Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

509 results found
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Endometrial thickness

Endometrial thickness is a commonly measured parameter on routine gynaecological ultrasound and MR imaging. The appearance, as well as the thickness of the endometrium, will depend on whether the patient is of reproductive age or post-menopausal and, if of reproductive age, at what point in the ...
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Endometrioid adenocarcinoma of the endometrium

Endometrioid carcinoma of the endometrium is the most common histological subtype of endometrial carcinoma accounts for 85-90% of cases. It is considered a type I carcinoma of the uterus with slow progression and relatively good prognosis. Patients are usually 55 to 65 years old.  Pathology En...
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Endometrioid carcinoma of the cervix

Endometrioid carcinoma of the cervix is a rare histological sub type of cervical cancer. It falls under the sub group of adenocarcinoma of the cervix.  Epidemiology This sub type is thought to account for approximately 7% of cervical adenocarcinomas 2-3. The incidence of this sub type is thoug...
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Endometrioid carcinoma of the ovary

Endometrioid carcinomas of the ovary are a sub-type of epithelial ovarian tumours. The vast majority are malignant and invasive. On imaging, they are usually characterised as complex nonspecific solid-cystic masses and found associated with endometriosis.  Epidemiology Endometrioid carcinomas ...
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Endometrioma

Endometriomas, also known as chocolate cysts or endometriotic cysts, are a localised form of endometriosis and are usually within the ovary. They are readily diagnosed on ultrasound, with most demonstrating classical radiographic features.  Epidemiology These occur women of reproductive age. ...
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Endometriosis

Endometriosis is a common and clinically important problem in women of childbearing age. It is classically defined as the presence of functional endometrial glands and stroma outside the uterine cavity and its musculature 1. This is distinct from adenomyosis, in which endometrial tissue is confi...
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Endometriosis of canal of Nuck

Endometriosis affecting the canal of Nuck is an extremely rare site for endometriosis. It is proposed that retrograde implantation of endometrial tissue into patent canal of Nuck could give rise to the condition. Clinical presentation The condition is presented as a painful inguinal swelling. ...
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Endometritis

Endometritis refers to inflammation or infection involving the endometrium. Endometritis can be acute or chronic and may arise in an obstetric setting, such as following delivery or miscarriage, or in a nonobstetric setting due to pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) or endometrial instrumentation....
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Epithelial ovarian tumours

Ovarian epithelial tumours account for the majority of all ovarian tumours (60-70%) and their malignant forms represent >90% of ovarian cancers 1. They can range from being benign to highly malignant. Epidemiology There is a difference in frequency of ovarian tumour subtypes depending on menop...
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Epithelioid trophoblastic tumour

An epithelioid trophoblastic tumour (ETT) is an extremely rare form of trophoblastic neoplasm. It is considered as a rare sub type of gestational trophoblastic disease 2,4. Epidemiology It typically presents in women of reproductive age (peak age in late 30's) and can occur between 1 and 18 y...
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Extra-uterine pelvic leiomyoma

Extra-uterine pelvic leiomyomas are much rarer than the typical uterine leiomyomas. Entities that are described in this group include cervical leiomyoma: sometimes classified as part of uterine leiomyomas vaginal leiomyoma: extremely rare benign metastasising leiomyoma in the pelvis dissemi...
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Fallopian tubal rupture

Fallopian tube rupture is most often a complication of a tubal ectopic pregnancy where the pregnancy breaks open due to progressive growth. It can potentially lead to shock. Pathology Risk factors Factors that raise the risk for a tubal rupture in a given tubal ectopic pregnancy include 2-4: ...
Article

Fallopian tube polyp

A Fallopian tube polyp refers to a small focal lesion of ectopic endometrial tissue located at the intramural portion of the fallopian tube.  Epidemiology The reported incidence is 1- 2.5% on hysterosalpingograms performed for assessment of infertility 3 Clinical presnetation Most patients w...
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Fallopian tube spasm

Fallopian tube spasm is a transient functional anomaly that can mimic a true mechanical tubal occlusion. At radiography, tubal spasm cannot be distinguished from a tubal occlusion. Administration of spasmolytic agents such as Glucagon can occasionally result in uterine muscle relaxation and cons...
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Fallopian tube torsion

Fallopian tube torsion is a type of adnexal torsion and usually occurs in association with an ovarian torsion (when it is then termed a tubo-ovarian torsion). An isolated fallopian tube torsion is rare but can occur.  Pathology An isolated tubal torsion can occur as a late complication of tuba...
Article

Fanconi anaemia

Fanconi anaemia (FA) is a rare disorder characterised by progressive bone marrow failure, various congenital abnormalities, and predisposition to malignancies (often acute myeloid leukaemia). It is considered the commonest type of inherited marrow failure syndrome 7.  Terminology Fanconi anaem...
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Female infertility

Female infertility is common, and can be due to a number of factors. Radiology often plays a key part of the work-up.  Pathology Aetiology Often more than one factor (including male infertility) is the cause of infertility, some of the common causes are listed below 1-3: age > 35 years immu...
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Female pseudohermaphroditism

Female pseudohermaphroditism (FPH) is a form of disorder of gender development.  Pathology Patients with female pseudohermaphroditism have female internal genitalia and female karyotype (XX) with various degree of external genitalia virilization. Causes  congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) ...
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Female reproductive system

The female reproductive system (or tract) comprises of the vagina, uterus, uterine tubes and ovaries. It can be imaged using almost the entire range of modalities but ultrasound and MRI are most useful. 
Article

FIGO staging system

The FIGO staging systems are determined by the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (Fédération Internationale de Gynécologie et d’Obstétrique). In general, there are five stages: stage 0: carcinoma in situ (common in cervical, vaginal, and vulval cancer) stage I: confined to...
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Fimbrial ectopic pregnancy

A fimbrial ectopic pregnancy is a sub type of tubal ectopic pregnancy. This sub type accounts for ~ 5 -11% 1,3 of all tubal ectopic pregnancies. In a fimbrial ectopic, the implantation is at the fimbria of the fallopian tube which is closest to the ovary. The chance of a tubal rupture is compara...
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Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome

Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome (FHCS) refers to the development of a perihepatitis in association with pelvic inflammatory disease (PID).  Epidemiology The prevalence in adults with mild to moderate PID (gonorrhoic) may approximate 4% 10. The prevalence may be higher in genital tuberculosis 12. It ...
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Focal adenomyosis (uterus)

Focal adenomyosis is a morphological sub type of uterine adenomyosis. Some authors regard this term synonymous with an adenomyoma. Epidemiology It is considered less common than diffuse uterine adenomyosis 4. Radiographic features Pelvic ultrasound May be seen as a focal area of myometrical...
Article

Follicular monitoring

Follicular monitoring or follicular study is a vital component of in-vitro fertilization (IVF) assessment and timing. It basically employs a simple technique for assessing ovarian follicles at regular intervals and documenting the pathway to ovulation.  Physiology Journey to ovulation begins d...
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Fowler syndrome

Fowler syndrome is a rare condition characterised by  hydranencephaly brain stem and basal ganglion calcification glomeruloid (proliferative) vasculopathy of cerebral vessels fetal akinesia deformation sequence with muscular hypoplasia  Sometimes a separate condition resulting in urinary re...
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Frontal bossing

Frontal bossing is a calvarial radiographic feature where the front of the skull appears protruding anteriorly. It is best appreciated on a sagittal or lateral image. Pathology This feature can be seen in many conditions (in alphabetical order): 18q syndrome acromegaly achondroplasia ß-tha...
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Frontonasal dysplasia

Frontonasal dysplasia is a rare disorder involving the face and often the central nervous system: Clinical spectrum face hypertelorism median cleft lip absence of the nasal tip central nervous system  cranium bifidum occultum ethmoidal cephalocele agenesis of the corpus callosum Thes...
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Fryns syndrome

Fryns syndrome (FS) is a rare congenital disorder which can have significant phenotypic variability but is primarily characterised by cranio-facial anomalies, diarphagmatic defects and distal limb anomalies. Epidemiology Incidence is estimated at 1:15,000 live births. Clinical spectrum The c...
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Functional ovarian cyst

A functional ovarian cyst is a term given to a group of non neoplastic type of ovarian cysts. A large proportion of ovarian cysts detected on imaging are functional ovarian cysts. Entities that fall under this group include ovarian follicular cysts corpus luteum cysts theca lutein cysts Func...
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Funneling of the internal cervical os

Cervical funneling is a sign of cervical incompetence and represents the dilatation of the internal part of the cervical canal and reduction of the cervical length. Greater than 50% funneling before 25 weeks is associated with approximately 80% risk of preterm delivery. Radiographic assessment...
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Gartner duct cyst

Gartner duct cysts develop from embryologic remnants of the Wolffian (mesonephric) duct. They are often noticed incidentally on ultrasound or MRI. Clinical presentation They may cause mass effect on adjacent structures. Pathology Location Gartner duct cysts are located in the anterolateral ...
Article

Germ cell tumours

Germ cell tumours are found widely throughout the body, and encompass a wide range of individual tumours. This article does not deal with any specific body locations. For detailed discussion please refer the articles listed at the end of this page.  Pathology Germ cell tumours arise from ecto...
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Germ cell tumours (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for differential diagnosis for germ cell tumours is: SECTE Mnemonic S: seminoma E: embryonal cell carcinoma C: choriocarcinoma T: teratoma E: endodermal sinus tumour (yolk sac tumour)
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Germ cell tumours of the ovary

Germ cells tumours of the ovary account for approximately 15-20% of all ovarian tumours. In children and adolescents, up to 60% of ovarian tumours can be of germ cell origin. They include: ovarian teratoma(s): commonest primary benign tumour of ovary and commonest germ cell tumour: mature (cy...
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Germinoma

The term germinoma usually refers to a tumour of the brain (WHO Classification of CNS tumours), but can also refer to similar tumours of the ovary and testis. dysgerminoma of the ovary seminoma of the testis CNS germinoma All three tumours share similar histology. 
Article

Gestational choriocarcinoma

Gestational choriocarcinoma (GC) is a type of choriocarcinoma that follows a gestational event. Similar to choriocarcinomas in general, it lies at the malignant end of the spectrum of gestational trophoblastic disease. Pathology Approximately 50% of gestational choriocarcinomas arise from a pr...
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Gestational trophoblastic disease

Gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) results from the abnormal proliferation of trophoblastic tissue and encompasses a wide spectrum of diseases, including: hydatidiform mole complete mole partial mole invasive mole ~10% choriocarcinoma (gestational choriocarcinoma) ~1% placental site t...
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Gonadal artery

The gonadal arteries are the paired primary vascular supply to the ovaries in the female and the testes in the male. As the anatomy of the gonadal arteries differs substantially between the sexes, they are covered separately: ovarian arteries testicular arteries
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Gonadal dysgenesis

Gonadal dysgenesis refers to a spectrum of anomalies with abnormal development of the gonads. It falls under the even broader group of disorders of gender development. Pathology In many cases the gonads are replaced by fibrous tissue. Subtypes complete gonadal dysgenesis (CGD) / Swyer syndro...
Article

Goodman syndrome

Goodman syndrome is a type of acrocephalopolysyndactyly (often considered type IV). It is an extremely rare genetic disorder characterized by marked malformations of the head and face, abnormalities of the hands and feet, and congenital heart disease. The syndrome is inherited as an autosomal re...
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Granulosa cell tumour of the ovary

Granulosa cell tumours of the ovary are a type of sex cord / stromal ovarian tumour. Epidemiology Sex cord-stromal tumours represent approximately 8% of all ovarian tumours and are believed to arise from and/or to contain combinations of the sex cord and stromal components of the developing go...
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Greig cephalopolysyndactyly syndrome

The Greig cephalopolysyndactyly syndrome (GCPS) is a rare a pleiotropic, multiple congenital anomaly syndrome.  It is primarily characterized by: polydactyly-polysyndactyly: pre-axial polydactyly (most common 2) or mixed pre- and post-axial polydactyly true ocular hypertelorism macrocephal...
Article

Gynaecological ultrasound set-pieces

The clinical history will nearly always lead to a short differential or the answer. Show off to the examiner that you have a structured approach to reporting and managing the patient. Structured approach uterus: size, version and shape (normal or variant which you should elaborate on and say w...
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Gynaecology curriculum

The gynaecology curriculum is one of our curriculum articles and aims to be a collection of articles that represent the core gynaecological knowledge. Definition Topics pertaining to the ovaries, uterus, vagina and associated stuctures, but excluding those specific to obstetrics and urinary sy...
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Habitual miscarriage

A habitual miscarriage is the term given when a woman has had more than 3 miscarriages and it affects approximately 1-2% of women. Pathology Many causes are identified. congenital uterine mullerian duct anomalies acquired uterine causes leiomyoma uterine adhesion bands cervical inocompet...
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Haematocolpos

Haematocolpos is a term given to a blood-filled dilated vagina due to menstrual blood in the setting of an anatomical obstruction, usually an imperforate hymen. In this condition, there is no distention of the uterine cavity, c.f. haematometrocolpos.  Clinical presentation Patients may present...
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Haematometrium

A haematometrium refers to a uterus filled with blood.  Differential diagnosis pyometrium: uterus filled with pus haematometrocolpos: uterus and vagina filled with blood hydrometrium: uterus filled with fluid See also endometrial fluid
Article

Haematometrocolpos

Haematometrocolpos refers to a blood-filled distended uterus and vagina usually due to an anatomical mechanical obstruction precluding the evacuation of the menstrual blood.  Epidemiology The estimated incidence in teenagers is at ~1 in 1000-2000 5. Pathology Causes imperforate hymen: in ~2...
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Haematosalpinx

A haematosalpinx refers to intraluminal blood within the Fallopian tube (often dilated).  Pathology Causes include tubal ectopic pregnancy: common cause 1 endometriosis: common cause 5 tubal carcinoma pelvic inflammatory disease fallopian tube torsion retrograde menstruation uterine cer...
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Haemorrhagic corpus luteal cyst

Haemorrhagic corpus luteal cysts result from bleeding into corpus luteal cysts. Radiographic features Ultrasound Commonly described findings include complex adnexal mass adnexal thick walled cystic lesion with lace like strands adnexal thick walled cystic lesion with low-level echoes withi...
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Haemorrhagic ovarian cyst

Haemorrhagic ovarian cysts (HOCs) usually result from haemorrhage into a corpus luteum or other functional cyst. Radiographic features are variable depending on the age of the haemorrhage. They typically resolve within eight weeks.  Clinical presentation Patients may present with sudden-onset ...
Article

HELLP syndrome

HELLP syndrome is a pregnancy-related condition and is an abbreviation for: haemolysis elevated liver enzymes and  low platelets It is considered a severe and life threatening form of pre-eclampsia although it can occur without co-existing pre-eclampsia.  Epidemiology The estimated inciden...
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Hemimegalencephaly

Hemimegalencephaly is a rare congenital disorder of cortical formation with hamartomatous overgrowth all or a part of a cerebral hemisphere. This results from either increased proliferation or decreased apoptosis (or both) of developing neurons 2. Epidemiology Hemimegalencephaly is a cryptogen...
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Hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome

Hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC) syndrome is caused by mutation to either BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes. These patients have an increased risk of breast cancer, ovarian cancer, pancreatic cancer and prostate cancer. However, these gene mutations are not the only cause of hereditary breast canc...
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Herlyn-Werner-Wunderlich syndrome

Herlyn-Werner-Wunderlich (HWW) syndrome, is a rare anomaly characterised by Müllerian duct anomalies (MDA) associated with mesonephric duct anomalies 3.  This entity is also known as obstructed hemivagina and ipsilateral renal anomaly (OHVIRA). It is not to be confused with the Wunderlich syndro...
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Heterogeneous myometrial echotexture

A heterogeneous myometrial echotexture on ultrasound can be non specific finding although it has been described with uterine adenomyosis.
Article

Human epididymis protein 4

Human epididymis protein 4 (HE4) is an emerging serum biomarker in the assessment of epithelial ovarian tumours. HE4 is a member of the whey associated protein (WAP) gene cluster and has uncertain biological function 1. Early results indicate that HE4 has higher sensitivity and sensitivity than...
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Hyaline degeneration of a leiomyoma

Hyaline degeneration is the most common form of degeneration that can occur in a uterine leiomyoma.  Epidemiology It is thought to occur in up to 60% of uterine leiomyomas 3. Pathology As with many other types of degeneration, it happens when fibroids outgrow their blood supply 4. Hyaline de...
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Hydatidiform mole

Hydatidiform moles are one of the most common but benign forms of gestational trophoblastic disease.  Epidemiology It is a common complication of gestation, estimated to occur in one of every 1,000-2,000 pregnancies 3. These moles can occur in a pregnant woman of any age, but the rate of occur...
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Hydrocolpos

Hydrocolpos is characterised by an expanded fluid filled vaginal cavity when it is associated with distention of the uterine cavity, the term hydrometrocolpos should then be used. It may present in infancy with a lower abdominal mass, or be delayed till menarche. Pathology Aetiology imperfora...
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Hydrolethalus syndrome

Hydrolethalus syndrome is a rare lethal genetic syndrome characterised by multiple developmental defects of fetus which include  midline malformations cleft lip + / - palate CNS malformations fetal hydrocephalus agenesis of the corpus callosum Dandy-Walker malformation absent midline stru...
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Hydrometra

Hydrometra is a descriptive term that refers to a distended uterus filled with clear, non-infected fluid. See also haematometra pyometra hydrometrocolpos hydrocolpos endometrial fluid
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Hydrometrocolpos

Hydrometrocolpos is characterised by an expanded fluid filled vaginal cavity with associated distention of the uterine cavity. It may present in infancy with a lower abdominal mass, or be delayed till menarche. Pathology Aetiology imperforate hymen (most common) also involves the upper portio...
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Hydropic degeneration of the placenta

Hydropic degeneration of the placenta is a phenomenon where numerous cystic spaces are formed within the placenta which is often accompanied by placental enlargement. It can occur in a number of situations which include simple hydropic degeneration in 1st trimester pregnancy loss - fetal demise...
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Hydrosalpinx

Hydrosalpinx is a descriptive term and refers to a fluid filled dilatation of the fallopian tube. Clinical presentation Patients may be asymptomatic or may present with pelvic pain or infertility. Pathology  One or both fallopian tubes may be affected. A hydrosalpinx results from an accumula...
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Hyperechoic myometrial foci

Hyperechoic myometrial foci are sonographic observation where the myometrium contains numerous bright echogenic foci. They can be observed in very different situations and the clinical context is vital in their interpretation. Pathology Recognised causes include intra-myometrial air: due to...
Article

Hypertensive states in pregnancy

There are several hypertensive states that can manifest in pregnancy. They include: gestational hypertension - pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH) pre eclampsia eclampsia  Epidemiology They may be commoner in young primigravid as well as older multiparous women. Pathology Associations a...
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Hypocoiled umbilical cord

A hypocoiled umbilical cord to an umbilical cord with less than normal coiling. This is normally estimated by a low umbilical cord coiling index (usually less than 0.2 2). Associations single umbilical artery abnormal cord insertion(s) See also non coiled umbilical cord
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Hypophosphatasia

Hypophosphatasia refers to a rare metabolic disorder characterised by deficient serum alkaline phosphatase activity. The effects of hypophosphatasia are primarily seen in the skeletal system. The condition has marked variation in clinical expression (see subtypes). Epidemiology The true incide...
Article

Hysterosalpingogram

Hysterosalpingogram (HSG) is a fluoroscopic examination of the uterus and the Fallopian tubes, most commonly used in the investigation of infertility or recurrent spontaneous abortions. Indications Infertility to assess uterine morphology and tubal patency. Contraindications pregnancy activ...
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Ileal atresia

Ileal atresia is a congenital abnormality where there is significant stenosis or complete absence of a portion of the ileum. There is an increased incidence in those with chromosomal abnormalities. This article will focus on ileal atresia alone but bear in mind that some cases correspond to jej...
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Immature ovarian teratoma

Immature ovarian teratomas are uncommon ovarian germ cell tumours. They differ from mature ovarian teratomas (dermoid cysts) both histologically by the presence of immature tissue, and clinically by their more malignant behaviour. Epidemiology They are considerably less common than mature ovar...
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In utero bowel perforation

In utero bowel perforation results in a chemical peritonitis (meconium peritonitis) from peritoneal leakage of sterile meconium. It can result from many causes which include: intestinal atresias: jejuno-ileal atresia ileal atresia anal atresia in utero intestinal ischaemia underlying gast...
Article

Incarcerated uterus

An incarcerated uterus or trapped uterus describes an extremely rare situation where a retroverted or retroflexed gravid uterus fails to ascend into the abdominal cavity. Epidemiology This is an uncommon presentation and is said to occur in 1 in 3000 pregnancies. Uncomplicated retroversion may...
Article

Indium-111 OncoScint

Indium-111 OncoScint is a radiopharmaceutical used in SPECT imaging. It is a labelled monoclonal antibody that is directed against TAG-72, which is a tumour-associated antigen associated with ~95% of colorectal carcinomas and 100% of ovarian carcinomas 1,2. Background hepatic uptake limits sensi...
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Infertility

Infertility is common, affecting 15-20% of couples, and is defined as the inability to conceive after one year of unprotected intercourse in the fertile phase of the menstrual cycle 3. It can be due to a variety of both female and male factors, and these are discussed in separate articles: fema...
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Infertility in the exam

It is important to have a systematic way of approaching a case with subfertility in the exam.  Ultrasound is the initial examination of choice. Always say that you would further assess the uterus with 3D ultrasound. You may also say that in my department we would perform a sonohysterogram or HS...
Article

Inguinal endometriosis

Inguinal endometriosis is an unusual extrapelvic site for endometriosis. Epidiomology The estimated incidence is as around 0.07% among those having endometriosis 4. There is an increased right sided predilection (around 80-90 %of reported cases) 9. Pathology As with endometriosis in general ...
Article

Interstitial ectopic pregnancy

Interstitial ectopic pregnancy (also known as an intramural) is an important type of ectopic pregnancy with higher risks of rupture and haemorrhage compared to usual tubal ectopic pregnancies.  Terminology The term interstitial pregnancy is sometimes interchangeably used with cornual pregnancy...
Article

Intra-uterine contraceptive device

Intra-uterine contraceptive devices (IUCD) are one of the most frequently used methods of contraception throughout the world. It prevents pregnancy by: thinnning the endometrial lining preventing sperm motility preventing implantation There are two main types of IUCDs: non-hormonal metallic...
Article

Intramural uterine leiomyoma

Intramural uterine leiomyoma is the most common type of uterine leiomyoma in terms of location. They are centred primarily within the myometrium. A large intramural uterine leiomyoma can, however, have a submucosal or subserosal component. Clinical presentation They are usually asymptomatic; h...
Article

Intrauterine air

The presence of intrauterine air can sometimes be inferred by tiny internal echoes on ultrasound or foci of very low attenuation at computed tomography (CT). The term encompasses air within the uterine cavity as well as intramyometrial air. It can arise from a number of situations normal postp...
Article

Intrauterine blood clot

Intrauterine blood clot can result from a number of situations in gravid, non-gravid and postpartum states. It can mimic many other pathologies. Pathology Any condition that predisposes to an intrauterine haemorrhage can potentially result in an intrauterine blood clot. Radiographic features ...
Article

Intravenous leiomyomatosis

Intravenous leiomyomatosis (IVLM) is characterised by the extension into venous channels of histologically benign smooth muscle tumour arising from either the wall of a vessel or from a uterine leiomyoma. Intravenous leiomyomatosis should not be confused with benign metastasising leiomyoma, in ...
Article

Invasive mole

Invasive mole is a tumorous growth associated with gestation and falls under the spectrum of gestational trophoblastic disease. Due to their aggressive growth characteristics, invasive moles are considered locally invasive non-metastasising neoplasms. Epidemiology An invasive mole develops in ...
Article

IOTA ultrasound rules for ovarian masses

The International Ovarian Tumour Analysis (IOTA) group ultrasound rules for ovarian masses are a simple set of ultrasound findings that classify ovarian masses into benign, malignant or inconclusive masses. These rules apply to masses that are not a classical ovarian mass (e.g. corpus luteum, en...
Article

Irregular yolk sac

An irregular yolk sac or an abnormally shaped yolk sac is an imaging feature that can be observed in early pregnancy scanning. It may be seen in up to 17% of early pregnancy scans 1. In contrast to an irregular gestational sac, the observation of an irregular yolk sac in not thought to correlate...
Article

Isolated cleft palate

An isolated cleft palate is a type of facial cleft. This is a much rarer occurrence than a cleft lip +/- palate and is thought to represent a different pathological entity. Epidemiology The estimated incidence is at ~1 per 2000-2500 pregnancies 4-5. There may be a slight female predilection 4....
Article

Isthmic ectopic pregnancy

An isthmic ectopic pregnancy is a sub type of tubal ectopic pregnancy an accounts for ~ 12% of such cases. According to one study the rate of tubal wall disruption was higher than with an ampullary ectopic pregnancy, suggesting that in an isthmic ectopic pregnancy, the trophoblast penetrates the...
Article

IUCD related uterine perforation

IUCD related uterine perforations are one of the causes of uterine perforation. It is rare, but a serious complication of an IUCD insertion, and is often clinically silent.  Epidemiology The incidence rate is reported at ~2 in 1000 2. Clinical presentation Perforation at the time of insertio...
Article

Juberg-Hayward syndrome

Juberg-Hayward syndrome (JHS), also known as the oro-cranio-digital syndrome, is a rare autosomal recessive syndrome characterised by the association of the following:  growth retardation microcephaly cleft lip and palate minor vertebral and rib anomalies 4 horseshoe kidneys 4 thumb anomal...
Article

Junctional zone

Junctional zone is a region representing the inner myometrium and is a very important imaging feature in pelvic MR imaging for interpretation of various pathologies. In its intact state, it is usually visualised as a low T2 signal layer beneath the endometrium. This low signal intensity is thou...
Article

Juvenile granulosa cell tumour (ovary)

Juvenile granulosa cell tumours of the ovary (JGCT) are a less common subtype of granulosa cell tumour of the ovary (~5% of cases). They are classified as ovarian sex cord / stromal tumours. Epidemiology It typically occurs in premenarchal girls and young women. The mean age of presentation is...

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