Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

511 results found
Article

Turner syndrome

Turner syndrome, also referred as 45X, is the most common of sex chromosome abnormalities in females.  Epidemiology The incidence is estimated at 1:2000-5000 of live births, although the in utero rate is much higher (1-2% of conceptions) due to a significant proportion of fetuses with 45X abor...
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Ultrasound guided percutaneous drainage

Ultrasound guided percutaneous drainage is one form of image guided procedure, allowing minimally invasive treatment of collections that are accessible by ultrasound study. It has several advantages and disadvantages over CT, which include: Advantages is a dynamic study, allowing greater prec...
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Umbilical venous dilatation

Umbilical venous dilatation is a rare entity and often tends to occur as an isolated finding 4. It can arise from a number of patholgies umbilical venous varix (UVV): particularly if focal fetal hydrops: a focal dilatation due to an umbilical venous varix with an ensuing thrombosis can also ...
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Undifferentiated carcinoma of the endometrium

Undifferentiated carcinoma of the endometrium is rare histological subtype of endometrial cancer. It is considered a high grade carcinoma, carries a poor prognosis and is often under-recognised 1. Epidemiology It is thought to represent approximately 1-9% of endometrial cancers 1,6. Pathology...
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Undifferentiated carcinoma of the ovary

An undifferentiated carcinoma of the ovary is a rare type of ovarian epithelial tumour. They account for ~ 4% of ovarian cancer 2. Pathology With these tumours, cellular differentiation is not sufficient for the tumour to be categorised into serous, mucinous or other specified subtypes. Pure u...
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Unicornuate uterus

A unicornuate uterus or unicornis unicollis is a type of Mullerian duct anomaly (class II) that is the second most commonly associated with miscarriages.  Epidemiology This type can account for ~10% (range 6-13%) of uterine anomalies and infertility is seen in ~12.5% (range 5-20%) of cases. P...
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Urethral agenesis

Urethral agenesis (or urethral atresia) refers to a situation where there is a congenital absence of the urethra.  It can be a cause of fetal obstructive uropathy. Pathology Associations prune belly syndrome 5 bladder agenesis 2 Radiographic features Antenatal ultrasound May show a dilate...
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Urethral diverticulum

Urethral diverticulum, or urethrocoele, is a focal outpouching of the urethra. It should not be confused with a ureterocoele of the distal ureter. Epidemiology Urethral diverticula occur far more frequently in women than in men and are estimated to occur in 1-6% of women, especially those with...
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Uterine agenesis

Uterine agenesis is the extreme of Mullerian duct anomalies (Class I) where there is a complete absence of uterine tissue above the vagina.  Epidemiology The uterine agenesis-hypoplasia spectrum accounts for ~10-15% of all Müllerian duct anomalies. Clinical presentation Clinical presentation...
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Uterine arteriovenous malformation

Uterine arteriovenous malformations (UAVM) result from formation of multiple arteriovenous fistulous communications within the uterus without an intervening capillary network. Clinical presentation Presentation can vary. UAVMs can cause life-threatening massive bleeding in young women. Bleedin...
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Uterine artery

The uterine artery is seen bilaterally and is a branch of the anterior division of the internal iliac artery. Gross anatomy Course It runs medially in the pelvis, within the base of the broad ligament, to the outer surface of the uterus. From lateral to medial it has a descending, transverse ...
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Uterine artery embolisation

Uterine artery embolisation (UAE) is an interventional radiological technique to occlude the arterial supply to the uterus and is performed for various reasons. History Uterine artery embolisation has been practised for more than 20 years for controlling haemorrhage following delivery / aborti...
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Uterine artery embolisation: MRI assessment

Uterine artery embolisation (UAE) is used as an alternative to hysterectomy in selected patients and MRI assessment is key in allowing not only pre-procedure assessment but also assessing post-procedural outcome.   For a general discussion of the underlying condition refer to the article on ute...
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Uterine artery flow notching

Uterine artery flow notching refers to phenomenon observed in uterine arterial Doppler ultrasound assessment. Pathology Associations The presence of notching after 22 weeks is associated with several other conditions including adverse pregnancy outcomes. These include pregnancy induced hyper...
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Uterine artery pseudoaneurysm

Uterine artery pseudoaneurysm (UAP) is a rare cause of secondary postpartum haemorrhage.  Clinical presentation UAP usually presents as delayed (secondary) postpartum haemorrhage, that is per vaginal bleeding which occurs more than 24 hours and up to 6 weeks postpartum. However, some reported ...
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Uterine biophysical profile

Uterine biophysical profile refers to assessment of uterus to produce a successful conception and implantation environment.  Uterine scoring system for reproduction (USS) The uterine scoring system for reproduction comprises the following parameters, taken in mid-cycle: 1. endometrial thickne...
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Uterine choriocarcinoma

Uterine choriocarcinomas are one of the commonest choriocarcinomas and are often associated with gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD).  Epidemiology These tumours typically occur in women of childbearing age as a gestational choriocarcinoma. Most such cases present within one year of an ant...
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Uterine dehiscence

Uterine dehiscence is, usually, used to refer to the process of gradual myometrial rupture without a rupture of membranes. However, the term is used synonymously with uterine rupture by some authors. It is often described in the context of C-section scar where it is also termed an incisional deh...
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Uterine duplication anomalies

Uterine duplication anomalies are a group of Müllerian duct anomalies where fusion of the Müllerian duct associated structures fail to some degree: uterus didelphys: class III bicornuate uterus: class IV (second commonest duplication anomaly) septate uterus: class V (commonest duplication ano...
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Uterine enlargement (differential)

Uterine enlargement can occur in a number of situations from both diffuse and focal processes. These include:  gestation related events normal intrauterine pregnancy molar pregnancy - gestational trophoblastic disease  postpartum uterus - still larger than usual hormonal causes exogenous h...
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Uterine leiomyoma

Uterine leiomyomas, also referred as uterine fibroids, are benign tumours of myometrial origin and are the most common solid benign uterine neoplasms. Commonly an incidental finding on imaging, they rarely cause a diagnostic dilemma. There are various medical, surgical and interventional treatme...
Article

Uterine leiomyosarcoma

Uterine leiomyosarcomas are malignant uterine tumours that arises from the myometrium. The uterus is the commonest location for a leiomyosarcoma. Epidemiology Typically present in women in the 6th decade. They account for up to one-third of uterine sarcomas but only ~8% of all uterine cancers ...
Article

Uterine lipoleiomyoma

Uterine lipoleiomyomas result from degeneration of smooth muscle cells in an ordinary leiomyoma and represent a rare benign tumour of the uterus 1. Epidemiology Lipoleiomyomas have a reported incidence of 0.03-0.20% and are typically found in postmenopausal patients with typical uterine leiomy...
Article

Uterine lymphoma

Uterine lymphoma refers to involvement of the uterus with lymphoma. Some authors also place lymphoma of the uterine cervix under this group. Epidemiology It is rare condition with initial uterine involvement occurring in only 1% of patients with lymphoma 3. However, uterine involvement is more...
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Uterine perforation

Uterine perforation represents a serious complication that can occur as a result of any type of intrauterine procedure or implantation. Some authors use the term uterine rupture synonymously with the term uterine perforation. Pathology Causes IUCD insertion: IUCD related uterine perforation ...
Article

Uterine rupture

Uterine rupture is a rare but nevertheless potentially catastrophic complication that can occur in pregnancy.  Epidemiology The incidence rate in pregnancy is at 0.05% 6.   Clinical presentation Uterine rupture is usually an acute presentation with haemodynamic instability and abdominal disc...
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Uterine sarcoma

Uterine sarcoma is a malignant uterine tumour thats is composed of part or all sarcomatous (mesodermal) elements. They however account for a minority of all uterine malignancies (1-6% 3-4).  Pathology Classification They can be broadly classified as pure or mixed 4: mixed malignant mixed Mu...
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Uterine smooth muscle tumours of uncertain malignant potential

Uterine smooth muscle tumours of uncertain malignant potential (STUMP) is a recently defined entity by the World Health Organisation for a heterogeneous group of uterine smooth muscle tumours that cannot be histologically diagnosed as unequivocally benign or malignant 1. See also malignant neo...
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Uterine tube

The uterine tube, also known as the fallopian tube, is a paired structure that bridges between each ovary and the uterus and functions to convey the mature ovum from the former to the latter. If conception occurs, it normally does so within the tube. It can be affected by a wide range of patholo...
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Uterus didelphys

Uterus didelphys is a type of Müllerian duct anomaly (class III) where there is a complete duplication of uterine horns as well as duplication of the cervix, with no communication between them.   Epidemiology Didelphic uteri account for approximately ~8% (range 5-11%) of Müllerian duct anomali...
Article

VACTERL association

VACTERL is an acronym that describes a non-random constellation of congenital anomalies. It is not a true syndrome as such and is equivalent to the VATER anomaly. Epidemiology The estimated incidence is 1 in 10,000-40,000 births 3. Pathology The acronym VACTERL derives from: V: vertebral an...
Article

VACTERL-H association

The VACTERL-H association is a rare non-random association which bears the features of the standard VACTERL association with added fetal hydrocephalus. Unlike the standard VACTERL association which is sporadic, the VACTERL-H is hereditary with both X-linked 3 and autosomal recessive 2 inheritan...
Article

Vagina

The vagina is a midline fibromuscular tubular structure positioned in the female perineum extending superiorly to the cervix and uterus in the pelvis.  Gross anatomy The vagina is 8-10 cm in length, extending posterosuperior from the vestibule through the urogenital diaphragm to the uterus. Th...
Article

Vaginal atresia

Vaginal atresia refers to a spectrum of anomalies comprising of failure to form a part or all of the vagina.   Epidemiology It is considered the second most common cause of primary amenorrhea. The estimated  Incidence is at ~ 2 in 10000 women. Clinical presentation The most common symptom...
Article

Vaginal cancer (staging)

The staging of primary vaginal cancer covers for all histological sub types and is as follows FIGO staging system stage 0: carcinoma in situ stage I: tumour confined to vagina stage II: invasion of paravaginal tissues but no extension beyond pelvic side walls stage III: extension to pelvic ...
Article

Vaginal leiomyoma

A vaginal leiomyoma is an extremely rare entity and falls under extra uterine pelvic leiomyomas.  Epidemiology They are extremely rare with only ~ 300 cases reported in literature 3. Pathology It may occur anywhere along the vaginal canal and is usually localized, mobile, non-tender, and cir...
Article

Vaginal lymphoma

Vaginal lymphoma can refer to: secondary involvement of the vagina (secondary vaginal lymphoma) from widespread generalised lymphoma relatively commoner usually comprises of diffuse large cell B non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (DLBCL) 2 primary vaginal lymphoma much rarer
Article

Vaginal pessary

A vaginal pessary is a device inserted into the vagina which can either be mechanical or pharmaceutical. A mechanical pessary is most commonly used to treat uterine prolapse. It is also used to treat stress urinary incontinence, a retroverted uterus, cystocele and rectocele. A bewildering array...
Article

Vaginal stenosis

Vaginal stenosis refers to a narrowing of the vagina, it can be congenital or acquired. Pathology Causes Acquired causes include scarring from prior pelvic irradiation - brachytherapy Radiographic features General Depending on the site of stenosis and state of menstruation there can be a...
Article

Vascular Ehlers Danlos syndrome

Vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) or type IV Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS 4) is the most malignant form of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. This form is often accompanied by neurovascular complications secondary to vessel dissections and/or aneurysms. Epidemiology Vascular EDS represents about 4% of...
Article

Vesico-vaginal fistula

Vesico-vaginal fistulas are abnormal fistulous connections between the urinary bladder and vagina, resulting in an involuntary discharge of urine through the vagina. Epidemiology The overall incidence of vesicovaginal fistula is unknown but was reported to be 2.11 per 100 births in Nigeria 1. ...
Article

Vesicovaginal reflux

Vesicovaginal reflux is a well-known entity rarely encountered by radiologists. It is a behavioural disorder, a type of dysfunctional elimination syndrome commonly encountered in pre-pubertal girls. It is defined as reflux of urine into the vaginal vault either in supine or upright position duri...
Article

Vulval cancer (staging)

Staging of vulval cancer is the FIGO staging system and is as follows: stage 0: carcinoma in situ (pre-invasive); corresponds to Tis stage I: tumour <2cm (greatest dimension) and confined to vulva/perineum; corresponds to T1 stage Ia: stromal invasion by <1mm Stage Ib: stromal invasion by >1...
Article

Vulval neoplasms

Vulval neoplasms are rare and mostly seen in an elderly female patients. Squamous cell carcinoma is most common malignancy of the vulva which only 30% of them are associated with oncogenic HPV viruses. Pathology Squamous neoplastic lesions  Premalignant  classic vulvar intraepithelial neopla...
Article

Whirlpool sign

The whirlpool sign, also known as the whirl sign, is seen when a structure twists upon itself. It is most commonly described in the abdomen where bowel rotates around its mesentery, with mesenteric vessels creating the whirls. It can also be seen in ovarian torsion. Whirlpool sign: mesenteric ...
Article

WHO histological classification of tumours of the uterine cervix

The WHO histological classification is a detailed classification of tumours of the uterine cervix. It is as follows epithelial tumours squamous tumours and precursors squamous cell carcinoma, not otherwise specified - 8070/3 keratinizing - 8071/3 non-keratinizing - 8072/3 basaloid - 8083/3...

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