Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

509 results found
Article

Klinefelter syndrome

Klinefelter syndrome (KS) is a chromosomal anomaly, which in most cases is characterised by 47 chromosomes instead of the usual 46. Epidemiology The estimated incidence is 0.15-0.2% of live births. Clinical presentation the testes are normal prior to puberty and small in post pubertal testes...
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Krukenberg tumour

Krukenberg tumour, also known as carcinoma mucocellulare, refers to the "signet ring" subtype of metastatic tumour to the ovary. The colon and stomach are the most common primary tumours to result in ovarian metastases, followed by the breast, lung, and contralateral ovary. Epidemiology The tu...
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Large for dates uterus

A large for date uterus is a clinical observation based on uterine fundal height, which may result in referral for ultrasound assessment, usually in mid to late pregnancy.    Causes include : incorrect dates constitutionally large fetus multiple pregnancy fetal macrosomia polyhydramnios u...
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Large loop excision of the transformation zone

Large loop excision of the transformation zone (LLETZ) is a gynaecological procedure. It is currently one of the most commonly used approaches to treat high grade cervical dysplasia - cervical intraepithelial neoplasia.
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Leiomyoma of the uterine cervix

Leiomyomas of the uterine cervix are an unusual variation in terms of location for a uterine leiomyoma. Epidemiology They are rare and account for ~5% (range 0.6-10%) of uterine leiomyomas 1,4. Clinical presentation Clinical symptoms of cervical leiomyomas, including hypermenorrhea, dysmenor...
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Lethal multiple pterygium syndrome

Lethal multiple pterygium syndrome (LMPS) is a lethal sub type of the multiple pterygium syndrome. Pathology It is primarily characterised by the presence of pterygia (or wings) present in two or more body areas overlying predominantly the large joints. Accompanying joint contractures are almo...
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Levator ani

The levator ani, also known as the muscular pelvic diaphragm, is the musculotendinous sheet that forms the majority of the pelvic floor, supports the pelvic viscera, and aids in urinary and faecal evacuation as well as maintaining continence. Gross anatomy The levator ani has three main compon...
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Long philtrum

A long philtrum is a clinical or imaging observation where the philtrum (middle part of the upper lip) is longer than normal.  Pathology Associations It can be associated with a number of anomalies which include Aarskog syndrome Cornelia de Lange syndrome  DiGeorge syndrome femoral hypo...
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Long umbilical cord

A long umbilical cord has been variably defined. Considering the mean length of the umbilical cord at ~50-70 cm 1, a long cord in absolute terms is usually taken as one that is over 70 cm in length at term 1-3.  Complications increased incidence of umbilical cord knots increased incidence of ...
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Longitudinal vaginal septum

A longitudinal vaginal septum is a congenital abnormality of the vagina where a septum divides it into two parallel cavities. Clinical presentation Usually asymptomatic unless obstructed and if obstructed it may cause cyclic pelvic pain. Amenorrhoea may occur if both cavities are obstructed 1....
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Low set ears

Low set ears is a descriptive term used to given a depressed or abnormally low positioning of the pinna by two or more standard deviations below the population average. Pathology Associations Low set ears can be associated with a number of anomalies which include aneuploidic / chromosomal sy...
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Low-lying placenta

Low-lying placenta occurs when the placenta extends into the lower uterine segment and its edge lies too close to the internal os of the cervix, without covering it. The term is usually applied when the placental edge is within 0.5-5.0 cm of the internal cervical os 1. Some alternatively give th...
Article

Lowe syndrome

Lowe syndrome (also known as the the oculocerebrorenal syndrome of Lowe) is a multi-system disorder characterised by anomalies primarily affecting the eyes, nervous system, and kidneys. Pathology It is an extremely rare, pan-ethnic, x-linked disease, with estimated prevalence in the general po...
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Lower vaginal atresia

Lower vaginal atresia is a type of vagina atresia where the the lower 3rd of the vagina fails to develop. Clinical presentation Patients may present with primary amenorrhoea with progressive cyclical abdominal pain. Pathology It is usually not considered a type of Mullerian duct anomaly. It ...
Article

Lymphoma of the uterine cervix

Lymphoma of the uterine cervix is generally uncommon and when it does occur tends to present as cervical involvement with added background multi-organ disease rather than isolated primary cervical lymphoma 1. It is often considered part of the spectrum of uterine lymphoma. Epidemiology In the ...
Article

Macroglossia

Macroglossia means an enlarged tongue. It may be absolute (greater than the 95th centile) or relative (enlarged compared with oral cavity). Pathology Associations Recognised associations include: chromosomal anomalies Down syndrome tends to be a relative macroglossia may also have intermi...
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Male pseudohermaphroditism

Male pseudohermaphroditism (MPH) is a variation of gender development.  Pathology Patients with male pseudohermaphroditism have 46 XY karyotype and may manifest as a female phenotype with various degrees of undervirilization secondary to partial androgen insensitivity.  Causes androgen insen...
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Malignant mixed germ cell tumour of the ovary

A malignant mixed germ cell tumour of the ovary is a subtype of ovarian germ cell tumour. These are not to be confused with malignant mixed Müllerian tumours of the ovary. Epidemiology These tumours are rare. They most commonly affect adolescent women of reproductive age 1. Pathology They ar...
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Malignant mixed Mullerian tumour

Malignant mixed Mullerian tumours (MMMT), sometimes referred to as a carcinosarcoma, are uncommon malignancies that can occur anywhere along the female genital tract. Pathology It is comprised of both epithelial (carcinomatous) and stromal (sarcomatous) components. Implicated risk factors inc...
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Malignant mixed Mullerian tumour of the ovary

Malignant mixed Mullerian tumours (MMMT) of the ovary, also known as carcinosarcoma of the ovary, are a rare type of mixed ovarian tumour with both epithelial and stromal components. Epidemiology They are very rare and account for less than 1% of all ovarian cancers. Most women are post-menopa...
Article

Malignant mixed Mullerian tumour of the uterus

Malignant mixed Mullerian tumour (MMMT) of the uterus, also known a uterine carcinosarcoma, is the commonest (up to 50%) uterine sarcoma. They are thought to account for 2-8% of all malignant uterine cancers 1-2. The uterus is the commonest site for malignant mixed Mullerian tumours 1.  Patholo...
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Malignant neoplasms involving the uterus

Malignant neoplasms involving the uterus account for a significant proportion of all female cancers. They can be classified as: endometrial carcinoma : commonest: >90% of all uterine malignancies endometrioid carcinoma of the uterus: commonest histological type, ~80% papillary serous carcino...
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Malignant ovarian lesions (sonographic features)

Malignant ovarian lesions can have typical sonographic features, and thus ultrasound is the imaging of choice for initial evaluation of suspected ovarian neoplasm. Radiographic features The features of malignant ovarian neoplasm on ultrasonography include: solid tumour mass >10 cm with locul...
Article

Marshall-Smith syndrome

Marshall-Smith syndrome (MSS) is a rare genetic syndrome primarily comprising of the triad of facial dysmorphism, failure to thrive and accelerated osseous maturation 5. Many cases however have wider clinical spectrum. Clinical spectrum general overgrowth - fetal macrosomia failure to thriv...
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Massive ovarian oedema

Massive ovarian oedema (MOO) is a very rare disease characterised by a tumour-like, usually unilateral, enlargement of the ovary.  Epidemiology It characteristically presents in young women ~ 6 to 33 years (mean age ~21 years 4). Clinical presentation Most patients present with intermittent ...
Article

Maternal hydronephrosis in pregnancy

Maternal hydronephrosis in pregnancy often results as a physiological phenomenon due to the presence of the fetus.  Epidemiology It is estimated that up to 90 percent of women have some degree of asymptomatic dilatation of the renal calyces, the renal pelves and the upper two-thirds of the ure...
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Mature (cystic) ovarian teratoma

Ovarian dermoid cyst and mature cystic ovarian teratoma are terms often used interchangeably to refer to the most common ovarian neoplasm. These slow-growing tumours contain elements from multiple germ cell layers and are best assessed with ultrasound.  Terminology Although they have very simi...
Article

Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome

Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome (MRKH) is an anomaly that belongs to class I Mullerian duct anomalies. There are two different form of this syndrome: the typical form (type A) of this syndrome is characterised by the congenital absence of the uterus and upper 2/3 vagina with normal ova...
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McKusick Kaufman syndrome

McKusick Kaufman syndrome (MKS) is an autosomal recessive multiple malformation syndrome primarily characterised by hydrometrocolpos - vaginal atresia post-axial polydactyly congenital heart disease
Article

Meconium pseudocyst

Meconium pseudocyst formation is a complication that can occur with meconium peritonitis. Pathology It occurs when the extruded meconium becomes walled off within the peritoneal space. Radiographic features Plain radiograph May be seen as a rim calcified mass within the abdomen. Antenetal ...
Article

Megalencephaly

Megalencephaly (MEG) is a disorder characterised by an abnormally large brain. It is primarily a proliferative disorder of embryonic origin. It may involve all or part of the cerebral hemispheres and can be bilateral or unilateral. It is often associated with polymicrogyria or agyria.  Terminol...
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Meigs syndrome

Meigs syndrome is defined as the presence of ascites and pleural effusion in association with a benign, usually solid ovarian tumour. In the vast majority (80-90%) of cases, the primary tumour is an ovarian fibroma. Other primary tumours include:  ovarian fibrothecoma ovarian thecoma granulos...
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Mendelson syndrome

Mendelson syndrome or peptic pneumonia refers to acute chemical pneumonitis caused by the aspiration of stomach contents in patients under general anesthesia. Pathology The etiologic agents is believed to be aspiration of acidic stomach contents, other compounds, e.g. bile, may also play a rol...
Article

Menouria

Menouria (Youssef syndrome) is an uncommon condition in which a vesico-uterine fistula results in cyclic haematuria. Vesicouterine fistulas are the rarest of all urinary fistulas, accounting for just 4% of all such fistulas 3. It occurs most commonly after cesarean section. Clinical presentatio...
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Mesomelia

Mesomelia refers to a shortening of the middle (intermediate) portion of a limb.  Pathology Associations mesomelia-synostoses syndrome (MSS) or mesomelic dysplasia with acral synostoses1 Ellis van-Creveld syndrome 2 Robinow syndrome See also rhizomelia
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Mesonephric carcinoma of the cervix

Mesonephric carcinoma of the cervix is an extremely  rare histological sub type of cervical cancer. It falls under the sub group of adenocarcinoma of the cervix. This is a slightly confusing entitiy since some authors have used this term as synonymous with clear cell carcinoma of the cervix 6. ...
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Metastases to the ovary

Metastases to the ovary are relatively common with a documented incidence of 5-30% of all malignant ovarian masses. These may be incorrectly grouped under Krukenberg tumors, which are signet cell containing tumours that form only 30-40% of all ovarian metastases.   Clinical presentation There...
Article

Metastases to the uterine cervix

Metastases to the uterine cervix is an extremely uncommon with near to nothing publications in radiological literature at the time of writing. Generally, invasion of the uterine cervix (i.e. from vaginal and primary uterine malignancies) are excluded in its definition. There have been occasional...
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Metastases to the vagina

Metastases to the vagina are more common than primary vaginal malignancies, and account for >80% of vaginal tumors. Pathology Metastases usually spread from contiguous sites most commonly, with lymphatic and hematogenous metastases also recognised. Tumors that metastasise to the vagina includ...
Article

Metatropic dysplasia

Metatrophic dysplasia is a rare group of skeletal dysplasia. It is part of the wider category of rhizomelic dwarfism. Disorders in this group include: fibrochondrogenesis lethal metatropic dysplasia (type 2) or hyperchondrogenesis lethal hyperplastic metatropic dysplasia (type 1) Schneckenbe...
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Microgenia

Microgenia is a term meaning a small chin. It is somewhat related to but let distinct from the term micrognathia which means a small mandible. Pathology Associations Microgenia can be isolated or be associated with a numer of anomalies which include camptomelic dysplasia 1 Hydrolethalus No...
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Micrognathia

The term micrognathia essentially means a small mandible. Pathology A small mandible occurs secondary to abnormalities of the first branchial arch which in turn are caused by deficient or insufficient migration of neural crest cells and usually occur around the 4th week of gestation. Associat...
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Microphthalmia

Microphthalmia essentially means small eyes. It is characterised by a small eye within a small orbit. It can be unilateral or bilateral. It is sometimes defined as a globe with a total axial length (TAL) that is at least two standard deviations below the mean for age. Pathology Microphthalmia ...
Article

Midfacial hypoplasia

Midfacial hypoplasia is a type of congenital facial anomaly and can be feature of a number of congenital syndromic anomalies. These include: Antley-Bixler syndrome chromosome 1p36 deletion syndrome 2 chromosome 18q deletion syndrome Crouzon syndrome fetal alcohol syndrome fetal valproate s...
Article

Missing IUCD

A missing IUCD is considered when the retrieval strings of certain types of intra-uterine contraception devices cannot be seen on physical examination. The possibilities are expulsion of IUCD migration of IUCD detachment of IUCD thread uterine perforation in IUCD embedded IUCD Ultrasound ...
Article

Mixed gonadal dysgenesis

Mixed gonadal dysgenesis (MGD) is a type of gonadal dysgenesis characterised by gonadal asymmetry, and/or sex chromosomal mosaicism, as well as retained Müllerian ducts. Pathology Depending on the chromosomal composition, patients may have testes and/or streak gonads. Genetics affected indiv...
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Mono nostril

A mono nostril falls under the midline facial defects which arise from cleavage anomalies. It can occur as part of many underlying conditions such as holoprosencephaly: particularly alobar holoprosencephaly trisomy 13 Pathology Associations Several other facial anomalies can be associated ...
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Monochorionic monoamniotic twin pregnancy

A monochorionic monoamniotic (MCMA) twin pregnancy is a subtype of monozygotic twin pregnancy.  These fetuses share a single chorionic sac, a single amniotic sac and, in general, a single yolk sac.  Epidemiology It accounts for the minority (~5%) of monozygotic twin pregnancies and ~1-2% of al...
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Monochorionic twin pregnancy

A monochorionic twin pregnancy is a type of monozygotic twin pregnancy where the twins share a single chorion. Depending on the sharing of the amnion this can be divided into two types. monochorionic monoamniotic (MCMA) pregnancy: single amnion monochorionic diamniotic (MCDA) pregnancy: two am...
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Monozygotic twin pregnancy

A monozygotic (MZ) twin pregnancy results from division of single zygote following fertilisation and share similar genetic materials. These twins are therefore always of the same gender. Epidemiology MZ twins account for approximately 30% of all twin pregnancies 1. The estimated incidence is a...
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MR defaecating proctography

MR defecography is a dynamic study for evaluation of the pelvic floor and pelvic organ prolapse. Phases There are four phases of evaluation: rest squeeze strain (Valsalva) defaecation Method of evaluation Many variations in the techniques described below exist. Patient preparation Typi...
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MRI reporting guidelines for cervical cancer

MRI reporting guidelines for cervical cancer help maintain uniformity of reports and assessment of important imaging staging criteria. Tumour size The tumour should be measured in three orthogonal planes. Tumours with a maximum diameter >4 cm are usually not amenable to primary radical surgery...
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Mucinous carcinoma of the cervix

Mucinous carcinoma of the cervix is an uncommon histological sub type of cervical cancer. It falls under the group of adenocarcinoma of the cervix. Radiographic features Pelvic MRI As a general rule any mucin-producing tumour will produce very high T2 signal 1. An enhancing lesion, irregular...
Article

Müllerian duct

The Müllerian ducts (or paramesonephric ducts) are paired ducts of mesodermal origin in the embryo. They run laterally down the side of the urogenital ridge and terminate at the mullerian eminence in the primitive urogenital sinus. In the female, they will develop to form the fallopian tubes, u...
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Müllerian duct anomalies

Müllerian duct anomalies (MDAs) are congenital abnormalities that occur when the Müllerian ducts (paramesonephric ducts) do not develop correctly. This may be as a result of complete agenesis, defective vertical or lateral fusion, or resorption failure. Epidemiology MDAs are estimated to occur...
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Müllerian duct anomaly classification

The Müllerian duct anomaly classification is a seven point system that can be used to describe a number of embryonic Müllerian duct anomalies: class I: uterine agenesis / uterine hypoplasia a: vaginal (uterus: normal / variety of abnormal forms) b: cervical c: fundal d: tubal e: combined ...
Article

Mullerianosis

Mullerianosis is a rare type of choristoma, in which normal Mullerian-derived structures (endometrium, endosalpinx, and endocervix) are ectopically located in another organ (e.g. the bladder) through a developmental anomaly. Mullerianosis differs from endometriosis in that at least two types of ...
Article

Multiple pterygium syndrome

The multiple pterygium syndrome(s) (MPS) refers to a group of disorders which are collectively characterised by multiple soft tissue webs (or pterygia) across the neck and various joints. They can be broadly classified into two main groups lethal multiple pterygium syndrome non lethal multipl...
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MURCS association

MURCS association refers to the combination of: MU: Müllerian duct aplasia R: renal aplasia /renal agenesis CS: cervicothoracic somite dysplasia See also Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser syndrome
Article

Mushroom cap sign

Mushroom cap sign is one of the important signs of deep rectosigmoid endometriosis seen on T2 weighted MRI sequence. It indicates the submucosal involvement in rectosigmoid region. Radiographic appearance MRI Hypertrophic muscularis propria appears as heterogeneous low signal intensity surrou...
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Myometrial cysts

Myometrium cysts are cysts seen in the myometrium and these can be differentiated appropriately based on location and sonological or Doppler features. Pathology Causes adenomyosis: the cysts are most often seen in the endomyometrial junction region. They ideally are small < 5mm, however may b...
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Myxoid degeneration of a leiomyoma

Myxoid degeneration of a leiomyoma is one of the rarer types of degeneration that can occur in a standard uterine leiomyoma. This term is related but not identical to the term myxoid uterine leiomyoma.  Epidemiology While this type of degeneration is generally considered rare. The higher end o...
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Myxoid uterine leiomyoma

Myxoid uterine leiomyoma is a relatively rare pathological subtype of uterine leiomyomas. It is not to be confused with myxoid degeneration of a uterine leiomyoma which has a related but no identical meaning. Pathology Myxoid leiomyomas contain abundant myxoid material between smooth muscle ce...
Article

Nabothian cyst

Nabothian cysts, also known as a retention cysts of the cervix 11, are non-neoplastic cystic lesions that occur in relation to the uterine cervix. Epidemiology They are common and some reports suggest that they may be seen in up to 12% of routine pelvic MRI scans 2. Clinical presentation The...
Article

Naegele's formula

The Naegele's formula is simple arithmetic method for calculating the EDD (estimated date of delivery) based on the LMP (last menstrual period). To the date of the first day of the LMP (e.g. 22nd June 2008): add seven days (i.e 29th) subtract 3 months (i.e March) add one year (i.e 2009)
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Narrow fetal thorax

A narrow fetal thorax on antenatal ultrasound can be present with a number of anomalies which include: achondrogenesis camptomelic dysplasia homozygous achondroplasia Jarcho-Levin syndrome Jeune syndrome - asphyxiating thoracic dysplasia Russell-Silver dwarfism short rib polydactyly syndr...
Article

Neu-Laxova syndrome

Neu-Laxova syndrome is a lethal autosomal recessive multiple malformation syndrome with a heterogeneous phenotype. Clinical features The clinical spectrum can be quite wide and includes: dermal / cutaneous severe skin restriction ichthyosis decreased fetal movement marked intrauterine gro...
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Neural tube defects

Neural tube defect (NTD) refers to the incomplete closure of the neural tube in very early pregnancy.  The neural tube comprises of a bundle of nerve sheath which closes to form brain at the anterior end and spinal cord at the posterior end. The closure should occur at around the 28th day of co...
Article

Non gestational choriocarcinoma

Non-gestational choriocarcinoma is choriocarcinoma occurring in the absence of a preceding gestation.  As opposed to a gestational choriocarcinoma, this is a much rarer situation. Pathology In women they often tend to occur in ovary. Most ovarian non-gestational choriocarcinomas occur in mixed...
Article

Noonan syndrome

Noonan syndrome (NS) is a genetically and phenotypically heterogenous non aneuploidic congenital RASopathy. Affected individuals can bear some clinical features similar to that of Turner syndrome.  Epidemiology The estimated incidence is at ~1 in 1000-2500 11. As individuals have normal number...
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Noonan syndrome with multiple lentigines

Noonan syndrome with multiple lentigines, previously known as LEOPARD syndrome (LS), is a rare autosomal dominant RASopathy that has many similarities to Noonan syndrome. Clinical presentation Despite a change in formal name, the 'LEOPARD' acronym is still useful to summarise the clinical feat...
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Nuchal cord

A nuchal cord (NC) is a term given to situation where there are one or more loops of umbilical cord wrapped around the fetal neck for ≥360°. Epidemiology The prevalence is dependent on the extent of coiling and range from ~25% for a single loop to 2.5% for a double loop to ~0.5% for more than ...
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Obstetric curriculum

The obstetric curriculum is one of our curriculum articles and aims to be a collection of articles that represent the core obstetric knowledge. Definition Topics pertaining to the normal and abnormal pregnancy, the gravid uterus and fetal environment, placenta, normal fetal development and fet...
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OEIS complex

The OEIS complex refers to the combined occurence of: an omphalocoele bladder exstrophy / cloacal exstrophy an imperforate anus and spinal anomalies: e.g kyphoscoliosis hemivertebrae Epidemiology The estimated occurrence is at around 1-200,000 to 400,000 live births 1,8. Pathology Pos...
Article

Omphalomesenteric duct cyst

An omphalomesenteric duct cyst is a type of true umbilical cord cyst. Pathology The omphalomesenteric duct serves as a communication between the midgut and yolk sac In early embryonic life and usually obliterates between the 9-18th week of gestation. The omphalomesenteric duct cyst is an embry...
Article

Oro-facial-digital syndromes

Oro-facial-digital syndromes (OFDS) are a generic name for a variety of genetically heterogeneous disorders that result in malformations of the mouth, teeth, jaw, facial bones, hands, and feet. Classification There are several (at least 13 2 ) recognised subtypes which include: OFDS type I: G...
Article

Ovarian adenofibroma

An ovarian adenofibroma is a type of ovarian epithelial tumour. Many authors however overlap this entity with an ovarian cystadenofibroma and consider these tumours are often as part of a adenofibroma - cystadenofibroma spectrum. Pathology Adenofibromas are benign compound tumours composed of ...
Article

Ovarian artery

The ovarian artery is a paired structure and is the main gonadal artery in females. Gross anatomy Origin The ovarian artery arises anterolaterally from the aorta just inferior to the renal arteries and superior to the inferior mesenteric artery. Course Descends caudally in the retroperitone...
Article

Ovarian borderline mucinous cystadenoma

An ovarian borderline mucinous cystadenoma is a sub type of ovarian mucinous tumours and as the name stands is intermediate between a mucinous cystadenoma and a mucinous cystadenocarcinoma. Epidemiology They account for ~ 10-15% of all ovarian mucinous tumours. Pathology They are microscopic...
Article

Ovarian cancer (staging)

The most commonly adopted ovarian cancer staging system is the FIGO staging system. The most recent staging system is from 2014 1: CT is considered the best imaging modality for staging ovarian cancer. 4. stage I:  tumour limited to the ovary or fallopian tube stage Ia:  ​tumour limited to o...
Article

Ovarian carcinoid tumours

Ovarian carcinoid tumours are very rare sub type of ovarian tumour. They are usually classified under ovarian germ cell tumours (monodermal teratoma 5). The term carcinoid tumour of the ovary can be used to described primary ovarian carcinoid tumours or metastatic carcinoid tumours to the ovary....
Article

Ovarian choriocarcinoma

An ovarian choriocarcinoma is a rare sub type of ovarian germ cell tumour. Epidemiology They account for less than 1% of ovarian tumours.  Clinical presentation In pre-menarchal patients, the tumors manifest with iso-sexual precocity (approximately 50% of cases) and other symptoms associated...
Article

Ovarian cyst

Ovarian cysts are commonly encountered in gynaecological imaging, and vary widely in aetiology, from physiologic, to complex benign, to neoplastic. Small cystic ovarian structures should be considered normal ovarian follicles unless the patient is pre-pubertal, post-menopausal, pregnant, or the...
Article

Ovarian cystadenocarcinofibroma

An ovarian cystadenocarcinofibroma (CACF) is an extremely rare ovarian tumour. The tumour has a fibrous component is considered as the malignant counterpart of an ovarian cystadenofibroma (CAF) 1. There is very little literature on the imaging findings of these.
Article

Ovarian cystadenofibroma

An ovarian cystadenofibroma (CAF) is a relatively uncommon benign epithelial ovarian tumour where the fibrous stroma remains a dominant component of the neoplasm. As a group they are thought to represent ~1.7 % of all benign ovarian tumours 3. Pathology Although generally classified as an epit...
Article

Ovarian cystadenoma

Ovarian cystadenoma is a broad term given to a certain types of ovarian epithelial tumours. This can include ovarian serous cystadenoma ovarian borderline serous cystadenoma ovarian mucinous cystadenoma ovarian borderline mucinous cystadenoma ovarian cystadenofibroma See also ovarian tumo...
Article

Ovarian cystic neoplasms

Ovarian cystic neoplasms can be either benign or malignant and can arise from epithelial, stromal, or germ cell components. In general, the risk of malignancy in unilocular cystic tumours <10 cm in women over 50 is thought to be low 3-4. benign ovarian mature cystic teratoma cystadenomas ser...
Article

Ovarian dysgerminoma

Ovarian dysgerminomas are a type of germ cell tumour of the ovary. They are the most common malignant germ cell tumours of the ovary and are thought to account for ~1% of all ovarian neoplasms 5. Epidemiology They are rare ovarian tumours that occur predominantly in young women (majority occur...
Article

Ovarian ectopic pregnancy

Ovarian ectopic pregnancies are rare (1-3%) when compared to other types of ectopic pregnancy such as tubal ectopic.  Pathology Risk factors Risk factors include pelvic inflammatory disease, IUCD use and endometriosis. Pathogenesis is debated and lies between: fertilisation of the ovum in th...
Article

Ovarian embryonal carcinoma

Ovarian embryonal carcinomas are rare and malignant germ cell tumours of the ovary. Epidemiology It is found predominantly in children and adolescents (average age 14 years). Clinical presentation Precocious puberty or menstrual irregularity occurs in 60% 2. The tumor can secrete B-hcG and/o...
Article

Ovarian fibroma

Ovarian fibromas are a benign ovarian tumour of sex cord / stromal origin. Although fibromas account for ~4% of all ovarian neoplasms, they are the most common sex cord ovarian tumour. Epidemiology Fibromas occur at all ages but are most frequently seen in middle-aged women. Clinical presenta...
Article

Ovarian fibromatosis

Ovarian fibromatosis (OF) refers to a rare benign phenomenon where there is tumour-like ovarian enlargement due to diffuse ovarian fibrosis. Epidemiology It may have a predilection towards younger pre-menopausal females (age range around 13-39 years) with a mean age of presentation of 25 years...
Article

Ovarian fibrosarcoma

Ovarian fibrosarcoma is a malignant mesenchymal fibroblastic tumour of the ovary that have multiple mitotic figures which is most important factor in histopathological diagnosis (4 or more mitotic figure per 10 high power fields).  Epidemiology Ovarian fibrosarcoma are very rare malignant ovar...

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