Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

509 results found
Article

Primary ovarian lymphoma

Primary ovarian lymphoma (POL) refers to involvement of the ovary with lymphoma but without involvement of any other site. It is an extremely rare yet well recognised condition. Epidemiology POL accounts for ~1.5% of ovarian tumours 5. Pathology The rarity of this condition is probably contr...
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Primary peritoneal neoplasms

Primary peritoneal neoplasms comprise of an uncommon group of heterogenous entities. The list includes mesothelial derivatives primary (malignant) peritoneal mesothelioma primary perioneal multicystic mesothelioma primary peritoneal well differentiated papillary mesothelioma primary perito...
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Primary serous papillary carcinoma of the peritoneum

A primary serous papillary carcinoma of the peritoneum (PSPCP) is an extremely rare primary peritoneal tumour. Epidemiology They usually present in postmenopausal women. Clinical presentation Patients tend to present with non-specific complaints such as abdominal pain, anorexia, and abdomina...
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Primary vaginal carcinoma

Primary vaginal carcinoma, although being a rare overall, is still the 5th commonest gynaecological malignancy. A primary vaginal carcinoma is defined as a neoplasm that arises solely from the vagina with no involvement of the external os superiorly or the vulva inferiorly, the importance of thi...
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Primary vulval cancer

Primary vulval cancer is a rare gynaecological malignancy that originates from the vulva. Epidemiology It accounts for ~3-5% of female genital tract melignancies and typically presents in post menopausal patients peaking around the the age of 65-70 years of age 1.  Pathology The commonest hi...
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Proboscis

Proboscis is a rare congenital anomaly where an anterior appendage like structure is seen projecting from the midline fetal face/forehead. Depending on the exact location, this has further been classified into various sub types (e.g. inter-orbital proboscis). Pathology Associations The presen...
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Prolonged rupture of membranes

Prolonged rupture of membranes refers to a rupture of membranes lasting longer than 18-24 hours (i.e. between time of rupture and time of delivery) 1-2. This situation can occur in either the term or pre-term newborns where in the latter case it is also termed prolonged preterm rupture of membra...
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Psammoma bodies

Psammoma bodies are round microscopic calcific collections. It is a form of dystrophic calcification. Necrotic cells form the focus for surrounding calcific deposition. They have a lamellated concentric calcified structure, sometimes large enough to be seen on CT.  Psammoma bodies are found in ...
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Pseudo Meigs syndrome

Pseudo Meigs syndrome refers to a clinical syndrome of pleural effusion, ascites associated with an ovarian tumour that is not a fibroma or a fibroma-like tumour. Pathology Entities that have been reported to result in pseudo Meigs syndrome include Krukenberg tumours colon carcinoma metastas...
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Pseudodysraphism

A pseudodysraphism refers to the splayed  appearance of a normal spine created due to excessive craniocaudal angulation during sonographic evaluation. This can erroneously lead to the diagnosis of a spinal neural tube defect.
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Pulmonary hypoplasia

Pulmonary hypoplasia (PH) refers to deficient or incomplete development of parts of the lung. It can develop as a result of a number of other in-utero anomalies. Epidemiology The true prevalence is not well known (1.4% of all births according to Knox et.al 13), but in cases of premature ruptur...
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Pure primary ovarian choriocarcinoma

A pure primary ovarian choriocarcinoma is an extremely rare form of ovarian malignancy. It falls under the sub category of ovarian germ cell tumours. Epidemiology They are thought to to account for less than 1% of ovarian tumours. Pathology They are a type of non gestational choriocarcinoma....
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Pyometrium

A pyometrium refers to infection of the endometrial cavity with resulting expansion due to accumulated pus. Pathology Causes endometritis / pelvic inflammatory disease uterine malignacies pelvic irradiation cervical stenosis retained products of conception imperforate hymen colo-uterin...
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Pyosalpinx

Pyosalpinx refers to a Fallopian tube that is filled, and often distended, with pus. Pathology A pyosalpinx often tends to be a complication of background pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). Inflammation results in tubal and peritubal adhesions with superimposed obstruction of the fimbrial end....
Article

Radial ray anomaly

Radial ray anomalies comprise of a large spectrum of upper limb anomalies which range from partial (radial hypoplasia) to a complete (radial aplasia) deficiency of the radius with or without accompanying deficiency of the thumb bones. Pathology Associations They can be associated with a numbe...
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Retained products of conception

Retained products of conception refer to the persistence of placental and/or fetal tissue in the uterus following delivery, termination of pregnancy or a miscarriage.  Epidemiology Retained products of conception complicate ~1% of all pregnancies. It occurs with greater frequency with: medica...
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Retroverted uterus

A retroverted uterus is a normal variation of female pelvic anatomy in which the body of the uterus is tilted backwards (usually leans forward, i.e. anteverted) on itself to match the isthmus of the neck and lower uterine segment. There are variable grades of uterine retroversion. Epidemiology ...
Article

Rhizomelic dwarfism

Rhizomelic dwarfism is a type of dwarfism where the dominant feature is proximal (i.e. femoral, humeral) limb shortening. Pathology The following conditions fall under the heading of rhizomelic dwarfism 3 metatropic dysplasia achondrogenesis rhizomelic chondrodysplasia punctata achondropla...
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Right iliac fossa mass (differential)

Right iliac fossa mass is a common clinical presentation and has a range of differentials that need to be excluded. Radiology plays an important role in this differentiation. Differential diagnosis appendicular mass appendicular abscess appendicular mucocele appendicular neoplasms ileocaec...
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Ring of fire sign (adnexa)

The ring of fire sign, also known as ring of vascularity, signifies a hypervascular lesion with peripheral vascularity on colour or pulsed Doppler examination of the adnexa due to low impedance high diastolic flow 1. This sign can be seen in: corpus luteum cyst (more commonly) ectopic pregnan...
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Risk of malignancy index in ovarian tumours

The risk of malignancy index (RMI) in ovarian tumours is a validated clinical tool used for risk stratification of ovarian lesions, to guide further management 1-3. Classification The score incorporates the patient's menopausal status (M), ultrasound features of the lesion (U), and the serum C...
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Robinow syndrome

Robinow syndrome is a rare heterogenous genetic disorder with at least two distinct forms. Clinical spectrum The syndrome can affects several systems which include: mesomelic limb shortening: mesomelia hemivertebrae characteristic facies anomalies fetal facies hypertelorism 3 frontal bos...
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Rokitansky nodule

A Rokitansky nodule or dermoid plug refers to a solid protuberence projecting from an ovarian cyst in the context of a mature cystic teratoma. It often contains calcific, dental, adipose, hair and/or sebaceous components 1. 
Article

Rothmund-Thomson syndrome

Rothmund-Thomson syndrome (RTS) is an extremely rare autosomal recessive disorder with heterogeneous clinical features. Clinical features It is characterized by many features which include: poikiloderma: characteristic rash, typically develops in infancy sparse hair, eyelashes, and/or eyebro...
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Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome

Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome (RTS) is a very rare genetic multi-system disorder primarily characterised by mental retardation, broad and often angulated thumbs and halluces, and distinctive facial features. Epidemiology The estimated incidence is 1 in 100,000-125,000 live births 5. Clinical pres...
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Rupture of fetal membranes

A rupture of membranes (ROM) or amniorrhexis is a term used during pregnancy to describe a rupture of the amniotic sac. This can occur as part of normal birth (or "spontaneously")  if it occurs at full term at the onset of, or during, labor. It is also  colloquially known as "breaking water." S...
Article

Ruptured ovarian cyst

Ruptured ovarian cysts are one of the most common causes of acute pelvic pain in premenopausal women. The sonographic appearance depends on whether a simple or hemorrhagic ovarian cyst ruptures, and whether the cyst has completely collapsed. The most important differential consideration is a rup...
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Russell-Silver dwarfism

Russell-Silver dwarfism is a very rare syndrome characterised by: intrauterine growth restriction: tends to give an asymmetrical IUGR postnatal growth restriction relatively large calvarium: pseudohydrocephalus clinodactyly/clinobrachydactyly of the small finger a typical triangular type fa...
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Sacrococcygeal teratoma

Sacrococcygeal teratoma (SCT) refers to a teratoma arising in the sacrococcygeal region. The coccyx is almost always involved 6. Epidemiology It is the commonest congenital tumour in the fetus 11 and neonate 3. The incidence is estimated at ~1:35000-40000. There is recognised female predilecti...
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SADDAN syndrome

SADDAN syndrome is an acronym for (severe achondroplasia with developmental delay and acanthosis nigricans). It is an extremly rare condition and as the name stands comprises of skeletal brain and cutaneous anomalies. Pathology Genetics It (like achondroplasia) also results from a mutation i...
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Salpingitis

Salpingitis refers to inflammation of the fallopian tube, it can be a part of pelvic inflammatory disease. See also salpingitis isthmica nodosa
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Salpingitis isthmica nodosa

Salpingitis isthmica nodosa (SIN), sometimes also referred to as perisalpingitis isthmica nodosa - PIN, refers to nodular scarring of the fallopian tubes. In very early stages, the tubes may appear almost normal. As scarring and nodularity progress, the changes become more radiographically appar...
Article

Sampson syndrome

Sampson syndrome refers to a type of superficial endometriosis, where multiple superficial plaques may be seen scattered in the peritoneum and pelvic ligaments. Clinical presentation The patient may present with non-specific abdominal pain. Radiographic features At laparoscopy, they are typi...
Article

Sandal gap deformity

A sandal gap deformity is an imaging observation in antenatal ultrasound (typically second trimester) where there is an apparent increase in the interspace between the great toe of the foot from the rest of the toes (likened to the gap caused by a sandal).  While it can be a normal variant (esp...
Article

Scar endometriosis

Scar endometriosis is a term given to endometriosis occurring in a Caesarian section scar. It can be located at the skin, subcutaneous tissue, rectus muscle/sheath, intraperitoneally, or in the uterine myometrium (within uterine scar). Epidemiology The reported incidence of abdominal scar endo...
Article

Sclerosing stromal tumour of the ovary

Sclerosing stromal tumour (SST) of the ovary is a rare ovarian neoplasm. It is considered a subtype of ovarian sex cord / stromal tumour and is included in the fibroma-thecoma group of ovarian tumors 9. Epidemiology It occurs predominantly in young women, peaks around 2nd to 3rd decades of lif...
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Secondary involvement of the ovary with lymphoma

Secondary involvement of the ovary with lymphoma is more common than primary ovarian lymphoma. It usually occurs a late manifestation of an advanced systemic disease, and are almost always of the non-Hodgkin type.
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Semilobar holoprosencephaly

Semilobar holoprosencephaly is a subtype of holoprosencephaly (HPE) characterised by an incomplete forebrain division. It is intermediate in severity, being worse than lobar holoprosencephaly and better than alobar holoprosencephaly. Epidemiology Please refer on the general article of holopros...
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Serous inclusion cysts of the ovary

Serous inclusion cysts of the ovary are benign cysts typically seen in postmenopausal women. They are typically small (i.e. less than 5 cm), smooth walled and have no septations or solid components. They can alter through time and often disappear.   See also ovarian cysts
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Sex cord / stromal ovarian tumours

Sex cord / stromal ovarian tumours are a subtype of ovarian tumours and account for 8-10% of all ovarian tumours. They arise from two groups of cells in the ovary: stromal cells primitive sex cords: coelomic epithelium The group of tumours includes ovarian fibroma-thecoma spectrum ovarian f...
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Shading sign (endometrioma)

Shading sign is an MRI finding typically seen in an endometrioma. It may also be seen with some endometrioid tumours (e.g endometrioid carcinoma of the ovary) It helps to distinguish endometriomas from other blood containing lesions (e.g. haemorrhagic corpus luteum cysts), with a sensitivity of...
Article

Short maxillary length

A short maxillary length can result from many congenital and acquired causes. If seen in an antenatal ultrasound scan, it is often considered to have a high association with trisomy 21 1.  Congenital conditions Many conditions that can cause midfacial hypoplasia will result in a short maxillar...
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Short rib polydactyly syndrome

Short rib polydactyly syndrome(s) (SRPS) comprise of a rare group of severe osteochondrodysplasias. There are four major recognised types present: type I: Saldino-Noonan type type II:: Majewski type type III: Verma-Naumoff type type IV: Beemer-Langer type There may also be other very rare t...
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SHORT syndrome

SHORT syndrome refers to an acronym which primarily comprises of the following features: S: short stature H: hyperextensibility of joints and/or inguinal hernia O: ocular depression R: Rieger anomaly T: teething delay In a addition to these there can be numerous associated minor features w...
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Short umbilical cord

Short umbilical cord has been variably defined. Considering the mean length of the umbilical cord is 50-70 cm 1-2, a short cord in absolute terms is usually taken as one that is under 35-40 cm in length at term 1-2.  Pathology Associations Recognised associations include chromosomal anomalie...
Article

Shortened fetal femoral length

Shorted fetal femur is a morphological descriptor and is usually defined when the femoral length falls below the 5th centile for gestational age (some define it when its under the 2.5th centile 5) or less than 0.91 predicted by the bi-pareital diameter. It can occur in isolated or in association...
Article

Shortening of the cervical canal

Shortening of the uterine cervical canal as the name implies refers to an abnormal shortening of the uterine cervical length. It is considered a sign of cervical incompetence in pregnancy and can lead to premature delivery. Pathology Aetiology primary (i.e. congenital/idiopathic) secondary ...
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Sirenomelia

Sirenomelia (also known as the mermaid syndrome) is a rare congenital malformation characterised by the fusion of lower limb structures. Epidemiology The estimated incidence is at ~1 in 60,000-70,000 of pregnancies 9. There may be greater male predilection (somewhat paradoxical given the usage...
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Sister Mary Joseph nodule

A Sister Mary Joseph nodule is a metastatic lesion involving the umbilicus. The most common primary source is an intra-abdominal adenocarcinoma. Epidemiology Umbilical metastases are uncommon, reportedly present in 1-3% of all intra-abdominal and/or pelvic malignancy 7. Clinical presentation ...
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Small cell carcinoma of the cervix

Small cell carcinoma of the cervix is a rare histological subtype of carcinoma of the cervix.  Epidemiology Small cell carcinoma is thought to account for ~0.5-6% of all uterine cervical cancers 3.  Pathology It is a type of neuroendocrine tumour and is similar to pulmonary small cell carcin...
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Snowstorm sign (disambiguation)

Snowstorm sign may refer to: snowstorm sign: complete hydatiform mole (ultrasound) snowstorm sign: extracapsular breast implant rupture (ultrasound)
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Sonographic values in obstetrics and gynaecology

Obstetric and gynaecological ultrasound is rampant with numerous cut off values. Some of these get revised over the years. The following list is a useful aid to refer to and revise. 1 mm rate of increase of a mean sac diameter per day in early pregnancy 2 mm generally accepted value for a th...
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Sonohysterography

Sonohysterography, also referred as saline induced sonohysterography (SIS), is an ultrasound technique that better characterises the uterine cavity and endometrium. It is particularly useful for evaluation of endometrial polyps. Indications fertility evaluation / recurrent pregnancy loss intr...
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Specialised teratoma (ovary)

Specialised teratomas of the ovaries are a rare subtype of ovarian teratomas where there is a monodermal differentiation of tissue element. Therefore they usually contain only endodermal, ectodermal or mesodermal elements. Entities that are classified under this sub group include: struma ovari...
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Squamo-columnar junction of cervix

The squamo-columnar junction (SCJ) of the cervix refers to a transitional area between squamous epithelium of the vagina and the columnar epithelium of the endocervix. This shifts in location through age from being more external to internal. Carcinoma of the cervix develops almost exclusively wi...
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Squamous cell carcinoma (ovary)

Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the ovary is extremely rare and usually arises in a mature cystic ovarian teratoma 2. As only parts of the lesion are composed of malignant tissue, it is difficult to diagnose malignant transformation of a teratoma preoperatively, unless invasion into adjacent st...
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Squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix

Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the cervix is the most common histological subtype of cervical cancer and accounts for 80-90% of cases. Pathology Most cervical squamous cell carcinomas grow at the squamocolumnar junction (SCJ). In younger women, the SCJ is located outside the external uterine...
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Stenosis of the uterine cervix

Stenosis of the uterine cervix is the pathologic narrowing of the uterine cervix. The term cervical stenosis is clinically defined as cervical narrowing that prevents the insertion of a 2.5 mm wide dilator. Clinical presentation If the stenosis is severe enough it may result in proximal obstru...
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String of pearls sign (disambiguation)

String of pearls sign can refer to: string of pearls sign on an abdominal radiograph of fluid-filled dilated small-bowel loops string of pearls sign on ultrasound in polycystic ovarian syndrome string of pearls sign for angiographic appearances in fibromuscular dysplasia 
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Struma ovarii tumour

Struma ovarii tumour is a subtype of an ovarian teratoma and is composed entirely or predominantly of thyroid tissue and containing variable-sized follicles with colloid material. Epidemiology It accounts for 0.3-1% of all ovarian tumours and ~3% of all mature cystic teratomas 1. Clinical pre...
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Subendometrial cysts

Subendometrial cysts can arise from several pathologies which include adenomyosis 2 Tamoxifen associated endometrial changes 1,3
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Subendometrial halo

The subendometrial halo is a hypoechoic stripe formed at the innermost part of the myometrium directly bordering the endometrium. It is important to assess its continuity in order to rule out myometrial invasion in endometrial carcinoma.
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Submucosal leiomyoma in the exam

Getting a film with submucosal fibroid in the exam is one of the many exam set-pieces that can be prepared for.  Description Transabdominal and transvaginal pelvic ultrasound scans show an anteverted uterus with endometrium that is 7 mm wide and has a trilaminar appearance indicative of the pe...
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Submucosal leiomyoma of the uterus

Submucosal leiomyomas of the uterus refer to a subtype of uterine leiomyoma that primarily projects into the endometrial cavity. They are least common albeit the most symptomatic type of leiomyoma. Clinical presentation Submucosal leiomyomas can be a common source of abnormal uterine bleeding ...
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Subserosal leiomyoma of the uterus

Subserosal uterine leiomyoma is a subtype of uterine leiomyoma that often exophytically projects outwards from a subserosal location. While its exact definition may vary, a leiomyoma is often called subserosal if >50% of the fibroid protrudes out of the serosal surface of the uterus 2. They can ...
Article

Superficial perineal pouch

The superficial perineal pouch is an anatomic space below the perineal membrane in the urogenital traingle of the perineum. Gross anatomy The superficial perineal pouch is below the perineal membrane in the urogenital triangle, anterior to the transverse line between the ischial tuberosities. ...
Article

Surgical haemostatic material

Surgical haemostatic material is used to control bleeding intraoperatively and is hence frequently voluntarily left in the operative bed, not to be confused with a gossypiboma which is foreign material left by mistake. It can mimic an abscess on imaging studies. Various types are available, the ...
Article

Syndactyly

Syndactyly refers to a congenital fusion of two or more digits. It may be confined to soft tissue (soft tissue syndactyly / simple syndactyly) or may involve bone (bony syndactyly / complex syndactyly). Epidemiology The overall estimated incidence is at ~1 per 2500 to 5000 live births 6,8. The...
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T-shaped uterus

T-shaped uterus refers to a specific radiographic appearance of the endometrial cavity. Pathology It is the most commonly associated abnormality from in utero diethylstilbestrol (DES) exposure, seen in 31% of exposed women. It is classified as a class VII Müllerian duct anomaly. Background D...
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T2 dark spot sign

T2 dark spot sign is an MRI appearance of endometriomas seen as a result of chronic haemorrhage. The sign is useful in differentiating a solitary endometrioma from a functional haemorrhagic ovarian cyst, as both might show high T1 signal with T2 shading.  The T2 dark spot, described in the sign...
Article

Tamoxifen associated endometrial changes

Tamoxifen has pro-oestrogenic effects on the endometrium and thus is associated with an increased prevalence of: endometrial polyps: occurs in ~8-36% of women in treated 8 endometrial hyperplasia: occurs in ~1-20% of women treated ref cystic endometrial atrophy endometrial carcinoma Epidemi...
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Teratoma

Teratomas are germ cell tumours that arise from ectopic pluripotent stem cells that fail to migrate from yolk sac endoderm to the urogenital ridge during embryogenesis. By definition, they contain elements from all three embryological layers: endoderm, mesoderm and ectoderm although frequently, ...
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Theca lutein cyst

Theca lutein cysts (TLC), also known as hyperreactio luteinalis (HL), are a type of functional ovarian cysts. They are typically multiple and seen bilaterally. Pathology They are thought to originate due to excessive amounts of circulating gonadotrophins such as beta-hCG. Hyperplasia of the th...
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Thoracic endometriosis

Thoracic endometriosis is an uncommon location for endometriosis and the main cause of catamenial pneumothorax.  Epidemiology Most often occurs in the third and fourth decades of life 3. Clinical presentation Symptoms may include: catamenial pleuritic chest pain catamenial haemoptysis: whe...
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Tip of the iceberg sign (ovarian dermoid cyst)

Tip of the iceberg sign refers to one of the characteristic appearances of an ovarian dermoid cyst. If there are echogenic cyst contents of sebum and hair, they cause marked posterior acoustic attenuation so that only the superficial part of the cyst is seen. Just like an iceberg, you may only b...
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Trachelectomy

Trachelectomy (sometimes known as a cervicectomy) refers to removal of uterine cervix.  It is sometimes performed as a uterine sparing surgery for certain cases with cervical malignancy 2-3. When it is performed with curative intent it is often termed a radical trachelectomy and is often accomp...
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Transient abnormal myelopoiesis

Transient abnormal myelopoiesis (TAM) is a phenomenon that can happen in the fetuses or neonates with trisomy 21. The condition can mimic leukaemia. Epidemiology The estimated incidence is at ~10% of newborns with trisomy 21 3. Radiographic features Antenatal ultrasound In the context of kn...
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Transient physiological myometrial contraction

Transient myometrial contraction is a physiological phenomenon which may mimic focal adenomyosis Radiographic features It appears as focal low signal intensity bulge/region of the myometrium which may disappear on subsequent images or at cine MR imaging.   Differential diagnosis focal adenom...
Article

Transverse cerebellar diameter

In obstetric imaging, the fetal transverse cerebellar diameter (TCD) is often measured as an additional fetal biometric parameter. It is measured as the maximal diameter between the cerebellar hemispheres on an axial scan. The value of the transverse cerebellar diameter in mm's is considered rou...
Article

Transverse vaginal septum

Transverse vaginal (transvaginal) septum (TVS) is a type of rare congenital utero-vaginal anomaly (class II under the Rock and Adam classification). Epidemiology It is rare with a frequency of 1 in 70,000 females. Clinical presentation In the case of a complete septum, patients commonly pres...
Article

Trident hand

A trident hand is a description where the hands are short with stubby fingers, with a separation between the middle and ring fingers.  Associations It can be seen in various chondrodysplasias including achondroplasia.
Article

Triploidy

Triploidy is a rare lethal chromosomal (aneupliodic) abnormality caused by the presence of an entire extra chromosomal set.  Epidemiology It is considered the 3rd commonest fatal chromosomal anomaly 7. While it is thought to affect as much as 1-2% of conceptions, the vast majority are thought ...
Article

Trisomies

Trisomies are chromosomal anomalies which usually occur due to non-disjunction. The vast majority of affected fetuses being spontaneously aborted, often very early during gestation. Only three are compatible with extra-uterine life (T13, T18, T21), and only one beyond early infancy (T21). In or...
Article

Trisomy 22

Trisomy 22 is an aneuploidic chromosomal anomaly which is usually fatal unless in mosaic forms. Pathology Variants Duplication of the short arm (p) and a small section of the long arm (q) of chromosome 22 can give result to the cat-eye syndrome - Schmidt-Fraccaro syndrome. Radiographic featu...
Article

True hermaphroditism

True hermaphroditism is a form of disorder of gender development.  Pathology Patients with true hermaphroditism can a mosaic composition of 46XX and 46XY .They therefore have both ovarian and testicular tissues. Sub types There are three forms of true hermaphrotidism unilateral true hermaph...
Article

Tubal ectopic pregnancy

Tubal ectopic pregnancy (or adnexal ectopic pregnancy) is the most common location of an ectopic pregnancy. Epidemiology It is the most common type of ectopic by far, accounting for 93-97% of cases. Pathology Although the fallopian tube has many anatomical parts, for the purposes of ectopic ...
Article

Tubal ring sign

Tubal ring sign, also referred to as bagel sign or blob sign, one of the ultrasound signs of a tubal ectopic. It comprises of an echogenic ring which surrounds an unruptured ectopic pregnancy. It is said to have a 95% positive predictive value (PPV) for ectopic pregnancy. Differential diagnosis...
Article

Tuberculosis (fallopian tube)

Tuberculosis of the fallopian tube is one of the most common sites of tuberculous pelvic inflammatory disease.  Clinical presentation Many patients may be asymptomatic, with the disease being discovered during the workup for infertility.  Signs and symptoms are often vague and can include acut...
Article

Tuberculous pelvic inflammatory disease

Tuberculous pelvic inflammatory disease refers to pelvic inflammatory disease due to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Epidemiology Genital tract involvement may be present in ~1.5% of cases of those affected with tuberculosis 4. Pathology Infection almost always results from spread from an extrag...
Article

Tubo-ovarian abscess

Tubo-ovarian abscesses (TOA) are one of the late complications of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). Clinical presentation Patients typically present with fever, elevated white blood cell count, lower abdominal-pelvic pain, and/or vaginal discharge. Fever and leukocytosis may sometimes be abse...
Article

Tunnel cluster

Tunnel cluster (TC) is a type of Nabothian cyst characterised by complex multicystic dilatation of the endocervical glands. Epidemiology Tunnel cluster is found in ~8% of adult women, 40% of whom are pregnant, almost exclusively multigravid women, and older than 30 years. Clinical presentatio...
Article

Turner syndrome

Turner syndrome, also referred as 45X, is the most common of sex chromosome abnormalities in females.  Epidemiology The incidence is estimated at 1:2000-5000 of live births, although the in utero rate is much higher (1-2% of conceptions) due to a significant proportion of fetuses with 45X abor...
Article

Ultrasound guided percutaneous drainage

Ultrasound guided percutaneous drainage is one form of image guided procedure, allowing minimally invasive treatment of collections that are accessible by ultrasound study. It has several advantages and disadvantages over CT, which include: Advantages is a dynamic study, allowing greater prec...

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