology It may occur anywhere along the vaginal canal and is usually localized, mobile, non-tender, and circ...
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Vaginal lymphoma

Vaginal lymphoma can refer to: secondary involvement of the vagina (secondary vaginal lymphoma) from widespread generalized lymphoma relatively commoner usually comprises of diffuse large cell B non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (DLBCL) 2 primary vaginal lymphoma much rarer
Article

Vaginal opening

The vaginal opening, is also known as the introitus (plural: introituses), vaginal orifice, or ostium vaginae (plural: ostia vaginarum) (TA) . Gross anatomy The entrance to the vagina lies in the vestibule of the vulva in the median plane. It has an anteroposterior orientation and is partially...
Article

Vaginal pessary

A vaginal pessary is a device inserted into the vagina which can either be mechanical or pharmaceutical. Terminology Strictly speaking, a pessary only refers to a medical device designed to be placed in the vagina to support the pelvic floor. Therefore, stating vaginal pessary is tautologous, ...
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Vaginal stenosis

Vaginal stenosis refers to a narrowing of the vagina, it can be congenital or acquired. Clinical presentation dyspareunia painful pelvic examination Complications retrograde menstruation Pathology Causes Acquired causes include: iatrogenic scarring from prior pelvic irradiation - brach...
Article

Valsalva maneuver

The Valsalva maneuver is the forced expiration of air against a closed airway, resulting in increased intra-abdominal, intrathoracic, and pharyngeal pressure. It can be performed against a closed glottis or by one closing the mouth and pinching the nose while forcibly exhaling. It is commonly u...
Article

Vascular Ehlers Danlos syndrome

Vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) or type IV Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS 4) is the most malignant form of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. This form is often accompanied by neurovascular complications secondary to vessel dissections and/or aneurysms. Epidemiology Vascular EDS represents about 4% of...
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Venetian blind appearance (uterus)

The Venetian blind (a.k.a. rain shower 2) appearance is a sonographic finding that is typically associated with adenomyosis but can also occur in uterine fibroids. The Venetian blind appearance associated with adenomyosis is typically "thin" whereas when associated with uterine fibroids, there a...
Article

Venous intravasation

Venous intravasation is the unintended introduction of radiographic contrast material into the local venous system. It is a well-recognized phenomenon during retrograde urethrograms 1,2 and hysterosalpingograms (HSG), although can occur with other invasive procedures in the vicinity of venous pl...
Article

Vesicovaginal fistula

Vesicovaginal fistulas are abnormal fistulous connections between the urinary bladder and vagina, resulting in an involuntary discharge of urine through the vagina. Epidemiology The overall incidence of vesicovaginal fistula is unknown but was reported to be 2.11 per 100 births in Nigeria 1. ...
Article

Vesicovaginal reflux

Vesicovaginal reflux is a well-known entity rarely encountered by radiologists. It is a behavioral disorder, a type of dysfunctional elimination syndrome commonly encountered in pre-pubertal girls. It is defined as reflux of urine into the vaginal vault either in supine or upright position durin...
Article

Vestibule (disambiguation)

A vestibule is an anatomical term and refers to a small cavity at the proximal end of a tube. It may refer to: vestibule (aorta) vestibule (ear) vestibule (larynx) vestibule (mouth) vestibule (nose) vestibule (esophagus) vestibule (vulva) History and etymology Vestibule derives ultimate...
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Vestibule of the vulva

The vestibule of the vulva (vestibule of the vagina in some texts 2) is the area between the labia minora, and posterior to the glans of the clitoris. It marks the boundary between the vagina and the vulva. The urethra, vagina and the greater vestibular glands open out into the vestibule.
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Viscera

The viscera (singular: viscus) refers to all the internal organs within the major cavities of the thorax, abdomen and pelvis. Therefore it does not include organs of the CNS, head and neck or musculoskeletal compartments nor does it encompass non-internal organs (e.g. the skin) 1. Splanchnology...
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Vulva

The vulva (plurals: vulvas or vulvae), also known as the pudendum, (plural: pudenda) is the collective term given to the female external genitalia. The vulva consists of the: mons pubis labia majora labia minora clitoris bulbs of the vestibule vestibule of the vulva vaginal opening hyme...
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Vulval cancer (staging)

Staging of vulval cancer can be done with either the AJCC or FIGO systems, although both are similar.  Staging FIGO stage I:tumor confined to the vulva IA lesions ≤2 cm in size, confined to the vulva or perineum and with stromal invasion ≤1.0 mm*, no nodal metastasis IB: lesions N2 cm in si...
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Vulval neoplasms

Vulval neoplasms are rare and mostly seen in elderly female patients. Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the most common malignancy of the vulva and only 30% of them are associated with oncogenic human papillomaviruses (HPVs). Pathology Squamous neoplastic lesions  Premalignant  classic vulvar...
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Vulval varices

Vulvar varices are dilated superficial veins of the external female genitalia, which are primarily seen during pregnancy and usually resolve spontaneously postpartum. Epidemiology Vulvar varicosities are seen in up to 4% of pregnant females in the vulvar and perivulvar region, and rarely seen ...
Article

Vulvodynia

Vulvodynia ​is defined as chronic pain of the vulva of at least three months duration, without an obviously identifiable cause and it is a diagnosis of exclusion and a form of idiopathic pain disorder 1,2. Epidemiology The incidence of vulvodynia was reported to be ~5% (range 4-8%) in reproduc...
Article

Waist sign hydrosalpinx

The waist sign arises from the folding of a distended tube upon itself producing indentations on diametrically opposite sides. The waist sign is specific for hydrosalpinx and virtually pathognomonic when seen in association with a tubular-shaped cystic mass. See also cogwheel sign beads on a ...
Article

Whirlpool sign (mesentery)

The whirlpool sign of the mesentery, also known as the whirl sign, is seen when the bowel rotates around its mesentery leading to whirls of the mesenteric vessels.  Terminology The term whirlpool sign is used in other contexts: see whirlpool sign (disambiguation). Radiographic features It is...
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Whirlpool sign (ovarian torsion)

The whirlpool sign or whirl sign of ovarian torsion is characterized by the appearances of a twisted ovarian pedicle seen on US or even on CT.  Terminology The term whirlpool sign is used in other contexts: see whirlpool sign (disambiguation). Radiographic features It appears as twisting of ...
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WHO histological classification of tumors of the uterine cervix

The WHO histological classification is a detailed classification of tumors of the uterine cervix. epithelial tumors squamous tumors and precursors squamous cell carcinoma, not otherwise specified - 8070/3 keratinizing - 8071/3 non-keratinizing - 8072/3 basaloid - 8083/3 verrucous - 8051/3...

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