Uterine perforation represents a serious complication that can occur as a result of any type of intrauterine procedure or implantation. Some authors use the term uterine rupture synonymously with the term uterine perforation.
IUCD insertion: IUCD related uterine perforation
Uterine restricted diffusion refers to a hyperintense signal involving the endometrium, myometrium, or cervix on DWI images with a corresponding low signal on ADC images, with a mean cut-off ADC value for malignancy of 1.15 x 10-3 mm2/s 7.
Endometrial restricted diffusion
Uterine rupture is a rare but nevertheless potentially catastrophic complication that can occur in pregnancy.
The incidence rate in pregnancy is 0.05% 6.
Uterine rupture is usually an acute presentation with hemodynamic instability and abdominal discomfo...
Uterine sarcoma is a malignant uterine tumor thats is composed of part or all sarcomatous (mesodermal) elements. They however account for a minority of all uterine malignancies (1-6% 3-4).
They can be broadly classified as pure or mixed 4:
malignant mixed Mul...
Uterine smooth muscle tumors of uncertain malignant potential (STUMP) is a recently defined entity by the World Health Organization for a heterogeneous group of uterine smooth muscle tumors that cannot be histologically diagnosed as unequivocally benign or malignant 1.
The uterine venous plexus is a network of veins surrounding the uterus and has extensive anastomoses with the vaginal venous plexus inferiorly and ovarian venous plexuses laterally.
The uterine venous plexus lies along the lateral aspects and superior angles of the uterus within ...
The paired uterosacral ligaments are one of the supporting structures of the uterus. Uterosacral ligaments are not infrequently affected in cases of deep infiltrating endometriosis.
The paired uterosacral ligaments are extraperitoneal structures which extend posteriorly from the ...
The uterus is an extraperitoneal hollow, thick-walled, muscular organ of the female reproductive tract that lies in the lesser pelvis.
The uterus has an inverted pear shape. It measures about 7.5 cm in length, 5 cm wide at its upper part, and nearly 2.5 cm in thickness in adults....
Uterus didelphys is a type of Müllerian duct anomaly (class III) where there is a complete duplication of uterine horns as well as duplication of the cervix, with no communication between them.
Didelphic uteri account for approximately ~8% (range 5-11%) of Müllerian duct anomali...
VACTERL is an acronym that describes a non-random constellation of congenital anomalies. It is not a true syndrome as such and is equivalent to the VATER anomaly.
The estimated incidence is 1 in 10,000-40,000 births 3.
The acronym VACTERL derives from:
V: vertebral an...
The VACTERL-H association is a rare non-random association which bears the features of the standard VACTERL association with added fetal hydrocephalus.
Unlike the standard VACTERL association which is sporadic, the VACTERL-H is hereditary with both X-linked 3 and autosomal recessive 2 inheritan...
The vagina is a midline fibromuscular tubular organ positioned in the female perineum extending superiorly from the vulva, to the cervix and uterus in the pelvis.
The vagina is 6-8 cm in length, extending posterosuperior from the vestibule through the urogenital diaphragm to the...
Vaginal atresia refers to a spectrum of anomalies comprising of failure to form a part or all of the vagina.
It is considered the second most common cause of primary amenorrhea. The estimated
Incidence is at ~ 2 in 10000 women.
The most common symptom...
The staging of primary vaginal cancer covers all histological subtypes and is as follows
FIGO staging system
stage 0: carcinoma in situ
stage I: tumor confined to vagina
stage II: invasion of paravaginal tissues but no extension beyond pelvic side walls
stage III: extension to pelvic side w...
The vaginal cuff (also known as the vaginal remnant) is the remnant tissue after a hysterectomy. The cuff may be evaluated for tumor recurrence (often with ultrasound) if the uterus was removed for cervical or endometrial carcinoma.
The appearance of the cuff depends on w...
Vaginal leiomyomas are an extremely rare entity and fall under extra-uterine pelvic leiomyomas.
They are extremely rare with only ~ 300 cases reported in literature 3.
It may occur anywhere along the vaginal canal and is usually localized, mobile, non-tender, and circ...
Vaginal lymphoma can refer to:
secondary involvement of the vagina (secondary vaginal lymphoma) from widespread generalized lymphoma
usually comprises of diffuse large cell B non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (DLBCL) 2
primary vaginal lymphoma
The vaginal opening, is also known as the introitus (plural: introituses), vaginal orifice, or ostium vaginae (plural: ostia vaginarum) (TA) .
The entrance to the vagina lies in the vestibule of the vulva in the median plane. It has an anteroposterior orientation and is partially...
A vaginal pessary is a device inserted into the vagina which can either be mechanical or pharmaceutical.
Strictly speaking, a pessary only refers to a medical device designed to be placed in the vagina to support the pelvic floor. Therefore, stating vaginal pessary is tautologous, ...
Vaginal stenosis refers to a narrowing of the vagina, it can be congenital or acquired.
painful pelvic examination
Acquired causes include:
scarring from prior pelvic irradiation - brach...
The Valsalva maneuver is the forced expiration of air against a closed airway, resulting in increased intra-abdominal, intrathoracic, and pharyngeal pressure. It can be performed against a closed glottis or by one closing the mouth and pinching the nose while forcibly exhaling.
It is commonly u...
Vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) or type IV Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS 4) is the most malignant form of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. This form is often accompanied by neurovascular complications secondary to vessel dissections and/or aneurysms.
Vascular EDS represents about 4% of...
The Venetian blind (a.k.a. rain shower 2) appearance is a sonographic finding that is typically associated with adenomyosis but can also occur in uterine fibroids. The Venetian blind appearance associated with adenomyosis is typically "thin" whereas when associated with uterine fibroids, there a...
Venous intravasation is the unintended introduction of radiographic contrast material into the local venous system. It is a well-recognized phenomenon during retrograde urethrograms 1,2 and hysterosalpingograms (HSG), although can occur with other invasive procedures in the vicinity of venous pl...
Vesicovaginal fistulas are abnormal fistulous connections between the urinary bladder and vagina, resulting in an involuntary discharge of urine through the vagina.
The overall incidence of vesicovaginal fistula is unknown but was reported to be 2.11 per 100 births in Nigeria 1.
Vesicovaginal reflux is a well-known entity rarely encountered by radiologists. It is a behavioral disorder, a type of dysfunctional elimination syndrome commonly encountered in pre-pubertal girls. It is defined as reflux of urine into the vaginal vault either in supine or upright position durin...
A vestibule is an anatomical term and refers to a small cavity at the proximal end of a tube. It may refer to:
History and etymology
Vestibule derives ultimate...
The vestibule of the vulva (vestibule of the vagina in some texts 2) is the area between the labia minora, and posterior to the glans of the clitoris. It marks the boundary between the vagina and the vulva. The urethra, vagina and the greater vestibular glands open out into the vestibule.
The viscera (singular: viscus) refers to all the internal organs within the major cavities of the thorax, abdomen and pelvis. Therefore it does not include organs of the CNS, head and neck or musculoskeletal compartments nor does it encompass non-internal organs (e.g. the skin) 1.
The vulva (plurals: vulvas or vulvae), also known as the pudendum, (plural: pudenda) is the collective term given to the female external genitalia.
The vulva consists of the:
bulbs of the vestibule
vestibule of the vulva
Staging of vulval cancer can be done with either the AJCC or FIGO systems, although both are similar.
stage I:tumor confined to the vulva
IA lesions ≤2 cm in size, confined to the vulva or perineum and with stromal invasion ≤1.0 mm*, no nodal metastasis
IB: lesions N2 cm in si...
Vulval neoplasms are rare and mostly seen in elderly female patients. Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the most common malignancy of the vulva and only 30% of them are associated with oncogenic human papillomaviruses (HPVs).
Squamous neoplastic lesions
Vulvar varices are dilated superficial veins of the external female genitalia, which are primarily seen during pregnancy and usually resolve spontaneously postpartum.
Vulvar varicosities are seen in up to 4% of pregnant females in the vulvar and perivulvar region, and rarely seen ...
Vulvodynia is defined as chronic pain of the vulva of at least three months duration, without an obviously identifiable cause and it is a diagnosis of exclusion and a form of idiopathic pain disorder 1,2.
The incidence of vulvodynia was reported to be ~5% (range 4-8%) in reproduc...
The waist sign arises from the folding of a distended tube upon itself producing indentations on diametrically opposite sides. The waist sign is specific for hydrosalpinx and virtually pathognomonic when seen in association with a tubular-shaped cystic mass.
beads on a ...
The whirlpool sign of the mesentery, also known as the whirl sign, is seen when the bowel rotates around its mesentery leading to whirls of the mesenteric vessels.
The term whirlpool sign is used in other contexts: see whirlpool sign (disambiguation).
The whirlpool sign or whirl sign of ovarian torsion is characterized by the appearances of a twisted ovarian pedicle seen on US or even on CT.
The term whirlpool sign is used in other contexts: see whirlpool sign (disambiguation).
It appears as twisting of ...
The WHO histological classification is a detailed classification of tumors of the uterine cervix.
squamous tumors and precursors
squamous cell carcinoma, not otherwise specified - 8070/3
keratinizing - 8071/3
non-keratinizing - 8072/3
basaloid - 8083/3
verrucous - 8051/3...