Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

509 results found
Article

Tubal ring sign

Tubal ring sign, also referred to as bagel sign or blob sign, one of the ultrasound signs of a tubal ectopic. It comprises of an echogenic ring which surrounds an unruptured ectopic pregnancy. It is said to have a 95% positive predictive value (PPV) for ectopic pregnancy. Differential diagnosis...
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Endometriosis

Endometriosis is a common and clinically important problem in women of childbearing age. It is classically defined as the presence of functional endometrial glands and stroma outside the uterine cavity and its musculature 1. This is distinct from adenomyosis, in which endometrial tissue is confi...
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Cumulus oophorus

Cumulus oophorus refers to an appearance in the ovary in which multiple granulosa cells enlarge around a developing oocyte. These support cells ("cumulus cells") serve multiple functions in the maturation of the oocyte. They may occasionally be seen during a pelvic ultrasound, and should not be ...
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Uterine tube

The uterine tube, also known as the fallopian tube, is a paired structure that bridges between each ovary and the uterus and functions to convey the mature ovum from the former to the latter. If conception occurs, it normally does so within the tube. It can be affected by a wide range of patholo...
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Adenosquamous carcinoma (cervix)

Adenosquamous cell carcinoma (ASC) of the cervix is a rare histological subtype of cervical carcinoma. Pathology It has components of both cervical adenocarcinoma and cervical squamous cell carcinoma. Prognosis An adenosquamous histology appears to be an independent predictor of poor outcome...
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Bridging vessel sign

The bridging vessel sign refers to an appearance of vessels coursing from the uterus into an adjoining pelvic mass (a vascular bridge). This sign helps to differentiate a pedunculated subserosal uterine leiomyoma from other juxtauterine masses of ovarian, adnexal or bowel origin. Colour and pow...
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Ovarian torsion

Ovarian torsion, also sometimes termed adnexal torsion or tubo-ovarian torsion, refers to rotation of the ovary and portion of the fallopian tube on the supplying vascular pedicle.  It can be intermittent or sustained and results in venous, arterial and lymphatic stasis. It is a gynaecological ...
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Hemimegalencephaly

Hemimegalencephaly is a rare congenital disorder of cortical formation with hamartomatous overgrowth all or a part of a cerebral hemisphere. This results from either increased proliferation or decreased apoptosis (or both) of developing neurons 2. Epidemiology Hemimegalencephaly is a cryptogen...
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Struma ovarii tumour

Struma ovarii tumour is a subtype of an ovarian teratoma and is composed entirely or predominantly of thyroid tissue and containing variable-sized follicles with colloid material. Epidemiology It accounts for 0.3-1% of all ovarian tumours and ~3% of all mature cystic teratomas 1. Clinical pre...
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Androgen insensitivity syndrome

Androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS), also known as the testicular feminisation syndrome, results from end-organ resistance to androgens, particularly testosterone. AIS may be complete or incomplete with variable imaging findings.  Epidemiology The incidence may vary depending on whether it i...
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Perivascular epithelioid cell tumours (PEComas)

Perivascular epithelioid cells tumours (PEComas) are a group of related mesenchymal tumours and tumour-like conditions found in many locations. This group includes: angiomyolipoma (AML) clear cell 'sugar' tumour of the lung lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) clear cell myomelanocytic tumour (CCM...
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Interstitial ectopic pregnancy

Interstitial ectopic pregnancy (also known as an intramural) is an important type of ectopic pregnancy with higher risks of rupture and haemorrhage compared to usual tubal ectopic pregnancies.  Terminology The term interstitial pregnancy is sometimes interchangeably used with cornual pregnancy...
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Shortened fetal femoral length

Shorted fetal femur is a morphological descriptor and is usually defined when the femoral length falls below the 5th centile for gestational age (some define it when its under the 2.5th centile 5) or less than 0.91 predicted by the bi-pareital diameter. It can occur in isolated or in association...
Article

Calcifying metastases (mnemonic)

A simple mnemonic to recall a list of commonly calcifying metastases is: BOTOM Mnemonic B: breast cancer O: osteosarcoma T: papillary thyroid cancer O: ovarian cancer (especially mucinous) M: mucinous adenocarcinoma (especially colorectal carcinoma)
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In utero bowel perforation

In utero bowel perforation results in a chemical peritonitis (meconium peritonitis) from peritoneal leakage of sterile meconium. It can result from many causes which include: intestinal atresias: jejuno-ileal atresia ileal atresia anal atresia in utero intestinal ischaemia underlying gast...
Article

Uterine perforation

Uterine perforation represents a serious complication that can occur as a result of any type of intrauterine procedure or implantation. Some authors use the term uterine rupture synonymously with the term uterine perforation. Pathology Causes IUCD insertion: IUCD related uterine perforation ...
Article

Semilobar holoprosencephaly

Semilobar holoprosencephaly is a subtype of holoprosencephaly (HPE) characterised by an incomplete forebrain division. It is intermediate in severity, being worse than lobar holoprosencephaly and better than alobar holoprosencephaly. Epidemiology Please refer on the general article of holopros...
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Abscess

Abscesses are focal confined collections of suppurative inflammatory material and can be thought of as having three components 1: a central core consisting of necrotic inflammatory cells and local tissue peripheral halo of viable neutrophils surrounded by a 'capsule' with dilated blood vessel...
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Ovarian cyst

Ovarian cysts are commonly encountered in gynaecological imaging, and vary widely in aetiology, from physiologic, to complex benign, to neoplastic. Small cystic ovarian structures should be considered normal ovarian follicles unless the patient is pre-pubertal, post-menopausal, pregnant, or the...
Article

Corpus luteum

The corpus luteum is a temporary endocrine structure involved in ovulation and early pregnancy. During ovulation, the primary follicle forms the secondary follicle and subsequently the mature vesicular follicle. At ovulation the follicle ruptures expelling the ovum into the fallopian tube. The...
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Ovarian follicle

An ovarian follicle (also known as a Graafian follicle in its mature state) is the basic unit of female reproductive biology and is composed of roughly spherical aggregations of cells. It contains a single oocyte.  An ovarian follicle can be initiated to grow and develop, culminating in ovulati...
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Collision tumour of the ovary

A collision tumour of the ovary is an uncommon ovarian neoplasm where there is co-existence of two adjacent but histologically distinct tumours with no histologic admixture at the interface. Pathology The exact pathogenesis is not well known. They are most commonly composed of ovarian teratoma...
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Ovarian mucinous cystadenocarcinoma

Mucinous cystadenocarcinoma of the ovary is a rare malignant ovarian mucinous tumour. This type can account for 5-10% of all ovarian mucinous tumours. It is a type of ovarian epithelial tumour.  Pathology Retrospective studies have suggested that many mucinous carcinomas initially diagnosed as...
Article

Ectopic pregnancy

Ectopic pregnancy refers to the implantation of a fertilised ovum outside of the uterine cavity. Epidemiology The overall incidence has increased over the last few decades and is currently thought to affect 1-2% of pregnancies. The risk is as high as 18% for first trimester pregnancies with bl...
Article

Paraovarian cyst

Paraovarian cysts (POCs) are remnants of Wolffian duct in the mesosalpinx that do not arise from the ovary. They account for ~10-20% of adnexal masses 3-4. Epidemiology They typically occur in women at the ages of 20-40 years old. Clinical presentation Most are asymptomatic, although patient...
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Surgical haemostatic material

Surgical haemostatic material is used to control bleeding intraoperatively and is hence frequently voluntarily left in the operative bed, not to be confused with a gossypiboma which is foreign material left by mistake. It can mimic an abscess on imaging studies. Various types are available, the ...
Article

Squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix

Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the cervix is the most common histological subtype of cervical cancer and accounts for 80-90% of cases. Pathology Most cervical squamous cell carcinomas grow at the squamocolumnar junction (SCJ). In younger women, the SCJ is located outside the external uterine...
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Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome

Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) is a complication of ovarian stimulation treatment (ovarian induction therapy) for in vitro fertilisation. Rarely, it may also occur as a spontaneous event in pregnancy (see spontaneous ovarian hyperstimulation later in the article). The clinical syndrom...
Article

Physiological pelvic intraperitoneal fluid

Physiological pelvic intraperitoneal fluid refers to the presence of a small volume of free fluid in the pelvis, particularly the pouch of Douglas. It occurs in young females of reproductive age and can be a mimic of traumatic free fluid in abdominal trauma. Unfortunately, pelvic free fluid may...
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Ruptured ovarian cyst

Ruptured ovarian cysts are one of the most common causes of acute pelvic pain in premenopausal women. The sonographic appearance depends on whether a simple or hemorrhagic ovarian cyst ruptures, and whether the cyst has completely collapsed. The most important differential consideration is a rup...
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Differential diagnosis of free fluid in cul de sac (pouch of Douglas)

The cul-de-sac, also known as the pouch of Douglas or rectouterine pouch, is an extension of the postero-inferior reflection of the peritoneal fold between the uterus (anteriorly) and rectum (posteriorly). It is the most inferior aspect of the peritoneal cavity and therefore the first location w...
Article

Gonadal artery

The gonadal arteries are the paired primary vascular supply to the ovaries in the female and the testes in the male. As the anatomy of the gonadal arteries differs substantially between the sexes, they are covered separately: ovarian arteries testicular arteries
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Ovarian tumours

Ovarian tumours are relatively common and account for ~6% of female malignancies. This article focuses on the general classification of ovarian tumours. For specific features, refer to the sub-articles. Pathology Subtypes Primary ovarian tumours Surface epithelial stromal ovarian tumours (60...
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Ovarian mucinous tumours

Ovarian mucinous tumours are a subgroup of ovarian epithelial tumours. They represent ~20% of all ovarian tumours and ~10% of all malignant ovarian tumours. They are subdivided according to their malignant potential and clinical behaviour into: ovarian mucinous cystadenoma ovarian borderline m...
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Ovarian serous tumours

Ovarian serous neoplasms are the commonest subtypes of the epithelial ovarian tumours, being more prevalent than the mucinous ovarian tumours. They are subdivided according to their malignant potential and clinical behaviour into: benign: serous cystadenoma / serous cystadenofibroma borderline...
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CA-125

Serum CA-125 is well recognised as an ovarian cancer-associated marker and is an antigen determinant on a high-molecular-weight glycoprotein. The normal range of CA-125 is 0-35 U/mL. Serum CA-125 levels can also be used to monitor the response to treatment as well as a prognostic indicator sinc...
Article

Human epididymis protein 4

Human epididymis protein 4 (HE4) is an emerging serum biomarker in the assessment of epithelial ovarian tumours. HE4 is a member of the whey associated protein (WAP) gene cluster and has uncertain biological function 1. Early results indicate that HE4 has higher sensitivity and sensitivity than...
Article

Endometrioid carcinoma of the ovary

Endometrioid carcinomas of the ovary are a sub-type of epithelial ovarian tumours. The vast majority are malignant and invasive. On imaging, they are usually characterised as complex nonspecific solid-cystic masses and found associated with endometriosis.  Epidemiology Endometrioid carcinomas ...
Article

Body packing

Body packing refers to the internal concealment of drugs within the gastrointestinal tract or other orifices. People who do this may be called body packers, (drug) mules, stuffers, couriers or swallowers. Drugs may be concealed within condoms, foil, latex or cellophane.  Epidemiology There is ...
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Pelvic protocol for endometriosis (MRI)

Evaluation of known endometriosis with MRI requires a slightly different protocol to a routine pelvic MRI (see Pelvic MRI protocol: routine), and should probably be reserved for known cases of endometriosis rather than for the assessment of pelvic pain. IV (or IM) Buscopan® is administered to r...
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Uterine artery embolisation: MRI assessment

Uterine artery embolisation (UAE) is used as an alternative to hysterectomy in selected patients and MRI assessment is key in allowing not only pre-procedure assessment but also assessing post-procedural outcome.   For a general discussion of the underlying condition refer to the article on ute...
Article

Ovarian vein thrombosis

Ovarian vein thrombosis  (actually most often a thrombophlebitis) occurs most commonly in postpartum patients and can result in pulmonary emboli. A presentation is usually with acute pelvic pain in the postpartum period, then termed puerperal ovarian vein thrombosis or postpartum ovarian vein th...
Article

Persistent right umbilical vein

A persistent right umbilical vein (PRUV) is an uncommon vascular anomaly which is often detected in utero. Epidemiology The estimated prevalence is at ~2 per 1000 births 1-2. Pathology In the normal situation, the right umbilical vein begins to obliterate in the ~4th week of gestation and di...
Article

Uterine choriocarcinoma

Uterine choriocarcinomas are one of the commonest choriocarcinomas and are often associated with gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD).  Epidemiology These tumours typically occur in women of childbearing age as a gestational choriocarcinoma. Most such cases present within one year of an ant...
Article

Noonan syndrome

Noonan syndrome (NS) is a genetically and phenotypically heterogenous non aneuploidic congenital RASopathy. Affected individuals can bear some clinical features similar to that of Turner syndrome.  Epidemiology The estimated incidence is at ~1 in 1000-2500 11. As individuals have normal number...
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Noonan syndrome with multiple lentigines

Noonan syndrome with multiple lentigines, previously known as LEOPARD syndrome (LS), is a rare autosomal dominant RASopathy that has many similarities to Noonan syndrome. Clinical presentation Despite a change in formal name, the 'LEOPARD' acronym is still useful to summarise the clinical feat...
Article

Adenomyosis of the uterus

Adenomyosis of the uterus is a common, benign uterine pathology. It is thought by many to be on the spectrum of endometriosis, with ectopic endometrial tissue in the myometrium. Adenomyosis may present with menorrhagia and dysmenorrhea. Ultrasound and MRI are imaging modalities that may show cha...
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Infertility in the exam

It is important to have a systematic way of approaching a case with subfertility in the exam.  Ultrasound is the initial examination of choice. Always say that you would further assess the uterus with 3D ultrasound. You may also say that in my department we would perform a sonohysterogram or HS...
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Cogwheel sign

The Cogwheel sign refers to an imaging appearance in pelvic imaging of thickening loops of the Fallopian tube seen on cross section. There are infolding projections (sometimes look like nodules) into the Fallopian tube lumen which is likened to that of a cogwheel. The sign is typically described...
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Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome

Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome (FHCS) refers to the development of a perihepatitis in association with pelvic inflammatory disease (PID).  Epidemiology The prevalence in adults with mild to moderate PID (gonorrhoic) may approximate 4% 10. The prevalence may be higher in genital tuberculosis 12. It ...
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Pelvic inflammatory disease

Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is a broad term that encompasses a spectrum of infection and inflammation of the upper female genital tract, resulting in a range of abnormalities.  Epidemiology The highest incidence is seen among sexually active women in their teens, with 75% cases being und...
Article

Asherman syndrome

Asherman syndrome, also known as uterine synechiae, is a condition characterised by the formation of intrauterine adhesions, which are usually sequela from injury to the endometrium, and is often associated with infertility. Epidemiology There is a tendency for the condition to develop soon af...
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Uterine agenesis

Uterine agenesis is the extreme of Mullerian duct anomalies (Class I) where there is a complete absence of uterine tissue above the vagina.  Epidemiology The uterine agenesis-hypoplasia spectrum accounts for ~10-15% of all Müllerian duct anomalies. Clinical presentation Clinical presentation...
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Tubo-ovarian abscess

Tubo-ovarian abscesses (TOA) are one of the late complications of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). Clinical presentation Patients typically present with fever, elevated white blood cell count, lower abdominal-pelvic pain, and/or vaginal discharge. Fever and leukocytosis may sometimes be abse...
Article

Corpus luteal cyst rupture

Ruptured corpus luteal cysts are one of the commonest causes of spontaneous haemoperitoneum in a woman of reproductive age. Clinical presentation Presentation is variable, ranging from completely asymptomatic to severe abdominal pain due to peritoneal irritation. Pathology The corpus luteum ...
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Hyaline degeneration of a leiomyoma

Hyaline degeneration is the most common form of degeneration that can occur in a uterine leiomyoma.  Epidemiology It is thought to occur in up to 60% of uterine leiomyomas 3. Pathology As with many other types of degeneration, it happens when fibroids outgrow their blood supply 4. Hyaline de...
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Subserosal leiomyoma of the uterus

Subserosal uterine leiomyoma is a subtype of uterine leiomyoma that often exophytically projects outwards from a subserosal location. While its exact definition may vary, a leiomyoma is often called subserosal if >50% of the fibroid protrudes out of the serosal surface of the uterus 2. They can ...
Article

Intramural uterine leiomyoma

Intramural uterine leiomyoma is the most common type of uterine leiomyoma in terms of location. They are centred primarily within the myometrium. A large intramural uterine leiomyoma can, however, have a submucosal or subserosal component. Clinical presentation They are usually asymptomatic; h...
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Polycystic ovarian syndrome

Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), recently referred also as hyperandrogenic anovulation, is a chronic anovulation syndrome associated with androgen excess.  The diagnosis is made on the combined clinical, biochemical and sonographic grounds. The revised 2003 ASRM/ESHRE Rotterdam consensus cri...
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Carneous degeneration of a leiomyoma

Red or carneous degeneration is one of four main types of degeneration that can involve a uterine leiomyoma. While it is an uncommon type of degeneration, it is thought to be the most common form of degeneration of a leiomyoma during pregnancy 3. Clinical presentation Patients with a leiomyoma...
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Submucosal leiomyoma of the uterus

Submucosal leiomyomas of the uterus refer to a subtype of uterine leiomyoma that primarily projects into the endometrial cavity. They are least common albeit the most symptomatic type of leiomyoma. Clinical presentation Submucosal leiomyomas can be a common source of abnormal uterine bleeding ...
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Myxoid uterine leiomyoma

Myxoid uterine leiomyoma is a relatively rare pathological subtype of uterine leiomyomas. It is not to be confused with myxoid degeneration of a uterine leiomyoma which has a related but no identical meaning. Pathology Myxoid leiomyomas contain abundant myxoid material between smooth muscle ce...
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Uterine leiomyoma

Uterine leiomyomas, also referred as uterine fibroids, are benign tumours of myometrial origin and are the most common solid benign uterine neoplasms. Commonly an incidental finding on imaging, they rarely cause a diagnostic dilemma. There are various medical, surgical and interventional treatme...
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Myxoid degeneration of a leiomyoma

Myxoid degeneration of a leiomyoma is one of the rarer types of degeneration that can occur in a standard uterine leiomyoma. This term is related but not identical to the term myxoid uterine leiomyoma.  Epidemiology While this type of degeneration is generally considered rare. The higher end o...
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Cystic degeneration of a leiomyoma

Cystic degeneration is an uncommon type of degeneration that a uterine leiomyoma can undergo. Epidemiology  This type of degeneration is thought to represent ~4% of all types of degeneration. Pathology When the leiomyomas increase in size, the vascular supply to it becomes inadequate and lea...
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Ovarian yolk sac tumour

Ovarian yolk sac tumours, also known as endodermal sinus tumours, are a type of ovarian germ cell tumours. Epidemiology Ovarian yolk sac tumour is a rare malignant ovarian germ cell tumour that usually occurs around the second decade of life. It is considered the most common malignant germ cel...
Article

Malignant mixed Mullerian tumour of the ovary

Malignant mixed Mullerian tumours (MMMT) of the ovary, also known as carcinosarcoma of the ovary, are a rare type of mixed ovarian tumour with both epithelial and stromal components. Epidemiology They are very rare and account for less than 1% of all ovarian cancers. Most women are post-menopa...
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Malignant mixed Mullerian tumour

Malignant mixed Mullerian tumours (MMMT), sometimes referred to as a carcinosarcoma, are uncommon malignancies that can occur anywhere along the female genital tract. Pathology It is comprised of both epithelial (carcinomatous) and stromal (sarcomatous) components. Implicated risk factors inc...
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Malignant mixed Mullerian tumour of the uterus

Malignant mixed Mullerian tumour (MMMT) of the uterus, also known a uterine carcinosarcoma, is the commonest (up to 50%) uterine sarcoma. They are thought to account for 2-8% of all malignant uterine cancers 1-2. The uterus is the commonest site for malignant mixed Mullerian tumours 1.  Patholo...
Article

P16

P16 is a widely used immunohistochemical marker. It can be expressed in other neoplasms and in several normal human tissues. It can play an important role gynecological malignancy and is a surrogate marker for HSIL's (high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions). It has been applied to facilitat...
Article

Corpus luteal cyst

Corpus luteal (CL) cysts are a type of functional ovarian cyst that results when a corpus luteum fails to regress following the release of an ovum. When associated with pregnancy, it is the most common pelvic mass encountered within the 1st trimester. There is also some overlap with the term "ha...
Article

Ring of fire sign (adnexa)

The ring of fire sign, also known as ring of vascularity, signifies a hypervascular lesion with peripheral vascularity on colour or pulsed Doppler examination of the adnexa due to low impedance high diastolic flow 1. This sign can be seen in: corpus luteum cyst (more commonly) ectopic pregnan...
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Haemorrhagic corpus luteal cyst

Haemorrhagic corpus luteal cysts result from bleeding into corpus luteal cysts. Radiographic features Ultrasound Commonly described findings include complex adnexal mass adnexal thick walled cystic lesion with lace like strands adnexal thick walled cystic lesion with low-level echoes withi...
Article

Ovarian fibromatosis

Ovarian fibromatosis (OF) refers to a rare benign phenomenon where there is tumour-like ovarian enlargement due to diffuse ovarian fibrosis. Epidemiology It may have a predilection towards younger pre-menopausal females (age range around 13-39 years) with a mean age of presentation of 25 years...
Article

Massive ovarian oedema

Massive ovarian oedema (MOO) is a very rare disease characterised by a tumour-like, usually unilateral, enlargement of the ovary.  Epidemiology It characteristically presents in young women ~ 6 to 33 years (mean age ~21 years 4). Clinical presentation Most patients present with intermittent ...
Article

Endometrial thickness

Endometrial thickness is a commonly measured parameter on routine gynaecological ultrasound and MR imaging. The appearance, as well as the thickness of the endometrium, will depend on whether the patient is of reproductive age or post-menopausal and, if of reproductive age, at what point in the ...
Article

Tamoxifen associated endometrial changes

Tamoxifen has pro-oestrogenic effects on the endometrium and thus is associated with an increased prevalence of: endometrial polyps: occurs in ~8-36% of women in treated 8 endometrial hyperplasia: occurs in ~1-20% of women treated ref cystic endometrial atrophy endometrial carcinoma Epidemi...
Article

Placental trophotropism

Placental trophotropism refers to a phenomenon where there is dynamic migration of the placenta at its insertion through gestation. The placenta tends to grow in areas of good blood supply and nutrition and atrophies in areas with poor blood supply and poor nutrition. It may play a role in the d...
Article

Haematometrocolpos

Haematometrocolpos refers to a blood-filled distended uterus and vagina usually due to an anatomical mechanical obstruction precluding the evacuation of the menstrual blood.  Epidemiology The estimated incidence in teenagers is at ~1 in 1000-2000 5. Pathology Causes imperforate hymen: in ~2...
Article

Haematocolpos

Haematocolpos is a term given to a blood-filled dilated vagina due to menstrual blood in the setting of an anatomical obstruction, usually an imperforate hymen. In this condition, there is no distention of the uterine cavity, c.f. haematometrocolpos.  Clinical presentation Patients may present...
Article

Hydatidiform mole

Hydatidiform moles are one of the most common but benign forms of gestational trophoblastic disease.  Epidemiology It is a common complication of gestation, estimated to occur in one of every 1,000-2,000 pregnancies 3. These moles can occur in a pregnant woman of any age, but the rate of occur...
Article

Partial hydatidiform mole

Partial hydatidiform mole (PHD) is a sub type of a hydatidiform mole which in turn falls under the spectrum of gestational trophoblastic disease.  Clinical presentation Clinical signs and symptoms such as abdominal pain, cramps of the lower abdomen and vaginal bleeding during pregnancy are non...
Article

Coexistent molar pregnancy

Coexistent molar pregnancy refers to an extremely rare situation where there is a molar pregnancy occurring simultaneously with normal intra-uterine pregnancy. Epidemiology The estimated incidence is at ~1:10,000-100,000 gestations (for a complete hydatidiform mole and a normal pregnancy) 2. ...
Article

Megalencephaly

Megalencephaly (MEG) is a disorder characterised by an abnormally large brain. It is primarily a proliferative disorder of embryonic origin. It may involve all or part of the cerebral hemispheres and can be bilateral or unilateral. It is often associated with polymicrogyria or agyria.  Terminol...
Article

HELLP syndrome

HELLP syndrome is a pregnancy-related condition and is an abbreviation for: haemolysis elevated liver enzymes and  low platelets It is considered a severe and life threatening form of pre-eclampsia although it can occur without co-existing pre-eclampsia.  Epidemiology The estimated inciden...
Article

Post-axial polydactyly

Post-axial polydactyly refers to polydactyly where the additional digit is on the ulnar margin of the hand, or lateral to the 5th toe. Epidemiology Post-axial polydactyly is more common than pre-axial polydactyly, with an estimated incidence of 1 in 3000. Pathology Classification Post-axial...
Article

MURCS association

MURCS association refers to the combination of: MU: Müllerian duct aplasia R: renal aplasia /renal agenesis CS: cervicothoracic somite dysplasia See also Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser syndrome
Article

Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome

Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome (MRKH) is an anomaly that belongs to class I Mullerian duct anomalies. There are two different form of this syndrome: the typical form (type A) of this syndrome is characterised by the congenital absence of the uterus and upper 2/3 vagina with normal ova...
Article

Nuchal cord

A nuchal cord (NC) is a term given to situation where there are one or more loops of umbilical cord wrapped around the fetal neck for ≥360°. Epidemiology The prevalence is dependent on the extent of coiling and range from ~25% for a single loop to 2.5% for a double loop to ~0.5% for more than ...
Article

IUCD related uterine perforation

IUCD related uterine perforations are one of the causes of uterine perforation. It is rare, but a serious complication of an IUCD insertion, and is often clinically silent.  Epidemiology The incidence rate is reported at ~2 in 1000 2. Clinical presentation Perforation at the time of insertio...
Article

Endometrial hyperplasia

Endometrial hyperplasia refers to an increased proliferation of the endometrial glands relative to the stroma. One of the main concerns is the potential malignant transformation of the endometrial hyperplasia to the endometrial carcinoma. Epidemiology Endometrial hyperplasia affects women of a...
Article

Anatomy curriculum

The anatomy curriculum is one of our curriculum articles and aims to be a collection of articles that represent the core anatomy knowledge for radiologists and imaging specialists. General anatomy Neuroanatomy Head and neck anatomy Thoracic anatomy Abdominal and pelvic anatomy Spinal anat...
Article

Borderline ovarian serous cystadenoma

Borderline ovarian serous cystadenomas lie in the intermediate range in the spectrum of ovarian serous tumours and represent approximately 15% of all serous tumours. Epidemiology They present at a younger age group 1-2 than the more malignant serous cystadenocarcinomas with a peak age of prese...

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