Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

511 results found
Article

Abdominal surface anatomy

The abdomen, when looking from in front, is divided into nine regions by imaginary planes (two vertical and two horizontal) forming abdominal surface anatomy. The nine regions are of clinical importance when examining and describing pathologies related to the abdomen. The horizontal planes are o...
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Ectopic pregnancy

Ectopic pregnancy refers to the implantation of a fertilised ovum outside of the uterine cavity. Epidemiology The overall incidence has increased over the last few decades and is currently thought to affect 1-2% of pregnancies. The risk is as high as 18% for first trimester pregnancies with bl...
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Macroglossia

Macroglossia means an enlarged tongue. It may be absolute (greater than the 95th centile) or relative (enlarged compared with oral cavity). Pathology Associations Recognised associations include: chromosomal anomalies Down syndrome tends to be a relative macroglossia may also have intermi...
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Ovarian torsion

Ovarian torsion, also sometimes termed adnexal torsion or tubo-ovarian torsion, refers to rotation of the ovary and portion of the fallopian tube on the supplying vascular pedicle.  It can be intermittent or sustained and results in venous, arterial and lymphatic stasis. It is a gynaecological ...
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Robinow syndrome

Robinow syndrome is a rare heterogenous genetic disorder with at least two distinct forms. Clinical spectrum The syndrome can affects several systems which include: mesomelic limb shortening: mesomelia hemivertebrae characteristic facies anomalies fetal facies hypertelorism 3 frontal bos...
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IOTA ultrasound rules for ovarian masses

The International Ovarian Tumour Analysis (IOTA) group ultrasound rules for ovarian masses are a simple set of ultrasound findings that classify ovarian masses into benign, malignant or inconclusive masses. These rules apply to masses that are not a classical ovarian mass (e.g. corpus luteum, en...
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Mature (cystic) ovarian teratoma

Ovarian dermoid cyst and mature cystic ovarian teratoma are terms often used interchangeably to refer to the most common ovarian neoplasm. These slow-growing tumours contain elements from multiple germ cell layers and are best assessed with ultrasound.  Terminology Although they have very simi...
Article

Haematocolpos

Haematocolpos is a term given to a blood-filled dilated vagina due to menstrual blood in the setting of an anatomical obstruction, usually an imperforate hymen. In this condition, there is no distention of the uterine cavity, c.f. haematometrocolpos.  Clinical presentation Patients may present...
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Superficial perineal pouch

The superficial perineal pouch is an anatomic space below the perineal membrane in the urogenital triangle of the perineum. Gross anatomy The superficial perineal pouch is below the perineal membrane in the urogenital triangle, anterior to the transverse line between the ischial tuberosities. ...
Article

Post-ablation tubal sterilisation syndrome

Post-ablation tubal sterilisation syndrome (PATSS) is a recognised delayed complication seen in patients who have undergone both endometrial ablation and tubal sterilisation. It has been reported in 6-8% of these patients and occurs when bleeding from residual endometrium is obstructed due to su...
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Endometrial Ablation

Endometrial ablation is a minimally invasive surgical procedure that involves the destruction of the uterine endometrium commonly performed for menorrhagia in premenopausal or perimenopausal women. It has evolved has an alternative to hysterectomy and is associated with good outcomes and patien...
Article

Frontal bossing

Frontal bossing is a calvarial radiographic feature where the front of the skull appears protruding anteriorly. It is best appreciated on a sagittal or lateral image. Pathology This feature can be seen in many conditions (in alphabetical order): 18q syndrome acromegaly achondroplasia ß-tha...
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Immature ovarian teratoma

Immature ovarian teratomas are uncommon ovarian germ cell tumours. They differ from mature ovarian teratomas (dermoid cysts) both histologically by the presence of immature tissue, and clinically by their more malignant behaviour. Epidemiology They are considerably less common than mature ovar...
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Primary peritoneal neoplasms

Primary peritoneal neoplasms comprise of an uncommon group of heterogenous entities. The list includes: mesothelial derivatives primary (malignant) peritoneal mesothelioma primary perioneal multicystic mesothelioma primary peritoneal well differentiated papillary mesothelioma primary perit...
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Syndactyly

Syndactyly refers to a congenital fusion of two or more digits. It may be confined to soft tissue (soft tissue syndactyly / simple syndactyly) or may involve bone (bony syndactyly / complex syndactyly). Epidemiology The overall estimated incidence is at ~1 per 2500 to 5000 live births 6,8. The...
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Sonographic values in obstetrics and gynaecology

Obstetric and gynaecological ultrasound is rampant with numerous cut off values. Some of these get revised over the years. The following list is a useful aid to refer to and revise. 1 mm rate of increase of a mean sac diameter per day in early pregnancy 2 mm generally accepted value for a th...
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Ovarian cystic neoplasms

Ovarian cystic neoplasms can be either benign or malignant and can arise from epithelial, stromal, or germ cell components. In general, the risk of malignancy in unilocular cystic tumours <10 cm in women over the age of 50 years is thought to be low 3-4. benign ovarian mature cystic teratoma ...
Article

Myometrial cysts

Myometrium cysts are cysts seen in the myometrium and these can be differentiated appropriately based on location and sonological or Doppler features. Pathology Aetiology adenomyosis: the cysts are most often seen in the endomyometrial junction region. They ideally are small <5 mm, however ma...
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Large for dates uterus

A large for date uterus is a clinical observation based on uterine fundal height, which may result in referral for ultrasound assessment, usually in mid to late pregnancy.    Causes include: incorrect dates constitutionally large fetus multiple pregnancy fetal macrosomia polyhydramnios ut...
Article

IUCD related uterine perforation

IUCD related uterine perforations are one of the causes of uterine perforation. It is rare, but a serious complication of an IUCD insertion, and is often clinically silent.  Epidemiology The incidence rate is reported at ~2 in 1000 2. Clinical presentation Perforation at the time of insertio...
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Intra-uterine contraceptive device

Intra-uterine contraceptive devices (IUCD) are one of the most frequently used methods of contraception throughout the world. It prevents pregnancy by: thinnning the endometrial lining preventing sperm motility preventing implantation There are two main types of IUCDs: non-hormonal metallic...
Article

Body packing

Body packing refers to the internal concealment of drugs within the gastrointestinal tract or other orifices. People who do this may be called body packers, (drug) mules, stuffers, couriers or swallowers. Drugs may be concealed within condoms, foil, latex or cellophane.  Epidemiology There is ...
Article

Hydrocolpos

Hydrocolpos is characterised by an expanded fluid filled vaginal cavity. When it is associated with distention of the uterine cavity, the term hydrometrocolpos should then be used. It may present in infancy with a lower abdominal mass, or be delayed till menarche. Pathology Aetiology imperfor...
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Unicornuate uterus

A unicornuate uterus or unicornis unicollis is a type of Mullerian duct anomaly (class II) that is the second most commonly associated with miscarriages.  Epidemiology This type can account for ~10% (range 6-13%) of uterine anomalies and infertility is seen in ~12.5% (range 5-20%) of cases. P...
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Endometrial thickness

Endometrial thickness is a commonly measured parameter on routine gynaecological ultrasound and MR imaging. The appearance, as well as the thickness of the endometrium, will depend on whether the patient is of reproductive age or post-menopausal and, if of reproductive age, at what point in the ...
Article

Borderline ovarian serous cystadenoma

Borderline ovarian serous cystadenomas lie in the intermediate range in the spectrum of ovarian serous tumours and represent approximately 15% of all serous tumours. Epidemiology They present at a younger age group 1-2 than the more malignant serous cystadenocarcinomas with a peak age of prese...
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Ovarian serous tumours

Ovarian serous neoplasms are the commonest subtypes of the epithelial ovarian tumours, being more prevalent than the mucinous ovarian tumours. They are subdivided according to their malignant potential and clinical behaviour into: benign serous cystadenoma / serous cystadenofibroma borderline ...
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Ovarian borderline mucinous cystadenoma

Ovarian borderline mucinous cystadenomas are a subtype of ovarian mucinous tumours and, as the name stands, are intermediate between mucinous cystadenomas and mucinous cystadenocarcinomas. Epidemiology They account for ~ 10-15% of all ovarian mucinous tumours. Pathology They are microscopica...
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Ovarian mucinous tumours

Ovarian mucinous tumours are a subgroup of ovarian epithelial tumours. They represent ~20% of all ovarian tumours and ~10% of all malignant ovarian tumours. They are subdivided according to their malignant potential and clinical behaviour into: ovarian mucinous cystadenoma ovarian borderline m...
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Pelvic lipomatosis

Pelvic lipomatosis (also known as pelvic fibrolipomatosis) represents excessive deposition of fat in pelvis due to overgrowth of adipose cells leading to compression of pelvic organs. Epidemiology The condition usually presents in patients 20-50 years of age. The condition is predominantly (2/...
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Bartholin gland cyst

Bartholin gland cysts are located in the postero-lateral inferior third of the vagina and are associated with the labia majora.  Clinical presentation Most patients are asymptomatic 4. Complications infection: may turn into Bartholin gland abscesses rare instances of development of adenocar...
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MR defaecating proctography

MR defecography is a dynamic study for evaluation of the pelvic floor and pelvic organ prolapse. Phases There are four phases of evaluation: rest squeeze strain (Valsalva) defaecation Method of evaluation Many variations in the techniques described below exist. Patient preparation Typi...
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Uterine dehiscence

Uterine dehiscence is, usually, used to refer to the process of gradual myometrial rupture without a rupture of membranes. However, the term is used synonymously with uterine rupture by some authors. It is often described in the context of C-section scar where it is also termed an incisional deh...
Article

Retained products of conception

Retained products of conception (RPOC) refer to the persistence of placental and/or fetal tissue in the uterus following delivery, termination of pregnancy or a miscarriage.  Epidemiology Retained products of conception complicate ~1-5% of all pregnancies (routine vaginal deliveries 12).  Acc...
Article

Cogwheel sign

The cogwheel sign refers to an imaging appearance in pelvic imaging of thickening loops of the Fallopian tube seen on cross-section. There are infolding projections (sometimes looking like nodules) into the Fallopian tube lumen which is likened to that of a cogwheel. The sign is typically descri...
Article

Claw sign (mass)

The claw sign is useful in determining whether a mass arises from a solid structure or is located adjacent to it and distorts the outline. It refers to the sharp angles on either side of the mass, which the surrounding normal parenchyma forms when the mass has arisen from the parenchyma. As suc...
Article

Tubal ring sign

Tubal ring sign, also referred to as bagel sign or blob sign, one of the ultrasound signs of a tubal ectopic. It comprises of an echogenic ring which surrounds an unruptured ectopic pregnancy. It is said to have a 95% positive predictive value (PPV) for ectopic pregnancy. Differential diagnosis...
Article

Endometriosis

Endometriosis is a common and clinically important problem in women of childbearing age. It is classically defined as the presence of functional endometrial glands and stroma outside the uterine cavity and its musculature 1. This is distinct from adenomyosis, in which endometrial tissue is confi...
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Cumulus oophorus

Cumulus oophorus refers to an appearance in the ovary in which multiple granulosa cells enlarge around a developing oocyte. These support cells ("cumulus cells") serve multiple functions in the maturation of the oocyte. They may occasionally be seen during a pelvic ultrasound, and should not be ...
Article

Uterine tube

The uterine tube, also known as the fallopian tube, is a paired structure that bridges between each ovary and the uterus and functions to convey the mature ovum from the former to the latter. If conception occurs, it normally does so within the tube. It can be affected by a wide range of patholo...
Article

Adenosquamous carcinoma (cervix)

Adenosquamous cell carcinoma (ASC) of the cervix is a rare histological subtype of cervical carcinoma. Pathology It has components of both cervical adenocarcinoma and cervical squamous cell carcinoma. Prognosis An adenosquamous histology appears to be an independent predictor of poor outcome...
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Bridging vessel sign

The bridging vessel sign refers to an appearance of vessels coursing from the uterus into an adjoining pelvic mass (a vascular bridge). This sign helps to differentiate a pedunculated subserosal uterine leiomyoma from other juxtauterine masses of ovarian, adnexal or bowel origin. Colour and pow...
Article

Hemimegalencephaly

Hemimegalencephaly is a rare congenital disorder of cortical formation with hamartomatous overgrowth all or a part of a cerebral hemisphere. This results from either increased proliferation or decreased apoptosis (or both) of developing neurons 2. Epidemiology Hemimegalencephaly is a cryptogen...
Article

Struma ovarii tumour

Struma ovarii tumour is a subtype of an ovarian teratoma and is composed entirely or predominantly of thyroid tissue and containing variable-sized follicles with colloid material. Epidemiology It accounts for 0.3-1% of all ovarian tumours and ~3% of all mature cystic teratomas 1. Clinical pre...
Article

Androgen insensitivity syndrome

Androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS), also known as the testicular feminisation syndrome, results from end-organ resistance to androgens, particularly testosterone. AIS may be complete or incomplete with variable imaging findings.  Epidemiology The incidence may vary depending on whether it i...
Article

Perivascular epithelioid cell tumours (PEComas)

Perivascular epithelioid cells tumours (PEComas) are a group of related mesenchymal tumours and tumour-like conditions found in many locations. This group includes: angiomyolipoma (AML) clear cell 'sugar' tumour of the lung lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) clear cell myomelanocytic tumour (CCM...
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Interstitial ectopic pregnancy

Interstitial ectopic pregnancy (also known as an intramural) is an important type of ectopic pregnancy with higher risks of rupture and haemorrhage compared to usual tubal ectopic pregnancies.  Terminology The term interstitial pregnancy is sometimes interchangeably used with cornual pregnancy...
Article

Shortened fetal femoral length

Shorted fetal femur is a morphological descriptor and is usually defined when the femoral length falls below the 5th centile for gestational age (some define it when its under the 2.5th centile 5) or less than 0.91 predicted by the bi-pareital diameter. It can occur in isolated or in association...
Article

Calcifying metastases (mnemonic)

A simple mnemonic to recall a list of commonly calcifying metastases is: BOTOM Mnemonic B: breast cancer O: osteosarcoma T: papillary thyroid cancer O: ovarian cancer (especially mucinous) M: mucinous adenocarcinoma (especially colorectal carcinoma)
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In utero bowel perforation

In utero bowel perforation results in a chemical peritonitis (meconium peritonitis) from peritoneal leakage of sterile meconium. It can result from many causes which include: intestinal atresias: jejuno-ileal atresia ileal atresia anal atresia in utero intestinal ischaemia underlying gast...
Article

Uterine perforation

Uterine perforation represents a serious complication that can occur as a result of any type of intrauterine procedure or implantation. Some authors use the term uterine rupture synonymously with the term uterine perforation. Pathology Causes IUCD insertion: IUCD related uterine perforation ...
Article

Semilobar holoprosencephaly

Semilobar holoprosencephaly is a subtype of holoprosencephaly (HPE) characterised by an incomplete forebrain division. It is intermediate in severity, being worse than lobar holoprosencephaly and better than alobar holoprosencephaly. Epidemiology Please refer on the general article of holopros...
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Abscess

Abscesses are focal confined collections of suppurative inflammatory material and can be thought of as having three components 1: a central core consisting of necrotic inflammatory cells and local tissue peripheral halo of viable neutrophils surrounded by a 'capsule' with dilated blood vessel...
Article

Ovarian cyst

Ovarian cysts are commonly encountered in gynaecological imaging, and vary widely in aetiology, from physiologic, to complex benign, to neoplastic. Small cystic ovarian structures should be considered normal ovarian follicles unless the patient is pre-pubertal, post-menopausal, pregnant, or the...
Article

Corpus luteum

The corpus luteum is a temporary endocrine structure involved in ovulation and early pregnancy. During ovulation, the primary follicle forms the secondary follicle and subsequently the mature vesicular follicle. At ovulation the follicle ruptures expelling the ovum into the fallopian tube. The...
Article

Ovarian follicle

An ovarian follicle (also known as a Graafian follicle in its mature state) is the basic unit of female reproductive biology and is composed of roughly spherical aggregations of cells. It contains a single oocyte.  An ovarian follicle can be initiated to grow and develop, culminating in ovulati...
Article

Collision tumour of the ovary

A collision tumour of the ovary is an uncommon ovarian neoplasm where there is co-existence of two adjacent but histologically distinct tumours with no histologic admixture at the interface. Pathology The exact pathogenesis is not well known. They are most commonly composed of ovarian teratoma...
Article

Ovarian mucinous cystadenocarcinoma

Mucinous cystadenocarcinoma of the ovary is a rare malignant ovarian mucinous tumour. This type can account for 5-10% of all ovarian mucinous tumours. It is a type of ovarian epithelial tumour.  Pathology Retrospective studies have suggested that many mucinous carcinomas initially diagnosed as...
Article

Paraovarian cyst

Paraovarian cysts (POCs) are remnants of Wolffian duct in the mesosalpinx that do not arise from the ovary. They account for ~10-20% of adnexal masses 3-4. Epidemiology They typically occur in women at the ages of 20-40 years old. Clinical presentation Most are asymptomatic, although patient...
Article

Surgical haemostatic material

Surgical haemostatic material is used to control bleeding intraoperatively and is hence frequently voluntarily left in the operative bed, not to be confused with a gossypiboma which is foreign material left by mistake. It can mimic an abscess on imaging studies. Various types are available, the ...
Article

Squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix

Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the cervix is the most common histological subtype of cervical cancer and accounts for 80-90% of cases. Pathology Most cervical squamous cell carcinomas grow at the squamocolumnar junction (SCJ). In younger women, the SCJ is located outside the external uterine...
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Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome

Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) is a complication of ovarian stimulation treatment (ovarian induction therapy) for in vitro fertilisation. Rarely, it may also occur as a spontaneous event in pregnancy (see spontaneous ovarian hyperstimulation later in the article). The clinical syndrom...
Article

Physiological pelvic intraperitoneal fluid

Physiological pelvic intraperitoneal fluid refers to the presence of a small volume of free fluid in the pelvis, particularly the pouch of Douglas. It occurs in young females of reproductive age and can be a mimic of traumatic free fluid in abdominal trauma. Unfortunately, pelvic free fluid may...
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Ruptured ovarian cyst

Ruptured ovarian cysts are one of the most common causes of acute pelvic pain in premenopausal women. The sonographic appearance depends on whether a simple or hemorrhagic ovarian cyst ruptures, and whether the cyst has completely collapsed. The most important differential consideration is a rup...
Article

Differential diagnosis of free fluid in cul de sac (pouch of Douglas)

The cul-de-sac, also known as the pouch of Douglas or rectouterine pouch, is an extension of the postero-inferior reflection of the peritoneal fold between the uterus (anteriorly) and rectum (posteriorly). It is the most inferior aspect of the peritoneal cavity and therefore the first location w...
Article

Gonadal artery

The gonadal arteries are the paired primary vascular supply to the ovaries in the female and the testes in the male. As the anatomy of the gonadal arteries differs substantially between the sexes, they are covered separately: ovarian arteries testicular arteries
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Ovarian tumours

Ovarian tumours are relatively common and account for ~6% of female malignancies. This article focuses on the general classification of ovarian tumours. For specific features, refer to the sub-articles. Pathology Subtypes Primary ovarian tumours Surface epithelial stromal ovarian tumours (60...
Article

CA-125

Serum CA-125 is well recognised as an ovarian cancer-associated marker and is an antigen determinant on a high-molecular-weight glycoprotein. The normal range of CA-125 is 0-35 U/mL. Serum CA-125 levels can also be used to monitor the response to treatment as well as a prognostic indicator sinc...
Article

Human epididymis protein 4

Human epididymis protein 4 (HE4) is an emerging serum biomarker in the assessment of epithelial ovarian tumours. HE4 is a member of the whey associated protein (WAP) gene cluster and has uncertain biological function 1. Early results indicate that HE4 has higher sensitivity and sensitivity than...
Article

Endometrioid carcinoma of the ovary

Endometrioid carcinomas of the ovary are a sub-type of epithelial ovarian tumours. The vast majority are malignant and invasive. On imaging, they are usually characterised as complex nonspecific solid-cystic masses and found associated with endometriosis.  Epidemiology Endometrioid carcinomas ...
Article

Pelvic protocol for endometriosis (MRI)

Evaluation of known endometriosis with MRI requires a slightly different protocol to a routine pelvic MRI (see Pelvic MRI protocol: routine), and should probably be reserved for known cases of endometriosis rather than for the assessment of pelvic pain. IV (or IM) Buscopan® is administered to r...
Article

Uterine artery embolisation: MRI assessment

Uterine artery embolisation (UAE) is used as an alternative to hysterectomy in selected patients and MRI assessment is key in allowing not only pre-procedure assessment but also assessing post-procedural outcome.   For a general discussion of the underlying condition refer to the article on ute...
Article

Ovarian vein thrombosis

Ovarian vein thrombosis  (actually most often a thrombophlebitis) occurs most commonly in postpartum patients and can result in pulmonary emboli. A presentation is usually with acute pelvic pain in the postpartum period, then termed puerperal ovarian vein thrombosis or postpartum ovarian vein th...
Article

Persistent right umbilical vein

A persistent right umbilical vein (PRUV) is an uncommon vascular anomaly which is often detected in utero. Epidemiology The estimated prevalence is at ~2 per 1000 births 1-2. Pathology In the normal situation, the right umbilical vein begins to obliterate in the ~4th week of gestation and di...
Article

Uterine choriocarcinoma

Uterine choriocarcinomas are one of the commonest choriocarcinomas and are often associated with gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD).  Epidemiology These tumours typically occur in women of childbearing age as a gestational choriocarcinoma. Most such cases present within one year of an ant...
Article

Noonan syndrome

Noonan syndrome (NS) is a genetically and phenotypically heterogenous non aneuploidic congenital RASopathy. Affected individuals can bear some clinical features similar to that of Turner syndrome.  Epidemiology The estimated incidence is at ~1 in 1000-2500 11. As individuals have normal number...
Article

Noonan syndrome with multiple lentigines

Noonan syndrome with multiple lentigines, previously known as LEOPARD syndrome (LS), is a rare autosomal dominant RASopathy that has many similarities to Noonan syndrome. Clinical presentation Despite a change in formal name, the 'LEOPARD' acronym is still useful to summarise the clinical feat...
Article

Adenomyosis of the uterus

Adenomyosis of the uterus is a common, benign uterine pathology. It is thought by many to be on the spectrum of endometriosis, with ectopic endometrial tissue in the myometrium. Adenomyosis may present with menorrhagia and dysmenorrhea. Ultrasound and MRI are imaging modalities that may show cha...
Article

Infertility in the exam

It is important to have a systematic way of approaching a case with subfertility in the exam.  Ultrasound is the initial examination of choice. Always say that you would further assess the uterus with 3D ultrasound. You may also say that in my department we would perform a sonohysterogram or HS...
Article

Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome

Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome (FHCS) refers to the development of a perihepatitis in association with pelvic inflammatory disease (PID).  Epidemiology The prevalence in adults with mild to moderate PID (gonorrhoic) may approximate 4% 10. The prevalence may be higher in genital tuberculosis 12. It ...
Article

Pelvic inflammatory disease

Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is a broad term that encompasses a spectrum of infection and inflammation of the upper female genital tract, resulting in a range of abnormalities.  Epidemiology The highest incidence is seen among sexually active women in their teens, with 75% cases being und...
Article

Asherman syndrome

Asherman syndrome, also known as uterine synechiae, is a condition characterised by the formation of intrauterine adhesions, which are usually sequela from injury to the endometrium, and is often associated with infertility. Epidemiology There is a tendency for the condition to develop soon af...
Article

Uterine agenesis

Uterine agenesis is the extreme of Mullerian duct anomalies (Class I) where there is a complete absence of uterine tissue above the vagina.  Epidemiology The uterine agenesis-hypoplasia spectrum accounts for ~10-15% of all Müllerian duct anomalies. Clinical presentation Clinical presentation...
Article

Tubo-ovarian abscess

Tubo-ovarian abscesses (TOA) are one of the late complications of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). Clinical presentation Patients typically present with fever, elevated white blood cell count, lower abdominal-pelvic pain, and/or vaginal discharge. Fever and leukocytosis may sometimes be abse...
Article

Corpus luteal cyst rupture

Ruptured corpus luteal cysts are one of the commonest causes of spontaneous haemoperitoneum in a woman of reproductive age. Clinical presentation Presentation is variable, ranging from completely asymptomatic to severe abdominal pain due to peritoneal irritation. Pathology The corpus luteum ...
Article

Hyaline degeneration of a leiomyoma

Hyaline degeneration is the most common form of degeneration that can occur in a uterine leiomyoma.  Epidemiology It is thought to occur in up to 60% of uterine leiomyomas 3. Pathology As with many other types of degeneration, it happens when fibroids outgrow their blood supply 4. Hyaline de...
Article

Subserosal leiomyoma of the uterus

Subserosal uterine leiomyoma is a subtype of uterine leiomyoma that often exophytically projects outwards from a subserosal location. While its exact definition may vary, a leiomyoma is often called subserosal if >50% of the fibroid protrudes out of the serosal surface of the uterus 2. They can ...
Article

Intramural uterine leiomyoma

Intramural uterine leiomyoma is the most common type of uterine leiomyoma in terms of location. They are centred primarily within the myometrium. A large intramural uterine leiomyoma can, however, have a submucosal or subserosal component. Clinical presentation They are usually asymptomatic; h...
Article

Polycystic ovarian syndrome

Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), recently referred also as hyperandrogenic anovulation, is a chronic anovulation syndrome associated with androgen excess.  The diagnosis is made on the combined clinical, biochemical and sonographic grounds. The revised 2003 ASRM/ESHRE Rotterdam consensus cri...
Article

Carneous degeneration of a leiomyoma

Red or carneous degeneration is one of four main types of degeneration that can involve a uterine leiomyoma. While it is an uncommon type of degeneration, it is thought to be the most common form of degeneration of a leiomyoma during pregnancy 3. Clinical presentation Patients with a leiomyoma...
Article

Submucosal leiomyoma of the uterus

Submucosal leiomyomas of the uterus refer to a subtype of uterine leiomyoma that primarily projects into the endometrial cavity. They are least common albeit the most symptomatic type of leiomyoma. Clinical presentation Submucosal leiomyomas can be a common source of abnormal uterine bleeding ...
Article

Myxoid uterine leiomyoma

Myxoid uterine leiomyoma is a relatively rare pathological subtype of uterine leiomyomas. It is not to be confused with myxoid degeneration of a uterine leiomyoma which has a related but no identical meaning. Pathology Myxoid leiomyomas contain abundant myxoid material between smooth muscle ce...
Article

Uterine leiomyoma

Uterine leiomyomas, also referred as uterine fibroids, are benign tumours of myometrial origin and are the most common solid benign uterine neoplasms. Commonly an incidental finding on imaging, they rarely cause a diagnostic dilemma. There are various medical, surgical and interventional treatme...

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