Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

540 results found
Article

Myxoid uterine leiomyoma

Myxoid uterine leiomyomas are a relatively rare pathological subtype of uterine leiomyomas. Terminology They are not to be confused with myxoid degeneration of a uterine leiomyoma which is a different entity. Pathology Myxoid leiomyomas contain abundant myxoid material between smooth muscle ...
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Vaginal leiomyoma

Vaginal leiomyomas are an extremely rare entity and fall under extra-uterine pelvic leiomyomas.  Epidemiology They are extremely rare with only ~ 300 cases reported in literature 3. Pathology It may occur anywhere along the vaginal canal and is usually localized, mobile, non-tender, and circ...
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Benign metastasising leiomyoma

Benign metastasising leiomyomas are a rare metastatic phenomenon that is observed when a pelvic leiomyoma is present. Epidemiology Women who have undergone hysterectomy for leiomyomas are most commonly affected. Clinical presentation Patients are usually asymptomatic at presentation. A histo...
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Intravenous leiomyomatosis

Intravenous leiomyomatosis (IVLM) is characterised by the extension into venous channels of histologically benign smooth muscle tumour arising from either the wall of a vessel or from a uterine leiomyoma. Terminology Intravenous leiomyomatosis should not be confused with benign metastasising l...
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Leiomyoma of the uterine cervix

Leiomyomas of the uterine cervix are an unusual variation in terms of location for a uterine leiomyoma. Epidemiology They are rare and account for ~5% (range 0.6-10%) of uterine leiomyomas 1,4. Clinical presentation Clinical symptoms of cervical leiomyomas, including hypermenorrhea, dysmenor...
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Parasitic leiomyoma

Parasitic leiomyomas are considered a type of extra-uterine leiomyoma and present as peritoneal pelvic benign smooth-muscle masses separate from the uterus.  Pathology It likely originates as a pedunculated subserosal leiomyoma that twists and torses from its uterine pedicle. The contact with ...
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Broad ligament leiomyoma

Broad ligament leiomyomas are extra-uterine leiomyomas that occur in relation to the broad ligament.  Terminology Broad ligament leiomyomas are also referred as a type of parasitic leiomyomas 5. Clinical presentation While in most cases broad ligament leiomyomas are asymptomatic, patients ma...
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Subserosal leiomyoma of the uterus

Subserosal uterine leiomyoma is a subtype of uterine leiomyoma that often exophytically projects outwards from a subserosal location. While its exact definition may vary, a leiomyoma is often called subserosal if >50% of the fibroid protrudes out of the serosal surface of the uterus 2.  Clinica...
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Intramural uterine leiomyoma

Intramural uterine leiomyoma is the most common type of uterine leiomyoma in terms of location. They are centred primarily within the myometrium. A large intramural uterine leiomyoma can, however, have a submucosal or subserosal component. Clinical presentation They are usually asymptomatic; h...
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Bridging vessel sign

The bridging vessel sign refers to an appearance of vessels coursing from the uterus into an adjoining pelvic mass (a vascular bridge). This sign helps to differentiate a pedunculated subserosal uterine leiomyoma from other juxtauterine masses of ovarian, adnexal or bowel origin. Colour and pow...
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Diffuse peritoneal leiomyomatosis

Diffuse or disseminated peritoneal leiomyomatosis, also known as leiomyomatosis peritonealis disseminata, is an exceedingly rare benign disorder characterised by multiple vascular leiomyomas growing along the submesothelial tissues of the abdominopelvic peritoneum. Epidemiology It is usually d...
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Submucosal uterine leiomyoma

Submucosal leiomyomas of the uterus refer to a subtype of uterine leiomyoma that primarily projects into the endometrial cavity. They are least common albeit the most symptomatic type of leiomyoma. Clinical presentation Submucosal leiomyomas can be a common source of abnormal uterine bleeding ...
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Ovary

The ovaries are paired female gonads of the reproductive and endocrine systems. They lie within the ovarian fossa on the posterior wall of the true pelvis.  Gross anatomy The ovaries are ovoid in shape and measure approximately 1.5-3.0 cm x 1.5-3.0 cm x 1.0-2.0 cm (length x width x thickness) ...
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Choriocarcinoma

Choriocarcinoma is an aggressive, highly vascular tumour. When it is associated with gestation, it is often considered part of the spectrum of gestational trophoblastic disease; it is then termed gestational choriocarcinoma. When it occurs in the absence of preceding gestation, it is termed non-...
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Endometrial hyperplasia

Endometrial hyperplasia is abnormal proliferation of the endometrial glands and stroma, defined as diffuse smooth thickening >10 mm 13. One of the main concerns is the potential malignant transformation of the endometrial hyperplasia to endometrial carcinoma. Epidemiology Endometrial hyperplas...
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Sonographic values in obstetrics and gynaecology

Obstetric and gynaecological ultrasound is rampant with numerous cut off values. Some of these get revised over the years. The following list is a useful aid to refer to and revise. 1 mm rate of increase of a mean sac diameter per day in early pregnancy 2 mm generally accepted value for a th...
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Pelvic masses in females

Pelvic masses in females carry a broad differential diagnosis: benign adnexal cyst: 34% leiomyoma: 14% pelvic malignancy: 14% dermoid: 13% endometriosis: 10% pelvic inflammatory disease: 8% tubo-ovarian abscess hydrosalpinx pregnancy Extra-gynaecological masses, e.g. colorectal carcino...
Article

Metastases to the ovary

Metastases to the ovary are relatively common with a documented incidence of 5-30% of all malignant ovarian masses. These may be incorrectly grouped under Krukenberg tumors, which are signet cell containing tumours that form only 30-40% of all ovarian metastases.   Clinical presentation There...
Article

Bicornuate uterus

A bicornuate uterus is a type of uterine duplication anomaly. It can be classified as a class IV Mullerian duct anomaly. Epidemiology Overall, congenital uterine anomalies occur in ~1.5% of females (range 0.1-3%). Bicornuate uteri are thought to represent ~25% (range 10-39%) of Mullerian duct ...
Article

Uterus didelphys

Uterus didelphys is a type of Müllerian duct anomaly (class III) where there is a complete duplication of uterine horns as well as duplication of the cervix, with no communication between them.   Epidemiology Didelphic uteri account for approximately ~8% (range 5-11%) of Müllerian duct anomali...
Article

IUCD related uterine perforation

IUCD (Intrauterine contraceptive device) related uterine perforations are one of the causes of uterine perforation. It is rare, but a serious complication of an IUCD insertion, and is often clinically silent.  Epidemiology The incidence rate is reported at ~2 in 1000 2. Clinical presentation ...
Article

Intra-uterine contraceptive device

Intra-uterine contraceptive devices (IUCD) are one of the most frequently used methods of contraception throughout the world. It prevents pregnancy by: thinning the endometrial lining preventing sperm motility preventing implantation There are two main types of IUCDs: non-hormonal metallic ...
Article

Gestational trophoblastic disease

Gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) results from the abnormal proliferation of trophoblastic tissue and encompasses a wide spectrum of diseases, including: hydatidiform mole complete mole partial mole invasive mole ~10% choriocarcinoma (gestational choriocarcinoma) ~1% placental site t...
Article

Coexistent molar pregnancy

Coexistent molar pregnancy refers to an extremely rare situation where there is a molar pregnancy occurring simultaneously with normal intra-uterine pregnancy. Epidemiology The estimated incidence is at ~1:10,000-100,000 gestations (for a complete hydatidiform mole and a normal pregnancy) 2. ...
Article

Scar endometriosis

Scar endometriosis is a term given to endometriosis occurring in a Caesarian section scar. It can be located in the skin, subcutaneous tissue, rectus muscle/sheath, intraperitoneally, or in the uterine myometrium (within uterine scar). Epidemiology The reported incidence of abdominal scar endo...
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True hermaphroditism

True hermaphroditism is a form of disorder of gender development.  Pathology Patients with true hermaphroditism have mosaicism of 46XX and 46XY. They therefore have both ovarian and testicular tissues. Subtypes There are three forms of true hermaphroditism: unilateral true hermaphroditism ...
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MR defaecating proctography

MR defaecography is a dynamic study for evaluation of the pelvic floor and pelvic organ prolapse. Phases There are four phases of evaluation: rest squeeze strain (Valsalva) defaecation/evacuation Method of evaluation Many variations in the techniques described below exist. Patient prepa...
Article

Syndactyly

Syndactyly refers to a congenital fusion of two or more digits. It may be confined to soft tissue (soft tissue syndactyly / simple syndactyly) or may involve bone (bony syndactyly / complex syndactyly). Epidemiology The overall estimated incidence is at ~1 per 2500 to 5000 live births 6,8. The...
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Haemorrhagic ovarian cyst

Haemorrhagic ovarian cysts (HOCs) usually result from haemorrhage into a corpus luteum or other functional cyst. Radiographic features are variable depending on the age of the haemorrhage. They typically resolve within eight weeks.  Clinical presentation Patients may present with sudden-onset ...
Article

Haemorrhagic corpus luteal cyst

Haemorrhagic corpus luteal cysts result from bleeding into corpus luteal cysts. Radiographic features Ultrasound Commonly described findings include: complex adnexal mass adnexal thick-walled cystic lesion with lace-like strands adnexal thick-walled cystic lesion with low-level echoes with...
Article

Haematocolpos

Haematocolpos is a term given to a blood-filled dilated vagina due to menstrual blood in the setting of an anatomical obstruction, usually an imperforate hymen. When there is concurrent uterine distention, the term haematometrocolpos is used. Clinical presentation Patients may present with ame...
Article

Tubo-ovarian abscess

Tubo-ovarian abscesses (TOA) are one of the late complications of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). Epidemiology Risk factors Associated risk factors include 15: presence of intrauterine device multiple sexual partners diabetes mellitus immunocompromised state Clinical presentation Pat...
Article

Ovarian torsion

Ovarian torsion, also sometimes termed adnexal torsion or tubo-ovarian torsion, refers to rotation of the ovary and portion of the fallopian tube on the supplying vascular pedicle.  It can be intermittent or sustained and results in venous, arterial and lymphatic stasis. It is a gynaecological ...
Article

Ruptured ovarian cyst

Ruptured ovarian cysts are one of the most common causes of acute pelvic pain in premenopausal women. The sonographic appearance depends on whether a simple or haemorrhagic ovarian cyst ruptures, and whether the cyst has completely collapsed. The most important differential consideration is a ru...
Article

Vestibule of the vulva

The vestibule of the vulva (vestibule of the vagina in some texts 2) is the area between the labia minora, and posterior to the glans of the clitoris. It marks the boundary between the vagina and the vulva. The urethra, vagina and the greater vestibular glands open out into the vestibule.
Article

Labia minora

The labia minora (singular: labium minus) are small glabrous cutaneous folds lying between and just superior to the labia majora. At their posterior margin the labia may be conjoined by a thin cutaneous fold of skin, the frenulum of the labia (also known as the fourchette).  At their anterior m...
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Hymen

The hymen is a thin fold of mucous membrane which extends across the vaginal opening, usually with some form of internal defect, which permits the free passage of normal menses.  It usually ruptures during coitus with the remnants, usually in the form of small tags of tissue around the vaginal ...
Article

Vagina

The vagina is a midline fibromuscular tubular organ positioned in the female perineum extending superiorly from the vulva, to the cervix and uterus in the pelvis.  Gross anatomy The vagina is 8-10 cm in length, extending posterosuperior from the vestibule through the urogenital diaphragm to th...
Article

Vulva

The vulva (or pudendum) is the collective term given to the female external genitalia. The vulva consists of the: mons pubis labia majora labia minora clitoris vestibular bulbs vestibule of the vulva vaginal opening hymen Bartholin glands Radiographic features Individual component st...
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Paraurethral duct cyst

Paraurethral duct cysts are retention cysts that form secondary to inflammatory obstruction of the paraurethral (Skene) ducts in females. Pathology The cysts are lined by stratified squamous epithelium due to their origin from the urogenital sinus. Clinical presentation Usually asymptomatic....
Article

Bartholin glands

The Bartholin glands (or greater vestibular glands) are paired pea-sized structures, lying on either side of the vaginal opening, and are homologous to the bulbourethral (Cowper) glands in the male. They form part of the vulva. Gross anatomy These glands are described as less than 1 cm in diam...
Article

Imperforate hymen

Imperforate hymen is a congenital condition in which the hymen lacks a normal opening. Epidemiology It happens in 0.1% of the female population, usually an isolated finding.  Clinical features Primary amenorrhea with cyclic lower abdominal pain during menarche age. An imperforate hymen can b...
Article

Vestibule (disambiguation)

A vestibule is an anatomical term and refers to a small cavity at the proximal end of a tube. vestibule (aorta) vestibule (ear) vestibule (larynx) vestibule (mouth) vestibule (nose) vestibule (oesophagus) vestibule (vulva) History and etymology Vestibule derives ultimately from the Lati...
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Frenulum (disambiguation)

Frenulum (plural: frenula) is an anatomical term and refers to a small fold of soft tissue that checks the movement of an anatomical part. frenulum (clitoris) frenulum (ileocaecal valve) frenulum (labia minora) frenulum (penis) frenulum (tongue) History and etymology Frenulum derives from...
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Mons pubis

The mons pubis (plural: montes pubis) refers to the rounded protuberant skin-covered soft tissue overlying the symphysis pubis (in both sexes). It is most prominent in adult females. In females it forms the most superior part of the vulva and it is also called the mons Veneris (plural: montes V...
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Labia majora

The labia majora (singular: labium majus) form the anteroinferior most part of the vulva, they are continuous with the mons pubis anteriorly and the perineum posteriorly. The labia are apposed in the midline forming the, externally-visible, pudendal cleft. Gross anatomy The labia majora have a...
Article

Diffuse uterine adenomyosis

Diffuse uterine adenomyosis is the most common of uterine adenomyosis. For the discussion of adenomyosis, please refer to the parent article - adenomyosis of the uterus. Epidemiology Diffuse adenomyosis may account for ~2/3rd of uterine adenomyosis. Pathology Diffuse adenomyosis can be even ...
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Paraurethral duct

The paraurethral ducts (or Skene ducts) drain the paraurethral glands of the female urethra. There is one duct, draining each gland, on each side, just proximal to the external urethral meatus.  Related pathology paraurethral duct cyst paraurethral duct abscess
Article

Hydrocele of the canal of Nuck

Hydrocele of the canal of Nuck is a rare condition in female children caused by a failure of complete obliteration of the canal of Nuck 1. The canal of Nuck is an abnormal patent pouch of peritoneum extending anterior to the round ligament of the uterus into the labia majora 2. Incomplete oblite...
Article

Perineum

The perineum is a diamond shaped region below the pelvic diaphragm and is divided by an imaginary line drawn between the ischial tuberosities into anteriorly the urogenital triangle and posteriorly the anal triangle. Gross anatomy The perineum is bounded by the pubis anteriorly, the ischial tu...
Article

Vesicovaginal reflux

Vesicovaginal reflux is a well-known entity rarely encountered by radiologists. It is a behavioural disorder, a type of dysfunctional elimination syndrome commonly encountered in pre-pubertal girls. It is defined as reflux of urine into the vaginal vault either in supine or upright position duri...
Article

Primary vulval cancer

Primary vulval cancer is a rare gynaecological malignancy that originates from the vulva. Epidemiology It accounts for ~3-5% of female genital tract malignancies and typically presents in postmenopausal patients peaking around the age of 65-70 years of age 1.  Pathology The commonest histolo...
Article

Canal of Nuck

The canal of Nuck is an abnormal patent pouch of parietal peritoneum extending anteriorly from the round ligament of the uterus into the labia majora through the inguinal ring into the inguinal canal. Incomplete obliteration of this canal is known as a patent processus vaginalis and can result i...
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Urogenital triangle

The urogenital triangle forms the anterior half of the diamond-shaped perineum. The triangle's corners are defined by the pubis symphysis anteriorly and the ischial tuberosities anterolaterally. The anterolateral borders are the ischiopubic rami and the posterior border is the transverse perinea...
Article

Bartholin gland tumours

Bartholin gland tumours represent neoplasms of the Bartholin glands. They include: squamous cell carcinoma of the Bartholin gland: tends to be the most common histological subtype adenocarcinoma of the Bartholin gland adenoid cystic carcinoma of the Bartholin gland
Article

Bartholin gland cyst

Bartholin gland cysts are located in the posterolateral inferior third of the vagina and are associated with the labia majora.  Clinical presentation Most patients are asymptomatic 4. Complications infection: may turn into Bartholin gland abscesses rare instances of development of adenocarc...
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Surgical haemostatic material

Surgical haemostatic material is used to control bleeding intraoperatively and is hence frequently voluntarily left in the operative bed, not to be confused with a gossypiboma which is foreign material left by mistake. It can mimic an abscess on imaging studies. Various types are available, the ...
Article

Hydrosalpinx

Hydrosalpinx is a descriptive term and refers to a fluid-filled dilatation of the fallopian tube. Clinical presentation Patients may be asymptomatic or may present with pelvic pain or infertility. Pathology  One or both fallopian tubes may be affected. A hydrosalpinx results from an accumula...
Article

Adenomyosis of the uterus

Adenomyosis of the uterus is a common, benign uterine pathology. It is thought by many to be on the spectrum of endometriosis, with ectopic endometrial tissue in the myometrium. Adenomyosis may present with menorrhagia and dysmenorrhoea. Ultrasound and MRI are imaging modalities that may show ch...
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Abnormally thickened endometrium (differential)

Abnormally thickened endometrium on imaging may occur for a number of reasons which may be categorised based on whether or not they are related to pregnancy. Aetiologies may also be classified based on whether the patient is premenopausal or postmenopausal. Differential diagnosis Pregnancy-rel...
Article

Claw sign (mass)

The claw sign is useful in determining whether a mass arises from a solid structure or is located adjacent to it and distorts the outline. It refers to the sharp angles on either side of the mass, which the surrounding normal parenchyma forms when the mass has arisen from the parenchyma. As suc...
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Endometrium

The endometrium refers to the inner lining of the uterine lumen, composed of endometrial glands surrounded by loose highly cellular connective tissue. Gross anatomy Layers In women of reproductive age, the endometrium is composed of two layers: stratum basale (basal layer): describes the de...
Article

Deep perineal pouch

The deep perineal pouch is an anatomic space superior (deep) to the perineal membrane in the urogenital triangle of the perineum, anterior to the transverse line between the ischial tuberosities. Gross anatomy The deep perineal pouch is above (deep to) the perineal membrane in the urogenital t...
Article

Superficial perineal pouch

The superficial perineal pouch is an anatomic space below the perineal membrane in the urogenital triangle of the perineum. Gross anatomy The superficial perineal pouch is inferior (superficial) to the perineal membrane in the urogenital triangle, anterior to the transverse line between the is...
Article

Endometrial ablation

Endometrial ablation is a minimally invasive surgical procedure that involves the destruction of the uterine endometrium commonly performed for menorrhagia in premenopausal or perimenopausal women. It has evolved has an alternative to hysterectomy and is associated with good outcomes and patien...
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Asherman syndrome

Asherman syndrome, also known as uterine synechiae, is a condition characterised by the formation of intrauterine adhesions, which are usually sequela from injury to the endometrium, and is often associated with infertility. Epidemiology There is a tendency for the condition to develop soon af...
Article

Haematometrocolpos

Haematometrocolpos refers to a blood-filled distended uterus and vagina usually due to an anatomical mechanical obstruction precluding the evacuation of the menstrual blood.  Epidemiology The estimated incidence in teenagers is at ~1 in 1000-2000 5. Pathology Causes imperforate hymen: in ~2...
Article

Uterine artery pseudoaneurysm

Uterine artery pseudoaneurysm (UAP) is a rare cause of secondary postpartum haemorrhage.  Clinical presentation UAP usually presents as delayed (secondary) postpartum haemorrhage, that is per vaginal bleeding which occurs more than 24 hours and up to 6 weeks postpartum. However, some reported ...
Article

Endometritis

Endometritis refers to inflammation or infection involving the endometrium. Endometritis can be acute or chronic and may arise in an obstetric setting, such as following delivery or miscarriage, or in a nonobstetric setting due to pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) or endometrial instrumentation....
Article

Tamoxifen-associated endometrial changes

Tamoxifen has pro-oestrogenic effects on the endometrium and thus is associated with an increased prevalence of: endometrial polyps: occurs in ~8-36% of women in treated 8 endometrial hyperplasia: occurs in ~1-20% of women treated ref cystic endometrial atrophy endometrial carcinoma Epidemi...
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Endometrial thickness

Endometrial thickness is a commonly measured parameter on routine gynaecological ultrasound and MRI. The appearance, as well as the thickness of the endometrium, will depend on whether the patient is of reproductive age or postmenopausal and, if of reproductive age, at what point in the menstrua...
Article

Endometrial polyp

Endometrial polyps are benign nodular protrusions of the endometrial surface, and one of the entities included in a differential of endometrial thickening. Endometrial polyps can either be sessile or pedunculated. They can often be suggested on ultrasound or MRI studies, but may require sonohyst...
Article

Endometrial carcinoma

Endometrial carcinoma is generally considered the most common gynaecological malignancy 1,5. It frequently presents with vaginal bleeding. Both ultrasound and pelvic MRI are useful modalities for evaluation. Epidemiology Endometrial carcinoma is the most common gynaecological malignancy, with ...
Article

Mature (cystic) ovarian teratoma

Ovarian dermoid cyst and mature cystic ovarian teratoma are terms often used interchangeably to refer to the most common ovarian neoplasm. These slow-growing tumours contain elements from multiple germ cell layers and are best assessed with ultrasound.  Terminology Although they have very simi...
Article

Vaginal cuff

The vaginal cuff is the remnant tissue after a hysterectomy. The cuff may be evaluated for tumor recurrence (often with ultrasound) if the uterus was removed for cervical or endometrial carcinoma. Radiographic findings The appearance of the cuff depends on what type of hysterectomy was perform...
Article

Gynaecologic imaging reporting and data system (GI-RADS)

The Gynecologic Imaging Reporting and Data System (GI-RADS) is a reporting system that was created for reporting the findings in adnexal masses based on transvaginal ultrasonography. Classification Findings are classified into five categories 1: GI-RADS 1 normal ovaries identified and no adn...
Article

Fallopian tube segments (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic to remember the order of the 5 segments of the Fallopian tube, from lateral to medial, the direction an ovum would pass following ovulation, is: Four INches Across IS IMpossible Four inches (10 cm) is the approximate length of the Fallopian tube. ​Mnemonic F: fimbriae IN: ...
Article

Pelvic congestion syndrome

Pelvic congestion syndrome (some prefer pelvic venous insufficiency 9) is a condition that results from retrograde flow through incompetent valves in ovarian veins. It is a commonly missed and potentially-treatable cause of chronic abdominopelvic pain.  Epidemiology It tends to be more common ...
Article

Retroverted uterus

A retroverted uterus is a normal variation of female pelvic anatomy in which the body of the uterus is tilted backwards (usually leans forward, i.e. anteverted) on itself to match the isthmus of the neck and lower uterine segment. There are variable grades of uterine retroversion. Epidemiology ...
Article

Retained products of conception

Retained products of conception (RPOC) refer to the persistence of placental and/or fetal tissue in the uterus following delivery, termination of pregnancy or a miscarriage.  Epidemiology Retained products of conception complicate ~1-5% of all pregnancies (routine vaginal deliveries 12).  Acc...
Article

HELLP syndrome

HELLP syndrome is a pregnancy-related condition and is an abbreviation for: haemolysis elevated liver enzymes and  low platelets It is considered a severe and life-threatening form of pre-eclampsia although it can occur without co-existing pre-eclampsia.  Epidemiology The estimated inciden...
Article

Epithelioid trophoblastic tumour

An epithelioid trophoblastic tumour (ETT) is an extremely rare form of trophoblastic neoplasm. It is considered as a rare subtype of gestational trophoblastic disease 2,4. Epidemiology It typically presents in women of reproductive age (peak age in late 30's) and can occur between 1 and 18 yea...
Article

Vesicovaginal fistula

Vesicovaginal fistulas are abnormal fistulous connections between the urinary bladder and vagina, resulting in an involuntary discharge of urine through the vagina. Epidemiology The overall incidence of vesicovaginal fistula is unknown but was reported to be 2.11 per 100 births in Nigeria 1. ...
Article

Broad ligament contents (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for the contents of the broad ligament is: BROAD Mnemonic B: bundle (ovarian neurovascular bundle) R: round ligament O: ovarian ligament A: artefacts (vestigial structures) D: duct (oviduct)
Article

Broad ligament

The broad ligament is the lateral folds of the parietal peritoneum which reflect over the upper genital tract. Gross anatomy The broad ligament extends from the lateral aspect of the uterus to the lateral pelvic wall and can be divided into three main components - the mesosalpinx, mesovarium a...
Article

Sacrococcygeal teratoma

Sacrococcygeal teratoma (SCT) refers to a teratoma arising in the sacrococcygeal region. The coccyx is almost always involved 6. Epidemiology It is the commonest congenital tumour in the fetus 11 and neonate 3. The incidence is estimated at ~1:35000-40000. There is recognised female predilecti...
Article

Nabothian cyst

Nabothian cysts, also known as a retention cysts of the cervix 11, are non-neoplastic cystic lesions that occur in relation to the uterine cervix. Epidemiology They are common and some reports suggest that they may be seen in up to 12% of routine pelvic MRI scans 2. Clinical presentation The...
Article

Ian Donald

Ian Donald (1910-1987) was a Scottish obstetrician who pioneered the diagnostic use of ultrasound in medicine. Early life Ian Donald was born in Lisgeard, Cornwall, United Kingdom on 27th December 1910 6. His father was a general practitioner. In 1925 his family moved to South Africa where he ...
Article

Abdominal and pelvic anatomy

Abdominal and pelvic anatomy encompasses the anatomy of all structures of the abdominal and pelvic cavities. This anatomy section promotes the use of the Terminologia Anatomica, the global standard for correct gross anatomical nomenclature. 
Article

Tuberculous pelvic inflammatory disease

Tuberculous pelvic inflammatory disease refers to pelvic inflammatory disease due to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Epidemiology Genital tract involvement may be present in ~1.5% of cases of those affected with tuberculosis 4. Pathology Infection almost always results from spread from an extrag...
Article

Klinefelter syndrome

Klinefelter syndrome (KS) is a chromosomal anomaly, which in most cases is characterised by 47 chromosomes instead of the usual 46. Epidemiology The estimated incidence is 0.15-0.2% of live births. Clinical presentation the testes are normal prior to puberty and small in post pubertal testes...
Article

Rokitansky nodule

A Rokitansky nodule or dermoid plug refers to a solid protuberance projecting from an ovarian cyst in the context of a mature cystic teratoma. It often contains calcific, dental, adipose, hair and/or sebaceous components 1.  History and etymology It is named after Carl von Rokitansky (1804-187...
Article

Short rib polydactyly syndrome

Short rib polydactyly syndrome(s) (SRPS) comprise a rare group of severe osteochondrodysplasias. There are four major recognised types present: type I: Saldino-Noonan type type II:: Majewski type type III: Verma-Naumoff type type IV: Beemer-Langer type There may also be other very rare type...

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