Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

511 results found
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Ovarian fibrosarcoma

Ovarian fibrosarcoma is a malignant mesenchymal fibroblastic tumour of the ovary that have multiple mitotic figures which is most important factor in histopathological diagnosis (4 or more mitotic figure per 10 high power fields).  Epidemiology Ovarian fibrosarcoma are very rare malignant ovar...
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Ovarian fibrothecoma

Ovarian fibrothecomas comprise tumours in the spectrum of ovarian sex cord / stromal tumours where there are components of both an ovarian fibroma and an ovarian thecoma.  Epidemiology Most occur in adult women, with ~66% in postmenopausal women. Although they account for ~1% of all ovarian tu...
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Ovarian follicle

An ovarian follicle (also known as a Graafian follicle in its mature state) is the basic unit of female reproductive biology and is composed of roughly spherical aggregations of cells. It contains a single oocyte.  An ovarian follicle can be initiated to grow and develop, culminating in ovulati...
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Ovarian follicular cyst

An ovarian follicular cyst is type of simple physiological ovarian cyst. Terminology The terms "ovarian cyst" and "ovarian follilcular cyst" are often used interchangeably. These two terms describe lesions >3 cm, and it is important to differentiate them from an "ovarian follicle" which is <3 ...
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Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome

Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) is a complication of ovarian stimulation treatment (ovarian induction therapy) for in vitro fertilisation. Rarely, it may also occur as a spontaneous event in pregnancy (see spontaneous ovarian hyperstimulation later in the article). The clinical syndrom...
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Ovarian hyperthecosis

Ovarian hyperthecosis (OHT) is a condition where there is a presence of luteinized thecal cells within a hyperplastic ovarian stroma. Clinical presentation Clinical manifestations include hyperandrogenism, obesity, hypertension, and impaired glucose tolerance. Virilization has been reported to...
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Ovarian lesions with T2 hypointensity

A hypointense ovarian lesion on T2 weighted MRI is usually a sign of benignity.  The low signal is considered to be due to fibrosis and blood products 1. Lesions that can give this appearance include 1: endometrioma Brenner tumour ovarian fibroma ovarian fibrothecoma ovarian cystadenofibro...
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Ovarian lymphoma

Ovarian lymphoma can refer to primary involvement of the ovaries with lymphoma (i.e. primary ovarian lymphoma): very rare secondary ovarian involvement of the ovaries with generalised lymphoma (i.e. secondary ovarian lymphoma): more common scenario
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Ovarian mucinous cystadenocarcinoma

Mucinous cystadenocarcinoma of the ovary is a rare malignant ovarian mucinous tumour. This type can account for 5-10% of all ovarian mucinous tumours. It is a type of ovarian epithelial tumour.  Pathology Retrospective studies have suggested that many mucinous carcinomas initially diagnosed as...
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Ovarian mucinous cystadenoma

Mucinous cystadenoma of the ovary is at the benign end of the spectrum of mucin-containing epithelial ovarian tumours. Epidemiology The estimated peak incidence is at around 30-50 years of age.  They comprise approximately 80% of mucinous ovarian tumours and 20-25% of all benign ovarian tumou...
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Ovarian mucinous tumours

Ovarian mucinous tumours are a subgroup of ovarian epithelial tumours. They represent ~20% of all ovarian tumours and ~10% of all malignant ovarian tumours. They are subdivided according to their malignant potential and clinical behaviour into: ovarian mucinous cystadenoma ovarian borderline m...
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Ovarian serous cystadenocarcinoma

Ovarian serous cystadenocarcinoma is an ovarian epithelial tumour at the malignant end of the spectrum of ovarian serous tumours. Epidemiology They account for the largest proportion of malignant ovarian tumours 1, representing over 50-80% of all malignant epithelial ovarian tumours 4. The pre...
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Ovarian serous cystadenoma

Ovarian serous cystadenomas are a type of benign ovarian epithelial tumour at the benign end of the spectrum of ovarian serous tumours. Epidemiology Serous cystadenomas account for ~60% of ovarian serous tumours 1. They are the commonest type of ovarian epithelial neoplasm. The peak incidence ...
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Ovarian serous tumours

Ovarian serous neoplasms are the commonest subtypes of the epithelial ovarian tumours, being more prevalent than the mucinous ovarian tumours. They are subdivided according to their malignant potential and clinical behaviour into: benign serous cystadenoma / serous cystadenofibroma borderline ...
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Ovarian Sertoli-Leydig cell tumour

Ovarian Sertoli-Leydig cell tumours (SLCT), also known as an ovarian androblastomas, are a subtype of ovarian sex cord-stromal tumour. Epidemiology They are rare and only account for ~0.5% of all ovarian tumours. While they can present at any age, they typically present <30 years old, with a m...
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Ovarian teratoma

Ovarian teratomas is the most common group of ovarian germ cell tumours. They can be divided into 3 main sub types mature ovarian teratoma immature ovarian teratoma specialised teratoma struma ovarii tumour See also ovarian tumours
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Ovarian thecoma

Ovarian thecomas are benign ovarian tumours of sex cord / stromal (mesenchymal) origin. They are thought to account for approximately 0.5-1% of all ovarian tumours. As ovarian thecomas secrete oestrogen, they are described as functional ovarian tumours. Epidemiology They typically present in o...
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Ovarian torsion

Ovarian torsion, also sometimes termed adnexal torsion or tubo-ovarian torsion, refers to rotation of the ovary and portion of the fallopian tube on the supplying vascular pedicle.  It can be intermittent or sustained and results in venous, arterial and lymphatic stasis. It is a gynaecological ...
Article

Ovarian transposition

Ovarian transposition is a surgical procedure in which the ovaries are displaced from the pelvis before pelvic radiation therapy in order to protect them from radiation injury. It is performed in premenopausal women with a variety of pelvic malignancies (e.g cervical cancer, rectal cancer, and ...
Article

Ovarian tumours

Ovarian tumours are relatively common and account for ~6% of female malignancies. This article focuses on the general classification of ovarian tumours. For specific features, refer to the sub-articles. Pathology Subtypes Primary ovarian tumours Surface epithelial stromal ovarian tumours (60...
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Ovarian tumours associated with endometrial thickening

There are several ovarian tumours associated with endometrial thickening and is often due to oestrogenic effects of the ovarian tumour. Such tumours include: ovarian epithelial tumours endometroid carcinoma of the ovary may have synchronous endometrial carcinoma or endometrial hyperplasia, p...
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Ovarian vein syndrome

Ovarian vein syndrome is a relatively rare condition where a dilated ovarian vein causes notching, dilatation, or obstruction of the ureter. This is usually secondary to varicoses of the ovarian vein or ovarian vein thrombosis and occurs at the point where the ovarian vein crosses the ureter.
Article

Ovarian vein thrombosis

Ovarian vein thrombosis  (actually most often a thrombophlebitis) occurs most commonly in postpartum patients and can result in pulmonary emboli. A presentation is usually with acute pelvic pain in the postpartum period, then termed puerperal ovarian vein thrombosis or postpartum ovarian vein th...
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Ovarian yolk sac tumour

Ovarian yolk sac tumours, also known as endodermal sinus tumours, are a type of ovarian germ cell tumours. Epidemiology Ovarian yolk sac tumour is a rare malignant ovarian germ cell tumour that usually occurs around the second decade of life. It is considered the most common malignant germ cel...
Article

Overlapping fetal fingers

Overlapping fetal fingers is an antenatal ultrasound observation where the fetal fingers are seen to overlap each other. It may be seen seen with a concurrent clenched fetal hand.  If the hand is clenched typically the 2nd finger is seen to overlap the 3rd 4. Pathology Associations a well re...
Article

P16

P16 is a widely used immunohistochemical marker. It can be expressed in other neoplasms and in several normal human tissues. It can play an important role gynecological malignancy and is a surrogate marker for HSIL's (high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions). It has been applied to facilitat...
Article

Pallister Killian syndrome

Pallister-Killian syndrome (PKS) is an extremly rare chromosomal anomaly. Epidemiology It may be more prevalent in woman of advanced age 4. Pathology It is a polymalformative complex with tetrasomy of isochromosome 12p although many cases are mosaic. Genetics The majority of cases are th...
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Papillary serous carcinoma of the cervix

A papillary serous carcinoma of the cervix (PSCC) is an uncommon histological type of cervical cancer. It is considered a sub type of adenocarcinoma of the cervix.  Epidemiology Accodring to some studies, there was a bimodal age distribution, with one peak occurring before the age of 40 years ...
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Papillary serous carcinoma of the endometrium

Papillary serous carcinoma of the endometrium is an uncommon histological subtype of endometrial carcinoma accounting for only 5-10% of all such tumours 2. It is considered type II endometrial adenocarcinoma and has a clinically aggressive form with an early extension of the tumour via Fallopian...
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Papillary squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix

Papillary squamous cell carcinoma (PSCC) of the cervix is a distinct subtype of squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix. Pathology These tumours are characterised by a papillary architecture containing fibrovascular cores and moderate to severe dysplasia without any of frank keratinization and k...
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Parametrium

The parametrium is a band of fibrous tissue that separates the supravaginal portion of the cervix from the bladder. It extends on to its sides and laterally between the layers of the broad ligaments. The uterine artery and ovarian ligament are located in the parametrium. The parametrium is imp...
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Paraovarian cyst

Paraovarian cysts (POCs) are remnants of Wolffian duct in the mesosalpinx that do not arise from the ovary. They account for ~10-20% of adnexal masses 3-4. Epidemiology They typically occur in women at the ages of 20-40 years old. Clinical presentation Most are asymptomatic, although patient...
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Paraovarian cystadenoma

Paraovarian cystadenoma is a usually benign adnexal tumour that does not arise from the ovary. There is an association with Von Hippel Lindau syndrome. Radiographic features Pelvic ultrasound typically seen as a unilateral cystic adnexal lesion may be a simple cyst, or contain solid nodular ...
Article

Parasitic leiomyoma

A parasitic leiomyoma is a considered a type of extra-uterine leiomyoma and presents as peritoneal pelvic benign smooth-muscle masses separate from the uterus.  Pathology It likely originates as a pedunculated subserosal leiomyoma that twists and torses from its uterine pedicle. The contact wi...
Article

Partial hydatidiform mole

Partial hydatidiform mole (PHD) is a sub type of a hydatidiform mole which in turn falls under the spectrum of gestational trophoblastic disease.  Clinical presentation Clinical signs and symptoms such as abdominal pain, cramps of the lower abdomen and vaginal bleeding during pregnancy are non...
Article

Parturition induced pelvic instability

Parturition-induced pelvic instability is a rare condition seen in women following vaginal delivery.  Epidemiology The incidence of symphyseal rupture after vaginal delivery ranges from one in 600 to one in 30,000 deliveries 1.  Predisposing factors include multiparity, complicated delivery, ...
Article

Patau syndrome

Patau syndrome (also known as trisomy 13) is considered the 3rd commonest autosomal trisomy. This along with Down syndrome (T21) and Edward syndrome (T18) are the only three trisomies to be compatible with extrauterine life. However, few infants live more than a few days.  Epidemiology The es...
Article

Pelvic actinomycosis infection

Pelvic actinomycosis infection is rare but serious infection caused by Actinomyces sp, an opportunistic gram-positive bacteria usually introduced by foreign bodies specially IUCDs, surgery, or trauma. It generally falls under the broader spectrum of pelvic inflammatory disease. Pathology Pelvi...
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Pelvic cervical carcinoma protocol (MRI)

A dedicated pelvic MRI protocol is very useful for imaging assessment of cervical carcinoma. Although the FIGO is a clinical staging, the 2009 revised FIGO staging encourages the use of MRI to complement clinical staging. Preparation Imaging is optimally performed after three hours of fasting...
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Pelvic congestion syndrome

Pelvic congestion syndrome is a condition that results from retrograde flow through incompetent valves in ovarian veins. It is one of commonly missed and potentially treatable cause of chronic abdominal or pelvic pain.  Epidemiology It tends to be more common in multiparous, premenopausal wome...
Article

Pelvic inflammatory disease

Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is a broad term that encompasses a spectrum of infection and inflammation of the upper female genital tract, resulting in a range of abnormalities.  Epidemiology The highest incidence is seen among sexually active women in their teens, with 75% cases being und...
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Pelvic lipomatosis

Pelvic lipomatosis (also known as pelvic fibrolipomatosis) represents excessive deposition of fat in pelvis due to overgrowth of adipose cells leading to compression of pelvic organs. Epidemiology The condition usually presents in patients 20-50 years of age. The condition is predominantly (2/...
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Pelvic masses in females

Pelvic masses in females carry a broad differential diagnosis: benign adnexal cyst: 34% leiomyoma: 14% pelvic malignancy: 14% dermoid: 13% endometriosis: 10% pelvic inflammatory disease: 8% tubo-ovarian abscess hydrosalpinx pregnancy Extra-gynaecological masses, e.g. colorectal carcino...
Article

Pelvic MRI protocol: endometrial carcinoma

A dedicated MRI protocol is crucial for accurate MRI evaluation of endometrial carcinomas. Imaging is optimally peformed after 3 hours of fasting to reduce bowel peristalsis and following administration of an anti-peristaltic agent unless contra-indicated. Supine position using a pelvic phased...
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Pelvic pain in the exam

It is important to have a systematic way of approaching a case with pelvic pain in the exam.  Most examinations are performed using ultrasound. Always say that you would further assess the uterus with 3D ultrasound. You may also say that in my department we would perform a sonohysterogram. Only...
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Pelvic protocol for endometriosis (MRI)

Evaluation of known endometriosis with MRI requires a slightly different protocol to a routine pelvic MRI (see Pelvic MRI protocol: routine), and should probably be reserved for known cases of endometriosis rather than for the assessment of pelvic pain. IV (or IM) Buscopan® is administered to r...
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Pelvic ultrasound

Pelvic ultrasound is the usually the initial modality for imaging gynaecologic pathology, including acute pelvic pain and chronic pelvic pain. The exam normally involves two components: a transabdominal (TA) evaluation and a transvaginal (TV) / endovaginal (EV) evaluation. Normal ultrasound ana...
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Pelvis

The term pelvis can refer to either the bony pelvis or the pelvic cavity. Bony pelvis The bony pelvis is formed by the sacrum and coccyx and a pair of hip bones ("ossa coxae"), which are part of the appendicular skeleton. Its primary function is the transmission of forces from the axial skelet...
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Perigestational haemorrhage

Perigestational haemorrhage refers to haemorrhage that occurs around the fetus during the gestational period. The spectrum of haemorrhage includes: chorionic haemorrhage: caused by the separation of the chorion from the endometrium  subchorionic haemorrhage: most common type, occurs between th...
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Perigestational haemorrhage in the exam

Getting a film with perigestational haemorrhage in the exam is one of the many exam set-pieces that can be prepared for.  Description Transabdominal and transvaginal pelvic ultrasound show an anteverted uterus with an intrauterine gestational sac. MSD is 20 mm in TV study with a single, live e...
Article

Perinatal lethal hypophosphatasia

Perinatal lethal hypophosphatasia (PLH) is the most severe form of hypophosphatasia. If untreated, it is lethal in all cases. Epidemiology The estimated incidence is at ~1:100,000 live births. Pathology Genetics As with all hypophosphatasia cases, this is due to a mutation in chromosome 1q3...
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Perineum

The perineum is a diamond shaped region below the pelvic diaphragm and is divided by an imaginary line drawn between the ischial tuberosities into anteriorly the urogenital triangle and posteriorly the anal triangle. Gross anatomy The perineum is bounded by the pubis anteriorly, the ischial tu...
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Peritoneal inclusion cyst

Peritoneal inclusion cyst (PIC) (also known as a peritoneal pseudocyst) is a type of cyst-like structure that appears in relation to the peritoneum and results from a non neoplastic reactive mesothelial proliferation. Epidemiology Peritoneal inclusion cysts occur almost exclusively in premenop...
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Periurethral cystic lesions

There are several peri-urethral cystic lesions. These include: female genitourinary tract: vaginal cysts Mullerian cyst Gartner duct cyst epidermal inclusion cyst of the vagina Skene duct cyst Bartholin gland cyst endometrial cyst of perineal - vulval - vaginal region male genitourinary...
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Perivascular epithelioid cell tumours (PEComas)

Perivascular epithelioid cells tumours (PEComas) are a group of related mesenchymal tumours and tumour-like conditions found in many locations. This group includes: angiomyolipoma (AML) clear cell 'sugar' tumour of the lung lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) clear cell myomelanocytic tumour (CCM...
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Persistent right umbilical vein

A persistent right umbilical vein (PRUV) is an uncommon vascular anomaly which is often detected in utero. Epidemiology The estimated prevalence is at ~2 per 1000 births 1-2. Pathology In the normal situation, the right umbilical vein begins to obliterate in the ~4th week of gestation and di...
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Per vaginal bleeding in the exam

It is important to have a systematic way of approaching a case with per vaginal bleeding in the exam.  Premenopausal embedded IUD lost IUD submucosal fibroid Pregnancy related perigestational haemorrhage intrauterine fetal demise ectopic pregnancy ruptured ectopic cervical ectopic  in...
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Phocomelia

Phocomelia is an extremely rare congenital skeletal disorder that characteristically affects the limbs. It can affect either the upper limbs or lower limbs or both. Phocomelia is also a descriptive term to describe the characteristic limb anomalies occurring with its associated conditions. Path...
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Physiological gut herniation

Physiological gut herniation is a natural phenomenon that occurs in early pregnancy. It usually occurs from around 6-8 weeks up until 12-13 weeks in-utero, after which the bowel returns to the abdominal cavity.  Physiology It occurs as a result of the bowel (particularly ileum) growing faster ...
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Physiological pelvic intraperitoneal fluid

Physiological pelvic intraperitoneal fluid refers to the presence of a small volume of free fluid in the pelvis, particularly the pouch of Douglas. It occurs in young females of reproductive age and can be a mimic of traumatic free fluid in abdominal trauma. Unfortunately, pelvic free fluid may...
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Placental abruption in the exam

Getting a film with placental abruption (premature separation of placenta from uterus) in the exam is one of the many exam set-pieces that can be prepared for.  Description Transabdominal and transvaginal pelvic ultrasound show a single live fetus with gestational age of 27 weeks. The cervix i...
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Placental calcification

Placental calcification has been considered a manifestation of “ageing” of the placenta. It commonly increases with gestational age.  Delayed placental calcification maternal diabetes Rh sensitization Accelerated placental calcification normal placental maturity maternal thrombotic disorde...
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Placental chorioangiomatosis

Placental chorioangiomatosis is an extremely rare condition where numerous  placental chorioangiomas involve the placenta. The individual chorioangiomas can be of varying size. Complications Recognised complications include precipitation of fetal hydrops 2 fetal anaemia fetal cerebral embo...
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Placental fusion

Placental fusion is a phenomenon that can occur in a twin pregnancy. This can occur to varying degrees. Determination of chorionicity on ultrasound can sometimes be difficult if there has been a placental fusion.
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Placental grading

Placental grading (Grannum classification) refers to a ultrasound grading system of the placenta based on its maturity. This primarily affects the extent of calcifications. In some countries the use of placental grading has fallen out of obstetric practice due to a weak correlation with adverse ...
Article

Placental infarction

Placental infarction refers to a localised area of ischaemic villous necrosis. It is a significant cause of placental insufficiency.  Epidemiology A localized infarction can occurs in up to ~12.5% (range 5-20%) of all gestations.  Pathology It usually results from an interrupted maternal blo...
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Placental mosaicism

Placental mosaicism is a situation where there discrepancy between the chromosomal makeup of the cells in the placenta. According to one study fetal mosaicism was found in 50% of cases with placental mosacism. When the fetal cells are normal in chromosomal composition, this is then known as conf...
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Placental septal cyst

A placental septal cyst is a placental cyst typically located in a mid placenta. It forms between the cotyledons of the placenta. The cysts contain gelatinous material and are usually 5-10 mm in diameter. They may be present in 10-20% of placentas from full term uncomplicated pregnancies. See a...
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Placental site trophoblastic tumour

Placental site trophoblastic tumour (PSTT) is a rare and one of the least common (~ 0.2% 7) forms of gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD). Epidemiology PSTT typically occurs in women of reproductive age with the average age around 30. It may occur after a normal pregnancy, molar pregnancy o...
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Placental surface cyst

Placental surface cysts are often related to cystic change in an area of subchorionic fibrin. They can be variable in size. Sub types subchorionic cyst: commonest type 2 amniotic epithelial inclusion cyst Significance Most placental surface cysts are associated with a normal pregnancy outco...
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Placental teratoma

A placental teratoma is a very rare placental tumour. Pathology A placental teratoma is benign and almost never associated with congenital deformities in the fetus. Radiographic features Antenatal ultrasound May show  a heterogeneous mass at the placental margin. Hyperechoic foci consisten...
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Placental thickness

Placental thickness tends to gradually increase with gestational age in a linear fashion. Sonographically, this can be seen to be approximately 1 mm per week and the thickness of the placenta can be used to approximate gestational age: approximate gestational age (in weeks) = placental thicknes...
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Placental trophotropism

Placental trophotropism refers to a phenomenon where there is dynamic migration of the placenta at its insertion through gestation. The placenta tends to grow in areas of good blood supply and nutrition and atrophies in areas with poor blood supply and poor nutrition. It may play a role in the d...
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Placental tumours

There are many tumours that can involve the placenta. These can be of  very different pathology and can include  placental chorioangioma (considered the most common primary tumour of the placenta 1) placental chorioangiomatosis placental teratoma placental metastases placental site trophob...
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Placental venous lakes

Placental venous lakes refer to a phenomenon of formation of hypoechoic cystic spaces centrally within the placenta. Finding placental lakes during a second trimester ultrasound scan is not associated with any uteroplacental complication or with an adverse pregnancy outcome. They can, however, b...
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Placentomegaly

Placentomegaly is a term applied to an abnormally enlarged placenta.  Pathology Associations It can be associated with number of maternal and fetal disorders which include: maternal maternal anaemia(s) maternal diabetes chronic intrauterine infections alpha-thalassemia fetal umbilical ...
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Polycystic ovarian syndrome

Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), recently referred also as hyperandrogenic anovulation, is a chronic anovulation syndrome associated with androgen excess.  The diagnosis is made on the combined clinical, biochemical and sonographic grounds. The revised 2003 ASRM/ESHRE Rotterdam consensus cri...
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Polycystic ovarian syndrome in the exam

Getting a film with polycystic ovarian syndrome in a subfertile patient is one of the many exam set-pieces that can be prepared for.  Description Transabdominal and transvaginal pelvic ultrasound show an anteverted uterus with a normal size. There is diffuse thickening of the endometrium to 17...
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Polycystic ovaries

Polycystic ovaries (PCO) is an imaging descriptor of a particular type of change in ovarian morphology. A proportion of women with polycystic ovaries will have the polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), which in turn requires additional clinical as well as biochemical criteria. Otherwise PCO can be...
Article

Polydactyly

Polydactyly refers to the situation where there are more than the usual number of digits (five) in a hand or foot. It can be broadly classified as: pre-axial polydactyly: extra digit(s) towards the 1st digit (radially) post-axial polydactyly: extra digit(s) towards 5th digit (ulnar) central p...
Article

Polyhydramnios

Polyhydramnios refers to a situation where the amniotic fluid volume is more than expected for gestational age. It is generally defined as: amniotic fluid index (AFI) > 25 cm largest fluid pocket depth (maximal vertical pocket (MVP)) greater than 8 cm 6: although some centres particularly in ...
Article

Polysyndactyly

Polysyndactyly refers to the combined presence of polydactyly as well as syndactyly involving either the hands or feet. Polysyndactyly can be associated with a number of syndromes which includes: acrocephalopolysyndactylies (GCPS) type I: Noack syndrome type II: Carpenter syndrome (typically...
Article

Popcorn calcification

Popcorn calcification refers to amorphous calcifications often with rings and arcs that resemble popped corn kernels. This type of calcification may be seen in many radiological settings including 1: chondroid lesions (e.g enchondroma, chondrosarcoma) fibrous dysplasia pulmonary hamartomas d...
Article

Post-ablation tubal sterilisation syndrome

Post-ablation tubal sterilisation syndrome (PATSS) is a recognised delayed complication seen in patients who have undergone both endometrial ablation and tubal sterilisation. It has been reported in 6-8% of these patients and occurs when bleeding from residual endometrium is obstructed due to su...
Article

Post-axial polydactyly

Post-axial polydactyly refers to polydactyly where the additional digit is on the ulnar margin of the hand, or lateral to the 5th toe. Epidemiology Post-axial polydactyly is more common than pre-axial polydactyly, with an estimated incidence of 1 in 3000. Pathology Classification Post-axial...
Article

Post dates fetus

Post dates fetus is when there is prolonged gestation when the fetus remains in-utero beyond 2 weeks beyond expected date of delivery (>42 weeks gestation). Epidemiology The reported frequency is at approximately 3-12% of pregnancies. Pathology Associations maternal obesity Complications ...
Article

Posterior urethral valves

Posterior urethral valves (PUVs), also referred as congenital obstructing posterior urethral membranes (COPUM), are the most common congenital obstructive lesion of the urethra and a common cause of obstructive uropathy in infancy. Epidemiology Posterior urethral valves are congenital and only...
Article

Post partum haemorrhage

Post partum haemorrhage (PPH) refers to uterine bleeding after delivery and remains one of the major worldwide causes of maternal mortality. Pathology Classification A post partum haemorrhage can be board classified as primary or secondary. Primary post partum haemorrhage  This is the most ...
Article

Potter sequence

The Potter sequence is a constellation of findings demonstrated postnatally as a consequence of severe, prolonged oligohydramnios in utero. Clinical presentation It consists of pulmonary hypoplasia: often severe and incompatible with life growth restriction (IUGR) abnormal facies (Potter fa...
Article

Predominantly solid ovarian neoplasms

Predominantly solid ovarian neoplasms account for a minority of ovarian neoplasms. They include a wide pathological spectrum: epithelial tumours: ~28% of all solid ovarian tumours 1 Brenner tumour germ cell tumours: ~22% 1 ovarian teratoma: noncystic type ovarian dysgerminoma sex cord  / s...
Article

Premature rupture of membranes

Premature rupture of membranes (PROM) refers to a rupture of the amniotic sac and chorion (membranes) occurring prior to the onset of uterine contractions. When this occurs prior to 37 weeks it is then termed a pre term premature rupture of membranes (PPROM). By this definition, PROM is classifi...
Article

Preterm premature rupture of membranes

Preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) refers to rupture of membranes prior to 37 weeks of gestation. Epidemiology It is thought to occur in 0.4-2% of all pregnancies. It however may account for up to one-third of all preterm births (particularly in the United States 5). Pathology PP...
Article

Primary fallopian tube carcinoma

Primary fallopian tube carcinoma (PFTC) is an extremely rare malignancy that arises from the fallopian tube. They account for ~1 (0.2-1.1)% all gynaecological malignancies (least common of all gynaecological malignancies 3). Epidemiology The estimated incidence is at ~3-4 per million women 3. ...

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