Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

540 results found
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Obstetrics and gynaecology imaging (curriculum)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Obstetrics and Gynaecology imaging for students curriculum represents a core set of common pathologies seen on the wards, in theatre and in the emergency O&G patient. Fundamental to most imaging of the O&G patient is an un...
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OEIS complex

The OEIS complex refers to the combined occurence of: an omphalocoele bladder exstrophy / cloacal exstrophy an imperforate anus and spinal anomalies: e.g kyphoscoliosis hemivertebrae Epidemiology The estimated occurrence is at around 1-200,000 to 400,000 live births 1,8. Pathology Pos...
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Omphalomesenteric duct cyst

An omphalomesenteric duct cyst is a type of true umbilical cord cyst. Pathology The omphalomesenteric duct serves as a communication between the midgut and yolk sac In early embryonic life and usually obliterates between the 9-18th week of gestation. The omphalomesenteric duct cyst is an embry...
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Oro-facial-digital syndromes

Oro-facial-digital syndromes (OFDS) are a generic name for a variety of genetically heterogeneous disorders that result in malformations of the mouth, teeth, jaw, facial bones, hands, and feet. Classification There are several (at least 13 2 ) recognised subtypes which include: OFDS type I: G...
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Ovarian adenofibroma

An ovarian adenofibroma is a type of ovarian epithelial tumour. Many authors however overlap this entity with an ovarian cystadenofibroma and consider these tumours are often as part of a adenofibroma - cystadenofibroma spectrum. Pathology Adenofibromas are benign compound tumours composed of ...
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Ovarian artery

The ovarian artery is a paired structure and is the main gonadal artery in females. Gross anatomy Origin The ovarian artery arises anterolaterally from the aorta just inferior to the renal arteries and superior to the inferior mesenteric artery. Course Descends caudally in the retroperitone...
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Ovarian borderline mucinous cystadenoma

Ovarian borderline mucinous cystadenomas are a subtype of ovarian mucinous tumours and, as the name stands, are intermediate between mucinous cystadenomas and mucinous cystadenocarcinomas. Epidemiology They account for ~ 10-15% of all ovarian mucinous tumours. Pathology They are microscopica...
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Ovarian cancer (staging)

The most commonly adopted ovarian cancer staging system is the FIGO staging system. The most recent staging system is from 2014 1: CT is considered the best imaging modality for staging ovarian cancer. 4. stage I:  tumour limited to the ovary or fallopian tube stage Ia:  ​tumour limited to o...
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Ovarian carcinoid tumours

Ovarian carcinoid tumours are very rare sub type of ovarian tumour. They are usually classified under ovarian germ cell tumours (monodermal teratoma 5). The term carcinoid tumour of the ovary can be used to described primary ovarian carcinoid tumours or metastatic carcinoid tumours to the ovary....
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Ovarian choriocarcinoma

An ovarian choriocarcinoma is a rare sub type of ovarian germ cell tumour. Epidemiology They account for less than 1% of ovarian tumours.  Clinical presentation In pre-menarchal patients, the tumors manifest with iso-sexual precocity (approximately 50% of cases) and other symptoms associated...
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Ovarian cyst

Ovarian cysts are commonly encountered in gynaecological imaging, and vary widely in aetiology, from physiologic, to complex benign, to neoplastic. Small cystic ovarian structures should be considered normal ovarian follicles unless the patient is pre-pubertal, post-menopausal, pregnant, or the...
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Ovarian cystadenocarcinofibroma

An ovarian cystadenocarcinofibroma (CACF) is an extremely rare ovarian tumour. The tumour has a fibrous component is considered as the malignant counterpart of an ovarian cystadenofibroma (CAF) 1. There is very little literature on the imaging findings of these.
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Ovarian cystadenofibroma

An ovarian cystadenofibroma (CAF) is a relatively uncommon benign epithelial ovarian tumour where the fibrous stroma remains a dominant component of the neoplasm. As a group they are thought to represent ~1.7 % of all benign ovarian tumours 3. Pathology Although generally classified as an epit...
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Ovarian cystadenoma

Ovarian cystadenoma is a broad term given to a certain types of ovarian epithelial tumours. This can include ovarian serous cystadenoma ovarian borderline serous cystadenoma ovarian mucinous cystadenoma ovarian borderline mucinous cystadenoma ovarian cystadenofibroma See also ovarian tumo...
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Ovarian cystic neoplasms

Ovarian cystic neoplasms can be either benign or malignant and can arise from epithelial, stromal, or germ cell components. In general, the risk of malignancy in unilocular cystic tumours <10 cm in women over the age of 50 years is thought to be low 3-4. benign ovarian mature cystic teratoma ...
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Ovarian dysgerminoma

Ovarian dysgerminomas are a type of germ cell tumour of the ovary. They are the most common malignant germ cell tumours of the ovary and are thought to account for ~1% of all ovarian neoplasms 5. Epidemiology They are rare ovarian tumours that occur predominantly in young women (majority occur...
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Ovarian ectopic pregnancy

Ovarian ectopic pregnancies are rare (1-3%) when compared to other types of ectopic pregnancy such as tubal ectopic.  Pathology Risk factors Risk factors include pelvic inflammatory disease, IUCD use and endometriosis. Pathogenesis is debated and lies between: fertilisation of the ovum in th...
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Ovarian embryonal carcinoma

Ovarian embryonal carcinomas are rare and malignant germ cell tumours of the ovary. Epidemiology It is found predominantly in children and adolescents (average age 14 years). Clinical presentation Precocious puberty or menstrual irregularity occurs in 60% 2. The tumor can secrete B-hcG and/o...
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Ovarian fibroma

Ovarian fibromas are a benign ovarian tumour of sex cord / stromal origin. Although fibromas account for ~4% of all ovarian neoplasms, they are the most common sex cord ovarian tumour. Epidemiology Fibromas occur at all ages but are most frequently seen in middle-aged women. Clinical presenta...
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Ovarian fibromatosis

Ovarian fibromatosis (OF) refers to a rare benign phenomenon where there is tumour-like ovarian enlargement due to diffuse ovarian fibrosis. Epidemiology It may have a predilection towards younger pre-menopausal females (age range around 13-39 years) with a mean age of presentation of 25 years...
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Ovarian fibrosarcoma

Ovarian fibrosarcoma is a malignant mesenchymal fibroblastic tumour of the ovary that has multiple mitotic figures which is the most important factor in histopathological diagnosis (4 or more mitotic figure per 10 high power fields).  Epidemiology Ovarian fibrosarcoma is a very rare malignant ...
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Ovarian fibrothecoma

Ovarian fibrothecomas comprise tumours in the spectrum of ovarian sex cord / stromal tumours where there are components of both an ovarian fibroma and an ovarian thecoma.  Epidemiology Most occur in adult women, with ~66% in postmenopausal women. Although they account for ~1% of all ovarian tu...
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Ovarian follicle

An ovarian follicle (also known as a Graafian follicle in its mature state) is the basic unit of female reproductive biology and is composed of roughly spherical aggregations of cells. It contains a single oocyte.  An ovarian follicle can be initiated to grow and develop, culminating in ovulati...
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Ovarian follicular cyst

An ovarian follicular cyst is type of simple physiological ovarian cyst. Terminology The terms "ovarian cyst" and "ovarian follilcular cyst" are often used interchangeably. These two terms describe lesions >3 cm, and it is important to differentiate them from an "ovarian follicle" which is <3 ...
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Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome

Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) is a complication of ovarian stimulation treatment (ovarian induction therapy) for in vitro fertilisation. Rarely, it may also occur as a spontaneous event in pregnancy (see spontaneous ovarian hyperstimulation later in the article). The clinical syndrom...
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Ovarian hyperthecosis

Ovarian hyperthecosis (OHT) is a condition where there is a presence of luteinized thecal cells within a hyperplastic ovarian stroma. Clinical presentation Clinical manifestations include hyperandrogenism, obesity, hypertension, and impaired glucose tolerance. Virilization has been reported to...
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Ovarian lesions with T2 hypointensity

A hypointense ovarian lesion on T2 weighted MRI is usually a sign of benignity.  The low signal is considered to be due to fibrosis and blood products 1. Lesions that can give this appearance include 1: endometrioma Brenner tumour ovarian fibroma ovarian fibrothecoma ovarian cystadenofibro...
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Ovarian lymphoma

Ovarian lymphoma can refer to primary involvement of the ovaries with lymphoma (i.e. primary ovarian lymphoma): very rare secondary ovarian involvement of the ovaries with generalised lymphoma (i.e. secondary ovarian lymphoma): more common scenario
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Ovarian mucinous cystadenocarcinoma

Mucinous cystadenocarcinoma of the ovary is a rare malignant ovarian mucinous tumour. This type can account for 5-10% of all ovarian mucinous tumours. It is a type of ovarian epithelial tumour.  Pathology Retrospective studies have suggested that many mucinous carcinomas initially diagnosed as...
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Ovarian mucinous cystadenoma

Mucinous cystadenoma of the ovary is at the benign end of the spectrum of mucin-containing epithelial ovarian tumours. Epidemiology The estimated peak incidence is at around 30-50 years of age.  They comprise approximately 80% of mucinous ovarian tumours and 20-25% of all benign ovarian tumou...
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Ovarian mucinous tumours

Ovarian mucinous tumours are a subgroup of ovarian epithelial tumours. They represent ~20% of all ovarian tumours and ~10% of all malignant ovarian tumours. They are subdivided according to their malignant potential and clinical behaviour into: ovarian mucinous cystadenoma ovarian borderline m...
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Ovarian serous cystadenocarcinoma

Ovarian serous cystadenocarcinoma is an ovarian epithelial tumour at the malignant end of the spectrum of ovarian serous tumours. Epidemiology They account for the largest proportion of malignant ovarian tumours 1, representing over 50-80% of all malignant epithelial ovarian tumours 4. The pre...
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Ovarian serous cystadenoma

Ovarian serous cystadenomas are a type of benign ovarian epithelial tumour at the benign end of the spectrum of ovarian serous tumours. Epidemiology Serous cystadenomas account for ~60% of ovarian serous tumours 1. They are the commonest type of ovarian epithelial neoplasm. The peak incidence ...
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Ovarian serous tumours

Ovarian serous neoplasms are the commonest subtypes of the epithelial ovarian tumours, being more prevalent than the mucinous ovarian tumours. They are subdivided according to their malignant potential and clinical behaviour into: benign serous cystadenoma / serous cystadenofibroma borderline ...
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Ovarian Sertoli-Leydig cell tumour

Ovarian Sertoli-Leydig cell tumours (SLCT), also known as an ovarian androblastomas, are a subtype of ovarian sex cord-stromal tumour. Epidemiology They are rare and only account for ~0.5% of all ovarian tumours. While they can present at any age, they typically present <30 years old, with a m...
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Ovarian teratoma

Ovarian teratomas is the most common group of ovarian germ cell tumours. They can be divided into 3 main sub types mature ovarian teratoma immature ovarian teratoma specialised teratoma struma ovarii tumour See also ovarian tumours
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Ovarian thecoma

Ovarian thecomas are benign ovarian tumours of sex cord / stromal (mesenchymal) origin. They are thought to account for approximately 0.5-1% of all ovarian tumours. As ovarian thecomas secrete oestrogen, they are described as functional ovarian tumours. Epidemiology They typically present in o...
Article

Ovarian torsion

Ovarian torsion, also sometimes termed adnexal torsion or tubo-ovarian torsion, refers to rotation of the ovary and portion of the fallopian tube on the supplying vascular pedicle.  It can be intermittent or sustained and results in venous, arterial and lymphatic stasis. It is a gynaecological ...
Article

Ovarian transposition

Ovarian transposition is a surgical procedure in which the ovaries are displaced from the pelvis before pelvic radiation therapy in order to protect them from radiation injury. It is performed in premenopausal women with a variety of pelvic malignancies (e.g cervical cancer, rectal cancer, and ...
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Ovarian tumours

Ovarian tumours are relatively common and account for ~6% of female malignancies. This article focuses on the general classification of ovarian tumours. For specific features, refer to the subarticles. Pathology Subtypes Primary ovarian tumours Surface epithelial-stromal ovarian tumours (60-...
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Ovarian tumours associated with endometrial thickening

There are several ovarian tumours associated with endometrial thickening and is often due to oestrogenic effects of the ovarian tumour. Such tumours include: ovarian epithelial tumours endometroid carcinoma of the ovary may have synchronous endometrial carcinoma or endometrial hyperplasia, p...
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Ovarian vein syndrome

Ovarian vein syndrome is a relatively rare condition where a dilated ovarian vein causes notching, dilatation, or obstruction of the ureter. This is usually secondary to varicoses of the ovarian vein or ovarian vein thrombosis and occurs at the point where the ovarian vein crosses the ureter.
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Ovarian vein thrombosis

Ovarian vein thrombosis  (actually most often a thrombophlebitis) occurs most commonly in postpartum patients and can result in pulmonary emboli. A presentation is usually with acute pelvic pain in the postpartum period, then termed puerperal ovarian vein thrombosis or postpartum ovarian vein th...
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Ovarian yolk sac tumour

Ovarian yolk sac tumours, also known as endodermal sinus tumours, are a type of ovarian germ cell tumours. Epidemiology Ovarian yolk sac tumour is a rare malignant ovarian germ cell tumour that usually occurs around the second decade of life. It is considered the most common malignant germ cel...
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Ovary

The ovaries are paired female gonads of the reproductive and endocrine systems. They lie within the ovarian fossa on the posterior wall of the true pelvis.  Gross anatomy The ovaries are ovoid in shape and measure approximately 1.5-3.0 cm x 1.5-3.0 cm x 1.0-2.0 cm (length x width x thickness) ...
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Overlapping fetal fingers

Overlapping fetal fingers is an antenatal ultrasound observation where the fetal fingers are seen to overlap each other. It may be seen seen with a concurrent clenched fetal hand.  If the hand is clenched typically the 2nd finger is seen to overlap the 3rd 4. Pathology Associations a well re...
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P16

P16 is a widely used immunohistochemical marker. It can be expressed in other neoplasms and in several normal human tissues. It can play an important role gynaecological malignancy and is a surrogate marker for HSIL's (high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions). It has been applied to facilita...
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Pallister Killian syndrome

Pallister-Killian syndrome (PKS) is an extremly rare chromosomal anomaly. Epidemiology It may be more prevalent in woman of advanced age 4. Pathology It is a polymalformative complex with tetrasomy of isochromosome 12p although many cases are mosaic. Genetics The majority of cases are th...
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Papillary serous carcinoma of the cervix

A papillary serous carcinoma of the cervix (PSCC) is an uncommon histological type of cervical cancer. It is considered a sub type of adenocarcinoma of the cervix.  Epidemiology Accodring to some studies, there was a bimodal age distribution, with one peak occurring before the age of 40 years ...
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Papillary serous carcinoma of the endometrium

Papillary serous carcinoma of the endometrium is an uncommon histological subtype of endometrial carcinoma accounting for only 5-10% of all such tumours 2. It is considered type II endometrial adenocarcinoma and has a clinically aggressive form with an early extension of the tumour via Fallopian...
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Papillary squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix

Papillary squamous cell carcinoma (PSCC) of the cervix is a distinct subtype of squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix. Pathology These tumours are characterised by a papillary architecture containing fibrovascular cores and moderate to severe dysplasia without any of frank keratinization and k...
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Parametrium

The parametrium is a band of fibrous tissue that separates the supravaginal portion of the cervix from the bladder. It extends on to its sides and laterally between the layers of the broad ligaments. The uterine artery and ovarian ligament are located in the parametrium. The parametrium is imp...
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Paraovarian cyst

Paraovarian cysts (POCs) are remnants of Wolffian duct in the mesosalpinx that do not arise from the ovary. They account for ~10-20% of adnexal masses 3-4. Epidemiology They typically occur in women at the ages of 20-40 years old. Clinical presentation Most are asymptomatic, although patient...
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Paraovarian cystadenoma

Paraovarian cystadenoma is a usually benign adnexal tumour that does not arise from the ovary. There is an association with Von Hippel Lindau syndrome. Radiographic features Pelvic ultrasound typically seen as a unilateral cystic adnexal lesion may be a simple cyst, or contain solid nodular ...
Article

Parasitic leiomyoma

A parasitic leiomyoma is a considered a type of extra-uterine leiomyoma and presents as peritoneal pelvic benign smooth-muscle masses separate from the uterus.  Pathology It likely originates as a pedunculated subserosal leiomyoma that twists and torses from its uterine pedicle. The contact wi...
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Paraurethral duct

The paraurethral ducts (or Skene ducts) drain the paraurethral glands of the female urethra. There is one duct, draining each gland, on each side, just proximal to the external urethral meatus.  Related pathology paraurethral duct cyst paraurethral duct abscess
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Paraurethral duct cyst

Paraurethral duct cysts are retention cysts that form secondary to inflammatory obstruction of the paraurethral (Skene) ducts in females. Pathology The cysts are lined by stratified squamous epithelium due to their origin from the urogenital sinus. Clinical presentation Usually asymptomatic....
Article

Partial hydatidiform mole

Partial hydatidiform mole is a type of hydatidiform mole, which in turn falls under the spectrum of gestational trophoblastic disease.  Clinical presentation Clinical signs and symptoms such as abdominal pain, cramps of the lower abdomen and vaginal bleeding during pregnancy are common but non...
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Parturition-induced pelvic instability

Parturition-induced pelvic instability is a rare condition seen in women following vaginal delivery.  Epidemiology The incidence of symphyseal rupture after vaginal delivery ranges from one in 600 to one in 30,000 deliveries 1.  Predisposing factors include multiparity, complicated delivery, ...
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Patau syndrome

Patau syndrome (also known as trisomy 13) is considered the 3rd commonest autosomal trisomy. This along with Down syndrome (T21) and Edward syndrome (T18) are the only three trisomies to be compatible with extrauterine life. However, few infants live more than a few days.  Epidemiology The es...
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Pelvic abscess

A pelvic abscess refers to a walled-off collection of pus in the pelvis. Pathology  Aetiology Some of the causes include: pelvic inflammatory disease (tubo-ovarian abscess) iatrogenic e.g. post surgical inflammatory bowel disease pelvic actinomycosis infection diverticulitis Clinical pr...
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Pelvic actinomycosis infection

Pelvic actinomycosis infection is rare but serious infection caused by Actinomyces sp, an opportunistic gram-positive bacteria usually introduced by foreign bodies specially IUCDs, surgery, or trauma. It generally falls under the broader spectrum of pelvic inflammatory disease. Pathology Pelvi...
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Pelvic cervical carcinoma protocol (MRI)

A dedicated pelvic MRI protocol is very useful for imaging assessment of cervical carcinoma. Although the FIGO is a clinical staging, the 2009 revised FIGO staging encourages the use of MRI to complement clinical staging. Preparation Imaging is optimally performed after three hours of fasting...
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Pelvic congestion syndrome

Pelvic congestion syndrome (some prefer pelvic venous insufficiency 9) is a condition that results from retrograde flow through incompetent valves in ovarian veins. It is a commonly missed and potentially-treatable cause of chronic abdominopelvic pain.  Epidemiology It tends to be more common ...
Article

Pelvic inflammatory disease

Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is a broad term that encompasses a spectrum of infection and inflammation of the upper female genital tract, resulting in a range of abnormalities.  Epidemiology The highest incidence is seen among sexually-active women in their teens, with 75% cases being und...
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Pelvic lipomatosis

Pelvic lipomatosis or pelvic fibrolipomatosis represents excessive deposition of fat in pelvis due to overgrowth of adipose cells leading to compression of pelvic organs. Epidemiology The condition usually presents in patients 20-50 years of age. The condition is predominantly (2/3 of cases) s...
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Pelvic masses in females

Pelvic masses in females carry a broad differential diagnosis: benign adnexal cyst: 34% leiomyoma: 14% pelvic malignancy: 14% dermoid: 13% endometriosis: 10% pelvic inflammatory disease: 8% tubo-ovarian abscess hydrosalpinx pregnancy Extra-gynaecological masses, e.g. colorectal carcino...
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Pelvic MRI protocol: endometrial carcinoma

A dedicated MRI protocol is crucial for accurate MRI evaluation of endometrial carcinomas. Imaging is optimally peformed after 3 hours of fasting to reduce bowel peristalsis and following administration of an anti-peristaltic agent unless contra-indicated. Supine position using a pelvic phased...
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Pelvic pain in the exam

It is important to have a systematic way of approaching a case with pelvic pain in the exam.  Most examinations are performed using ultrasound. Always say that you would further assess the uterus with 3D ultrasound. You may also say that in my department we would perform a sonohysterogram. Only...
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Pelvic protocol for endometriosis (MRI)

Evaluation of known endometriosis with MRI requires a slightly different protocol to a routine pelvic MRI (see Pelvic MRI protocol: routine), and should probably be reserved for known cases of endometriosis rather than for the assessment of pelvic pain. IV (or IM) Buscopan® is administered to r...
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Pelvic ultrasound

Pelvic ultrasound is usually the initial modality for imaging gynaecologic pathology, including acute pelvic pain and chronic pelvic pain. The exam normally involves two components: a transabdominal (TA) evaluation and a transvaginal (TV) / endovaginal (EV) evaluation. Normal ultrasound anatomy...
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Pelvis

The term pelvis can refer to either the bony pelvis or the pelvic cavity. Bony pelvis The bony pelvis is formed by the sacrum and coccyx and a pair of hip bones ("ossa coxae"), which are part of the appendicular skeleton. Its primary function is the transmission of forces from the axial skelet...
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Perigestational haemorrhage

Perigestational haemorrhage refers to haemorrhage that occurs around the fetus during the gestational period. The spectrum of haemorrhage includes: chorionic haemorrhage: caused by the separation of the chorion from the endometrium  subchorionic haemorrhage: most common type, occurs between th...
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Perigestational haemorrhage in the exam

Getting a film with perigestational haemorrhage in the exam is one of the many exam set-pieces that can be prepared for.  Description Transabdominal and transvaginal pelvic ultrasound show an anteverted uterus with an intrauterine gestational sac. MSD is 20 mm in TV study with a single, live e...
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Perinatal lethal hypophosphatasia

Perinatal lethal hypophosphatasia (PLH) is the most severe form of hypophosphatasia. If untreated, it is lethal in all cases. Epidemiology The estimated incidence is at ~1:100,000 live births. Pathology Genetics As with all hypophosphatasia cases, this is due to a mutation in chromosome 1q3...
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Perineum

The perineum is a diamond shaped region below the pelvic diaphragm and is divided by an imaginary line drawn between the ischial tuberosities into anteriorly the urogenital triangle and posteriorly the anal triangle. Gross anatomy The perineum is bounded by the pubis anteriorly, the ischial tu...
Article

Peritoneal inclusion cyst

Peritoneal inclusion cyst (PIC) (also known as a peritoneal pseudocyst and benign cystic mesothelioma) is a type of cyst-like structure that appears in relation to the peritoneum and results from a non-neoplastic reactive mesothelial proliferation. Epidemiology Peritoneal inclusion cysts occur...
Article

Periurethral cystic lesions

There are several peri-urethral cystic lesions. These include: female genitourinary tract: vaginal cysts Mullerian cyst Gartner duct cyst epidermal inclusion cyst of the vagina Skene duct cyst Bartholin gland cyst endometrial cyst of perineal - vulval - vaginal region male genitourinary...
Article

Perivascular epithelioid cell tumours (PEComas)

Perivascular epithelioid cells tumours (PEComas) are a group of related mesenchymal tumours and tumour-like conditions found in many locations. This group includes: angiomyolipoma (AML) clear cell 'sugar' tumour of the lung lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) clear cell myomelanocytic tumour (CCM...
Article

Persistent right umbilical vein

A persistent right umbilical vein (PRUV) is an uncommon vascular anomaly which is often detected in utero. Epidemiology The estimated prevalence is ~2 per 1000 births 1,2. Pathology In the normal situation, the right umbilical vein begins to obliterate in the ~4th week of gestation and disap...
Article

Per vaginal bleeding in the exam

It is important to have a systematic way of approaching a case with per vaginal bleeding in the exam.  Premenopausal embedded IUD lost IUD submucosal fibroid Pregnancy related perigestational haemorrhage intrauterine fetal demise ectopic pregnancy ruptured ectopic cervical ectopic  in...
Article

PET-CT indications

PET-CT is a combination of cross-sectional anatomic information provided by CT and the metabolic information provided by positron emission tomography (PET). PET is most commonly performed with 2-[F-18]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG). Fluorine-18 (F-18) is an unstable radioisotope and has a half-...
Article

Phocomelia

Phocomelia is an extremely rare congenital skeletal disorder that characteristically affects the limbs. It can affect either the upper limbs or lower limbs or both. Phocomelia is also a descriptive term to describe the characteristic limb anomalies occurring with its associated conditions. Path...
Article

Physiological gut herniation

Physiological gut herniation is a natural phenomenon that occurs in early pregnancy. It usually occurs from around 6-8 weeks up until 12-13 weeks in-utero, after which the bowel returns to the abdominal cavity.  Physiology It occurs as a result of the bowel (particularly ileum) growing faster ...
Article

Physiological pelvic intraperitoneal fluid

Physiological pelvic intraperitoneal fluid refers to the presence of a small volume of free fluid in the pelvis, particularly the pouch of Douglas. It occurs in young females of reproductive age and can be a mimic of traumatic free fluid in abdominal trauma. Unfortunately, pelvic free fluid may...
Article

Placental abruption in the exam

Getting a film with placental abruption (premature separation of placenta from uterus) in the exam is one of the many exam set-pieces that can be prepared for.  Description Transabdominal and transvaginal pelvic ultrasound show a single live fetus with gestational age of 27 weeks. The cervix i...
Article

Placental calcification

Placental calcification has been considered a manifestation of “ageing” of the placenta. It commonly increases with gestational age.  Delayed placental calcification maternal diabetes Rh sensitization Accelerated placental calcification normal placental maturity maternal thrombotic disorde...
Article

Placental chorioangiomatosis

Placental chorioangiomatosis is an extremely rare condition where numerous  placental chorioangiomas involve the placenta. The individual chorioangiomas can be of varying size. Complications Recognised complications include precipitation of fetal hydrops 2 fetal anaemia fetal cerebral embo...
Article

Placental fusion

Placental fusion is a phenomenon that can occur in a twin pregnancy. This can occur to varying degrees. Determination of chorionicity on ultrasound can sometimes be difficult if there has been a placental fusion.
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Placental grading

Placental grading (Grannum classification) refers to a ultrasound grading system of the placenta based on its maturity. This primarily affects the extent of calcifications. In some countries the use of placental grading has fallen out of obstetric practice due to a weak correlation with adverse ...
Article

Placental infarction

Placental infarction refers to a localised area of ischaemic villous necrosis. It is a significant cause of placental insufficiency.  Epidemiology A localized infarction can occurs in up to ~12.5% (range 5-20%) of all gestations.  Pathology It usually results from an interrupted maternal blo...
Article

Placental mosaicism

Placental mosaicism is a situation where there discrepancy between the chromosomal makeup of the cells in the placenta. According to one study fetal mosaicism was found in 50% of cases with placental mosacism. When the fetal cells are normal in chromosomal composition, this is then known as conf...
Article

Placental septal cyst

A placental septal cyst is a placental cyst typically located in the mid-placenta. It forms between the cotyledons of the placenta. The cysts contain gelatinous material and are usually 5-10 mm in diameter. They may be present in 10-20% of placentas from full term uncomplicated pregnancies. See...

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