Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

536 results found
Article

Placental thickness

Placental thickness tends to gradually increase with gestational age in a linear fashion. Sonographically, this can be seen to be approximately 1 mm per week and the thickness of the placenta can be used to approximate gestational age: approximate gestational age (in weeks) = placental thicknes...
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Placental trophotropism

Placental trophotropism refers to a phenomenon where there is dynamic migration of the placenta at its insertion through gestation. The placenta tends to grow in areas of good blood supply and nutrition and atrophies in areas with poor blood supply and poor nutrition. It may play a role in the d...
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Placental tumours

There are many tumours that can involve the placenta. These can be of  very different pathology and can include  placental chorioangioma (considered the most common primary tumour of the placenta 1) placental chorioangiomatosis placental teratoma placental metastases placental site trophob...
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Placental venous lakes

Placental venous lakes refer to a phenomenon of formation of hypoechoic cystic spaces centrally within the placenta. Finding placental lakes during a second trimester ultrasound scan is not associated with any uteroplacental complication or with an adverse pregnancy outcome. They can, however, b...
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Placentomegaly

Placentomegaly is a term applied to an abnormally enlarged placenta.  Pathology Associations It can be associated with number of maternal and fetal disorders which include: maternal maternal anaemia(s) maternal diabetes chronic intrauterine infections alpha-thalassemia fetal umbilical ...
Article

Polycystic ovarian syndrome

Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), recently referred also as hyperandrogenic anovulation, is a chronic anovulation syndrome associated with androgen excess.  The diagnosis is made on the combined clinical, biochemical and sonographic grounds. The revised 2003 ASRM/ESHRE Rotterdam consensus cri...
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Polycystic ovarian syndrome in the exam

Getting a film with polycystic ovarian syndrome in a subfertile patient is one of the many exam set-pieces that can be prepared for.  Description Transabdominal and transvaginal pelvic ultrasound show an anteverted uterus with a normal size. There is diffuse thickening of the endometrium to 17...
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Polycystic ovaries

Polycystic ovaries (PCO) is an imaging descriptor of a particular type of change in ovarian morphology. A proportion of women with polycystic ovaries will have the polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), which in turn requires additional clinical, as well as biochemical, criteria. Otherwise PCO can ...
Article

Polydactyly

Polydactyly refers to the situation where there are more than the usual number of digits (five) in a hand or foot. It can be broadly classified as: pre-axial polydactyly: extra digit(s) towards the 1st digit (radially) post-axial polydactyly: extra digit(s) towards 5th digit (ulnar) central p...
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Polyhydramnios

Polyhydramnios refers to a situation where the amniotic fluid volume is more than expected for gestational age. It is generally defined as: amniotic fluid index (AFI) >25 cm largest fluid pocket depth (maximal vertical pocket (MVP)) greater than 8 cm 6: although some centres particularly in A...
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Polysyndactyly

Polysyndactyly refers to the combined presence of polydactyly as well as syndactyly involving either the hands or feet. Polysyndactyly can be associated with a number of syndromes which includes: acrocephalopolysyndactylies (GCPS) type I: Noack syndrome type II: Carpenter syndrome (typically...
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Popcorn calcification

Popcorn calcification refers to amorphous calcifications often with rings and arcs that resemble popped corn kernels. This type of calcification may be seen in many radiological settings including 1: chondroid lesions (e.g enchondroma, chondrosarcoma) fibrous dysplasia pulmonary hamartomas d...
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Post-ablation tubal sterilisation syndrome

Post-ablation tubal sterilisation syndrome (PATSS) is a recognised delayed complication seen in patients who have undergone both endometrial ablation and tubal sterilisation. It has been reported in 6-8% of these patients and occurs when bleeding from residual endometrium is obstructed due to su...
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Post-axial polydactyly

Post-axial polydactyly refers to polydactyly where the additional digit is on the ulnar margin of the hand, or lateral to the 5th toe. Epidemiology Post-axial polydactyly is more common than pre-axial polydactyly, with an estimated incidence of 1 in 3000. Pathology Classification Post-axial...
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Post dates fetus

Post dates fetus is when there is prolonged gestation when the fetus remains in-utero beyond 2 weeks beyond expected date of delivery (>42 weeks gestation). Epidemiology The reported frequency is at approximately 3-12% of pregnancies. Pathology Associations maternal obesity Complications ...
Article

Posterior urethral valves

Posterior urethral valves (PUVs), also referred as congenital obstructing posterior urethral membranes (COPUM), are the most common congenital obstructive lesion of the urethra and a common cause of obstructive uropathy in infancy. Epidemiology Posterior urethral valves are congenital and only...
Article

Post partum haemorrhage

Post partum haemorrhage (PPH) refers to uterine bleeding after delivery and remains one of the major worldwide causes of maternal mortality. Pathology Classification A post partum haemorrhage can be board classified as primary or secondary. Primary post partum haemorrhage  This is the most ...
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Potter sequence

The Potter sequence is a constellation of findings demonstrated postnatally as a consequence of severe, prolonged oligohydramnios in utero. Clinical presentation It consists of: pulmonary hypoplasia: often severe and incompatible with life growth restriction (IUGR) abnormal facies (Potter f...
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Predominantly solid ovarian neoplasms

Predominantly solid ovarian neoplasms account for a minority of ovarian neoplasms. They include a wide pathological spectrum: epithelial tumours: ~28% of all solid ovarian tumours 1 Brenner tumour germ cell tumours: ~22% 1 ovarian teratoma: noncystic type ovarian dysgerminoma sex cord  / s...
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Premature rupture of membranes

Premature rupture of membranes (PROM) refers to a rupture of the amniotic sac and chorion (membranes) occurring prior to the onset of uterine contractions. When this occurs prior to 37 weeks it is then termed a pre term premature rupture of membranes (PPROM). By this definition, PROM is classifi...
Article

Primary fallopian tube carcinoma

Primary fallopian tube carcinoma (PFTC) is an extremely rare malignancy that arises from the fallopian tube. They account for ~1 (0.2-1.1)% all gynaecological malignancies (least common of all gynaecological malignancies 3). Epidemiology The estimated incidence is at ~3-4 per million women 3. ...
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Primary fallopian tube carcinoma (staging)

The staging used for primary fallopian tubal carcinoma is the FIGO system and is as follows: stage I: limited to fallopian tubes stage Ia: limited to lining of one fallopian tube (intraluminal) stage Ib: limited to inner linings of both tubes (intraluminal) stage Ic: invasion beyond the inne...
Article

Primary fetal hydrothorax

A primary fetal hydrothorax (PFHT) is a rare situation and refers to a primary accumulation of fetal pleural fluid without any underlying abnormality. It can present with a wide spectrum of severity and can be uni or bilateral. Epidemiology The estimated prevalence is at ~ 1:10,000-15,000 preg...
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Primary ovarian lymphoma

Primary ovarian lymphoma (POL) refers to involvement of the ovary with lymphoma but without involvement of any other site. It is an extremely rare yet well recognised condition. Epidemiology POL accounts for ~1.5% of ovarian tumours 5. Pathology The rarity of this condition is probably contr...
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Primary peritoneal neoplasms

Primary peritoneal neoplasms comprise of an uncommon group of heterogenous entities. The list includes: mesothelial derivatives primary (malignant) peritoneal mesothelioma primary perioneal multicystic mesothelioma primary peritoneal well differentiated papillary mesothelioma primary perit...
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Primary serous papillary carcinoma of the peritoneum

A primary serous papillary carcinoma of the peritoneum (PSPCP) is an extremely rare primary peritoneal tumour. Epidemiology They usually present in postmenopausal women. Clinical presentation Patients tend to present with non-specific complaints such as abdominal pain, anorexia, and abdomina...
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Primary vaginal carcinoma

Primary vaginal carcinoma, although being a rare overall, is still the 5th commonest gynaecological malignancy. A primary vaginal carcinoma is defined as a neoplasm that arises solely from the vagina with no involvement of the external os superiorly or the vulva inferiorly, the importance of thi...
Article

Primary vulval cancer

Primary vulval cancer is a rare gynaecological malignancy that originates from the vulva. Epidemiology It accounts for ~3-5% of female genital tract malignancies and typically presents in postmenopausal patients peaking around the age of 65-70 years of age 1.  Pathology The commonest histolo...
Article

Proboscis

Proboscis is a rare congenital anomaly where an anterior appendage-like structure is seen projecting from the midline fetal face/forehead. Depending on the exact location, this has further been classified into various subtypes (e.g. interorbital proboscis). Pathology Associations The presence...
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Prolonged rupture of membranes

Prolonged rupture of membranes refers to a rupture of membranes lasting longer than 18-24 hours (i.e. between time of rupture and time of delivery) 1-2. This situation can occur in either the term or pre-term newborns where in the latter case it is also termed prolonged preterm rupture of membra...
Article

Psammoma bodies

Psammoma bodies are round microscopic calcific collections. It is a form of dystrophic calcification. Necrotic cells form the focus for surrounding calcific deposition. They have a lamellated concentric calcified structure, sometimes large enough to be seen on CT.  Psammoma bodies are found in ...
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Pseudodysraphism

A pseudodysraphism refers to the splayed appearance of a normal spine created due to excessive craniocaudal angulation during sonographic evaluation. This can erroneously lead to the diagnosis of a spinal neural tube defect.
Article

Pseudo Meigs syndrome

Pseudo Meigs syndrome refers to a clinical syndrome of pleural effusion, ascites associated with an ovarian tumour that is not a fibroma or a fibroma-like tumour. Pathology Entities that have been reported to result in pseudo Meigs syndrome include Krukenberg tumours colon carcinoma metastas...
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Pulmonary hypoplasia

Pulmonary hypoplasia (PH) refers to deficient or incomplete development of parts of the lung. It can develop as a result of a number of other in utero anomalies. Epidemiology The true prevalence is not well known (1.4% of all births according to Knox et al. 13), but in cases of premature ruptu...
Article

Pure primary ovarian choriocarcinoma

A pure primary ovarian choriocarcinoma is an extremely rare form of ovarian malignancy. It falls under the sub category of ovarian germ cell tumours. Epidemiology They are thought to to account for less than 1% of ovarian tumours. Pathology They are a type of non gestational choriocarcinoma....
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Pyometrium

Pyometrium refers to infection of the endometrial cavity with resulting expansion due to accumulated pus (pyometra). The post-menopausal demographic are most commonly affected due to the association with uterine malignancy. Pathology Causes endometritis / pelvic inflammatory disease uterine...
Article

Pyosalpinx

Pyosalpinx refers to a Fallopian tube that is filled, and often distended, with pus. Pathology A pyosalpinx often tends to be a complication of background pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). Inflammation results in tubal and peritubal adhesions with superimposed obstruction of the fimbrial end....
Article

Retained products of conception

Retained products of conception (RPOC) refer to the persistence of placental and/or fetal tissue in the uterus following delivery, termination of pregnancy or a miscarriage.  Epidemiology Retained products of conception complicate ~1-5% of all pregnancies (routine vaginal deliveries 12).  Acc...
Article

Retroverted uterus

A retroverted uterus is a normal variation of female pelvic anatomy in which the body of the uterus is tilted backwards (usually leans forward, i.e. anteverted) on itself to match the isthmus of the neck and lower uterine segment. There are variable grades of uterine retroversion. Epidemiology ...
Article

Rhizomelic dwarfism

Rhizomelic dwarfism is a type of dwarfism where the dominant feature is proximal (i.e. femoral, humeral) limb shortening. Pathology The following conditions fall under the heading of rhizomelic dwarfism 3 metatropic dysplasia achondrogenesis rhizomelic chondrodysplasia punctata achondropla...
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Right iliac fossa mass (differential)

Right iliac fossa mass is a common clinical presentation and has a range of differentials that need to be excluded. Radiology plays an important role in this differentiation. Differential diagnosis appendicular mass appendicular abscess appendicular mucocele appendicular neoplasms ileocaec...
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Ring of fire sign (adnexa)

The ring of fire sign, also known as ring of vascularity, signifies a hypervascular lesion with peripheral vascularity on colour or pulsed Doppler examination of the adnexa due to low impedance high diastolic flow 1. This sign can be seen in: corpus luteum cyst (more commonly) ectopic pregnan...
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Risk of malignancy index in ovarian tumours

The risk of malignancy index (RMI) in ovarian tumours is a validated clinical tool used for risk stratification of ovarian lesions, to guide further management 1-3. Classification The score incorporates the patient's menopausal status (M), ultrasound features of the lesion (U), and the serum C...
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Robinow syndrome

Robinow syndrome is a rare heterogenous genetic disorder with at least two distinct forms. Clinical spectrum The syndrome can affects several systems which include: mesomelic limb shortening: mesomelia hemivertebrae characteristic facies anomalies fetal facies hypertelorism 3 frontal bos...
Article

Rokitansky nodule

A Rokitansky nodule or dermoid plug refers to a solid protuberance projecting from an ovarian cyst in the context of a mature cystic teratoma. It often contains calcific, dental, adipose, hair and/or sebaceous components 1.  History and etymology It is named after Carl von Rokitansky (1804-187...
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Rothmund-Thomson syndrome

Rothmund-Thomson syndrome (RTS) is an extremely rare autosomal recessive disorder with heterogeneous clinical features. Clinical features It is characterized by many features which include: poikiloderma: characteristic rash, typically develops in infancy sparse hair, eyelashes, and/or eyebro...
Article

Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome

Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome (RTS) is a very rare genetic multi-system disorder primarily characterised by mental retardation, broad and often angulated thumbs and halluces, and distinctive facial features. Epidemiology The estimated incidence is 1 in 100,000-125,000 live births 5. Clinical pres...
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Ruptured ovarian cyst

Ruptured ovarian cysts are one of the most common causes of acute pelvic pain in premenopausal women. The sonographic appearance depends on whether a simple or haemorrhagic ovarian cyst ruptures, and whether the cyst has completely collapsed. The most important differential consideration is a ru...
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Rupture of fetal membranes

A rupture of membranes (ROM) or amniorrhexis is a term used during pregnancy to describe a rupture of the amniotic sac. This can occur as part of normal birth (or "spontaneously")  if it occurs at full term at the onset of, or during, labor. It is also  colloquially known as "breaking water." S...
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Russell-Silver dwarfism

Russell-Silver dwarfism is a very rare syndrome characterised by: intrauterine growth restriction: tends to give an asymmetrical IUGR postnatal growth restriction relatively large calvarium: pseudohydrocephalus clinodactyly/clinobrachydactyly of the small finger a typical triangular type fa...
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Sacrococcygeal teratoma

Sacrococcygeal teratoma (SCT) refers to a teratoma arising in the sacrococcygeal region. The coccyx is almost always involved 6. Epidemiology It is the commonest congenital tumour in the fetus 11 and neonate 3. The incidence is estimated at ~1:35000-40000. There is recognised female predilecti...
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SADDAN syndrome

SADDAN syndrome is an acronym for (severe achondroplasia with developmental delay and acanthosis nigricans). It is an extremly rare condition and as the name stands comprises of skeletal brain and cutaneous anomalies. Pathology Genetics It (like achondroplasia) also results from a mutation i...
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Salpingitis

Salpingitis refers to inflammation of the fallopian tube, it can be a part of pelvic inflammatory disease. See also salpingitis isthmica nodosa
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Salpingitis isthmica nodosa

Salpingitis isthmica nodosa (SIN), sometimes also referred to as perisalpingitis isthmica nodosa - PIN, refers to nodular scarring of the fallopian tubes. In very early stages, the tubes may appear almost normal. As scarring and nodularity progress, the changes become more radiographically appar...
Article

Sampson syndrome

Sampson syndrome refers to a type of superficial endometriosis, where multiple superficial plaques may be seen scattered in the peritoneum and pelvic ligaments. Clinical presentation The patient may present with non-specific abdominal pain. Radiographic features At laparoscopy, they are typi...
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Sandal gap deformity

A sandal gap deformity, also known as hallux varus, is an imaging observation in antenatal ultrasound (typically second trimester) where there is an expanded first interspace, i.e. the gap between the great toe of the foot from the rest of the toes (likened to the gap caused by a sandal).  Whil...
Article

Scar endometriosis

Scar endometriosis is a term given to endometriosis occurring in a Caesarian section scar. It can be located at the skin, subcutaneous tissue, rectus muscle/sheath, intraperitoneally, or in the uterine myometrium (within uterine scar). Epidemiology The reported incidence of abdominal scar endo...
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Sclerosing stromal tumour of the ovary

Sclerosing stromal tumour (SST) of the ovary is a rare ovarian neoplasm. It is considered a subtype of ovarian sex cord / stromal tumour and is included in the fibroma-thecoma group of ovarian tumors 9. Epidemiology It occurs predominantly in young women, peaks around 2nd to 3rd decades of lif...
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Secondary involvement of the ovary with lymphoma

Secondary involvement of the ovary with lymphoma is more common than primary ovarian lymphoma. It usually occurs a late manifestation of an advanced systemic disease, and are almost always of the non-Hodgkin type.
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Semilobar holoprosencephaly

Semilobar holoprosencephaly is a subtype of holoprosencephaly (HPE) characterised by an incomplete forebrain division. It is intermediate in severity, being worse than lobar holoprosencephaly and better than alobar holoprosencephaly. Epidemiology Please refer on the general article of holopros...
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Serous inclusion cysts of the ovary

Serous inclusion cysts of the ovary are benign cysts typically seen in postmenopausal women. They are typically small (i.e. less than 5 cm), smooth walled and have no septations or solid components. They can alter through time and often disappear.   See also ovarian cysts
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Sex cord / stromal ovarian tumours

Sex cord / stromal ovarian tumours are a subtype of ovarian tumours and account for 8-10% of all ovarian tumours. They arise from two groups of cells in the ovary: stromal cells primitive sex cords: coelomic epithelium The group of tumours includes ovarian fibroma-thecoma spectrum ovarian f...
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Shading sign (endometrioma)

Shading sign is an MRI finding typically seen in an endometrioma. It may also be seen with some endometrioid tumours (e.g endometrioid carcinoma of the ovary) It helps to distinguish endometriomas from other blood-containing lesions (e.g. haemorrhagic corpus luteum cysts), with a sensitivity of...
Article

Shortened fetal femoral length

Shorted fetal femur is a morphological descriptor and is usually defined when the femoral length falls below the 5th centile for gestational age (some define it when its under the 2.5th centile 5) or less than 0.91 predicted by the bi-pareital diameter. It can occur in isolated or in association...
Article

Shortening of the cervical canal

Shortening of the uterine cervical canal as the name implies refers to an abnormal shortening of the uterine cervical length. It is considered a sign of cervical incompetence in pregnancy and can lead to premature delivery. Pathology Aetiology primary (i.e. congenital/idiopathic) secondary ...
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Short maxillary length

A short maxillary length can result from many congenital and acquired causes. If seen in an antenatal ultrasound scan, it is often considered to have a high association with trisomy 21 1.  Congenital conditions Many conditions that can cause midfacial hypoplasia will result in a short maxillar...
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Short rib polydactyly syndrome

Short rib polydactyly syndrome(s) (SRPS) comprise a rare group of severe osteochondrodysplasias. There are four major recognised types present: type I: Saldino-Noonan type type II:: Majewski type type III: Verma-Naumoff type type IV: Beemer-Langer type There may also be other very rare type...
Article

SHORT syndrome

SHORT syndrome refers to an acronym which primarily comprises of the following features: S: short stature H: hyperextensibility of joints and/or inguinal hernia O: ocular depression R: Rieger anomaly T: teething delay In a addition to these there can be numerous associated minor features w...
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Short umbilical cord

Short umbilical cord has been variably defined. Considering the mean length of the umbilical cord is 50-70 cm 1-2, a short cord in absolute terms is usually taken as one that is under 35-40 cm in length at term 1-2.  Pathology Associations Recognised associations include chromosomal anomalie...
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Sirenomelia

Sirenomelia (also known as the mermaid syndrome) is a rare congenital malformation characterised by the fusion of lower limb structures. Epidemiology The estimated incidence is at ~1 in 60,000-70,000 of pregnancies 9. There may be greater male predilection (somewhat paradoxical given the usage...
Article

Sister Mary Joseph nodule

A Sister Mary Joseph nodule is a metastatic lesion involving the umbilicus. The most common primary source is an intra-abdominal adenocarcinoma. Epidemiology Umbilical metastases are uncommon, reportedly present in 1-3% of all intra-abdominal and/or pelvic malignancy 7. Clinical presentation ...
Article

Small cell carcinoma of the cervix

Small cell carcinoma of the cervix is a rare histological subtype of carcinoma of the cervix.  Epidemiology Small cell carcinoma is thought to account for ~0.5-6% of all uterine cervical cancers 3.  Pathology It is a type of neuroendocrine tumour and is similar to pulmonary small cell carcin...
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Snowstorm sign (disambiguation)

Snowstorm sign may refer to: snowstorm sign: complete hydatiform mole (ultrasound) snowstorm sign: extracapsular breast implant rupture (ultrasound) snowstorm sign: thyroid pulmonary metastases (chest radiograph)
Article

Soft-tissue sarcoma

Soft-tissue sarcomas are a heterogeneous group of malignant tumours of mesenchymal origin (sarcoma) that originate from the soft tissues rather than bone. They are classified on the basis of tissue seen on histology. The commoner sarcomas in the adult and paediatric population are listed below. ...
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Sonographic values in obstetrics and gynaecology

Obstetric and gynaecological ultrasound is rampant with numerous cut off values. Some of these get revised over the years. The following list is a useful aid to refer to and revise. 1 mm rate of increase of a mean sac diameter per day in early pregnancy 2 mm generally accepted value for a th...
Article

Sonohysterography

Sonohysterography, also referred as saline induced sonohysterography (SIS), is an ultrasound technique that better characterises the uterine cavity and endometrium. It is particularly useful for evaluation of endometrial polyps. Indications fertility evaluation / recurrent pregnancy loss intr...
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Specialised teratoma (ovary)

Specialised teratomas of the ovaries are a rare subtype of ovarian teratomas where there is a monodermal differentiation of tissue element. Therefore they usually contain only endodermal, ectodermal or mesodermal elements. Entities that are classified under this sub group include: struma ovari...
Article

Squamo-columnar junction of cervix

The squamo-columnar junction (SCJ) of the cervix refers to a transitional area between squamous epithelium of the vagina and the columnar epithelium of the endocervix. This shifts in location through age from being more external to internal. Carcinoma of the cervix develops almost exclusively wi...
Article

Squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix

Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the cervix is the most common histological subtype of cervical cancer and accounts for 80-90% of cases. Pathology Most cervical squamous cell carcinomas grow at the squamocolumnar junction (SCJ). In younger women, the SCJ is located outside the external uterine...
Article

Squamous cell carcinoma (ovary)

Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the ovary is extremely rare and usually arises in a mature cystic ovarian teratoma 2. As only parts of the lesion are composed of malignant tissue, it is difficult to diagnose malignant transformation of a teratoma preoperatively, unless invasion into adjacent st...
Article

Stenosis of the uterine cervix

Stenosis of the uterine cervix is the pathologic narrowing of the uterine cervix. The term cervical stenosis is clinically defined as cervical narrowing that prevents the insertion of a 2.5 mm wide dilator. Epidemiology One-fifth of patients have a history of exposure to diethylstilbestrol whi...
Article

String of pearls sign (disambiguation)

String of pearls sign can refer to: string of pearls sign on an abdominal radiograph of fluid-filled dilated small bowel loops string of pearls sign on ultrasound in polycystic ovarian syndrome string of pearls sign for angiographic appearances in fibromuscular dysplasia
Article

Struma ovarii tumour

Struma ovarii tumour is a subtype of an ovarian teratoma and is composed entirely or predominantly of thyroid tissue and containing variable-sized follicles with colloid material. Epidemiology It accounts for 0.3-1% of all ovarian tumours and ~3% of all mature cystic teratomas 1. Clinical pre...
Article

Subendometrial cysts

Subendometrial cysts can arise from several pathologies which include adenomyosis 2 tamoxifen-associated endometrial changes 1,3
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Subendometrial halo

The subendometrial halo is a hypoechoic stripe formed at the innermost part of the myometrium directly bordering the endometrium. It is important to assess its continuity in order to rule out myometrial invasion in endometrial carcinoma.
Article

Submucosal leiomyoma in the exam

Getting a film with submucosal fibroid in the exam is one of the many exam set-pieces that can be prepared for.  Description Transabdominal and transvaginal pelvic ultrasound scans show an anteverted uterus with endometrium that is 7 mm wide and has a trilaminar appearance indicative of the pe...
Article

Submucosal leiomyoma of the uterus

Submucosal leiomyomas of the uterus refer to a subtype of uterine leiomyoma that primarily projects into the endometrial cavity. They are least common albeit the most symptomatic type of leiomyoma. Clinical presentation Submucosal leiomyomas can be a common source of abnormal uterine bleeding ...
Article

Subserosal leiomyoma of the uterus

Subserosal uterine leiomyoma is a subtype of uterine leiomyoma that often exophytically projects outwards from a subserosal location. While its exact definition may vary, a leiomyoma is often called subserosal if >50% of the fibroid protrudes out of the serosal surface of the uterus 2. They can ...
Article

Superficial perineal pouch

The superficial perineal pouch is an anatomic space below the perineal membrane in the urogenital triangle of the perineum. Gross anatomy The superficial perineal pouch is inferior (superficial) to the perineal membrane in the urogenital triangle, anterior to the transverse line between the is...
Article

Surgical haemostatic material

Surgical haemostatic material is used to control bleeding intraoperatively and is hence frequently voluntarily left in the operative bed, not to be confused with a gossypiboma which is foreign material left by mistake. It can mimic an abscess on imaging studies. Various types are available, the ...
Article

Syndactyly

Syndactyly refers to a congenital fusion of two or more digits. It may be confined to soft tissue (soft tissue syndactyly / simple syndactyly) or may involve bone (bony syndactyly / complex syndactyly). Epidemiology The overall estimated incidence is at ~1 per 2500 to 5000 live births 6,8. The...
Article

T2 dark spot sign

T2 dark spot sign is an MRI appearance of endometriomas seen as a result of chronic haemorrhage. The sign is useful in differentiating a solitary endometrioma from a functional haemorrhagic ovarian cyst, as both might show high T1 signal with T2 shading.  The T2 dark spot, described in the sign...
Article

Tamoxifen-associated endometrial changes

Tamoxifen has pro-oestrogenic effects on the endometrium and thus is associated with an increased prevalence of: endometrial polyps: occurs in ~8-36% of women in treated 8 endometrial hyperplasia: occurs in ~1-20% of women treated ref cystic endometrial atrophy endometrial carcinoma Epidemi...

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