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Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

578 results found
Article

Vaginal opening

The vaginal opening, is also known as the introitus (plural: introituses), vaginal orifice, or ostium vaginae (plural: ostia vaginarum) (TA) . Gross anatomy The entrance to the vagina lies in the vestibule of the vulva in the median plane. It has an anteroposterior orientation and is partially...
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Vaginal pessary

A vaginal pessary is a device inserted into the vagina which can either be mechanical or pharmaceutical. Terminology Strictly-speaking a pessary only refers to a medical device designed to be placed in the vagina to support the pelvic floor. Therefore stating vaginal pessary is tautologous alt...
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Vaginal stenosis

Vaginal stenosis refers to a narrowing of the vagina, it can be congenital or acquired. Clinical presentation dyspareunia painful pelvic examination Complications retrograde menstruation Pathology Causes Acquired causes include: iatrogenic scarring from prior pelvic irradiation - brach...
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Valsalva maneuver

The Valsalva maneuver is the forced expiration of air against a closed airway, resulting in increased intra-abdominal, intrathoracic, and pharyngeal pressure. It can be performed against a closed glottis or by one closing the mouth and pinching the nose while forcibly exhaling. It is commonly u...
Article

Vascular Ehlers Danlos syndrome

Vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) or type IV Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS 4) is the most malignant form of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. This form is often accompanied by neurovascular complications secondary to vessel dissections and/or aneurysms. Epidemiology Vascular EDS represents about 4% of...
Article

Venetian blind appearance (uterus)

The Venetian blind (a.k.a. rain shower 2) appearance is a sonographic finding that is typically associated with adenomyosis but can also occur in uterine fibroids. The Venetian blind appearance associated with adenomyosis is typically "thin" whereas when associated with uterine fibroids, there a...
Article

Venous intravasation

Venous intravasation is the unintended introduction of radiographic contrast material into the local venous system. It is a well-recognized phenomenon during retrograde urethrograms 1,2 and hysterosalpingograms (HSG), although can occur with other invasive procedures in the vicinity of venous pl...
Article

Vesicovaginal fistula

Vesicovaginal fistulas are abnormal fistulous connections between the urinary bladder and vagina, resulting in an involuntary discharge of urine through the vagina. Epidemiology The overall incidence of vesicovaginal fistula is unknown but was reported to be 2.11 per 100 births in Nigeria 1. ...
Article

Vesicovaginal reflux

Vesicovaginal reflux is a well-known entity rarely encountered by radiologists. It is a behavioral disorder, a type of dysfunctional elimination syndrome commonly encountered in pre-pubertal girls. It is defined as reflux of urine into the vaginal vault either in supine or upright position durin...
Article

Vestibule (disambiguation)

A vestibule is an anatomical term and refers to a small cavity at the proximal end of a tube. It may refer to: vestibule (aorta) vestibule (ear) vestibule (larynx) vestibule (mouth) vestibule (nose) vestibule (esophagus) vestibule (vulva) History and etymology Vestibule derives ultimate...
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Vestibule of the vulva

The vestibule of the vulva (vestibule of the vagina in some texts 2) is the area between the labia minora, and posterior to the glans of the clitoris. It marks the boundary between the vagina and the vulva. The urethra, vagina and the greater vestibular glands open out into the vestibule.
Article

Vulva

The vulva (or pudendum) is the collective term given to the female external genitalia. The vulva consists of the: mons pubis labia majora labia minora clitoris bulbs of the vestibule vestibule of the vulva vaginal opening hymen Bartholin glands Radiographic features CT Individual co...
Article

Vulval cancer (staging)

Staging of vulval cancer is the FIGO staging system and is as follows: stage 0: carcinoma in situ (pre-invasive); corresponds to Tis stage I: tumor <2 cm (greatest dimension) and confined to vulva/perineum; corresponds to T1 stage Ia: stromal invasion by <1 mm Stage Ib: stromal invasion by >...
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Vulval neoplasms

Vulval neoplasms are rare and mostly seen in elderly female patients. Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the most common malignancy of the vulva and only 30% of them are associated with oncogenic human papillomaviruses (HPVs). Pathology Squamous neoplastic lesions  Premalignant  classic vulvar...
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Vulval varices

Vulvar varices are dilated superficial veins of the external female genitalia, which are primarily seen during pregnancy and usually resolve spontaneously postpartum. Epidemiology Vulvar varicosities are seen in up to 4% of pregnant females in the vulvar and perivulvar region, and rarely seen ...
Article

Vulvodynia

Vulvodynia ​is defined as chronic genital pain of at least three months duration, without an obviously identifiable cause and it is a diagnosis of exclusion with an idiopathic pain disorder 1,2. Epidemiology The incidence of allodynia was reported to be ~5% (range 4-8%) in reproductive-age gro...
Article

Waist sign hydrosalpinx

The waist sign arises from the folding of a distended tube upon itself producing indentations on diametrically opposite sides. The waist sign is specific for hydrosalpinx and virtually pathognomonic when seen in association with a tubular-shaped cystic mass. See also cogwheel sign beads on a ...
Article

Whirlpool sign (mesentery)

The whirlpool sign of the mesentery, also known as the whirl sign, is seen when the bowel rotates around its mesentery leading to whirls of the mesenteric vessels.  Terminology The term whirlpool sign is used in other contexts: see whirlpool sign (disambiguation). Radiographic features It is...
Article

Whirlpool sign (ovarian torsion)

The whirlpool sign or whirl sign of ovarian torsion is characterized by the appearances of a twisted ovarian pedicle seen on US or even on CT.  Terminology The term whirlpool sign is used in other contexts: see whirlpool sign (disambiguation). Radiographic features It appears as twisting of ...
Article

WHO histological classification of tumors of the uterine cervix

The WHO histological classification is a detailed classification of tumors of the uterine cervix. epithelial tumors squamous tumors and precursors squamous cell carcinoma, not otherwise specified - 8070/3 keratinizing - 8071/3 non-keratinizing - 8072/3 basaloid - 8083/3 verrucous - 8051/3...

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