Articles

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213 results found
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Lugano classification

The Lugano staging system is a lymphoma staging classification system resulting from recommend changes to the Cotswolds-modified Ann Arbor classification following meetings in 2011. The goal was to simplify and standardize the response assessment enabling better understanding and communication ...
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Lugano classification (lesion measurement guidelines)

The Lugano classification is a lymphoma staging system resulting from recommended changes in 2011 to the Cotswolds modified Ann Arbor staging. This article outlines the lesion measurement guidelines for the system: Eligible lesions lymph nodes: the longest diameter in axial plane should be >1....
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Lugano classification (response to treatment on CT)

The Lugano classification is a lymphoma staging system resulting from recommended changes in 2011 to the Ann Arbor staging with Cotswolds modifications. This article outlines the classification's response to treatment based on CT.  Also included in the classification are staging and reponse to ...
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Lugano classification (response to treatment on PET/CT)

The Lugano classification is a lymphoma staging system resulting from recommended changes in 2011 to the Cotswolds modified Ann Arbor staging. This article outlines the classification's response to treatment based on PET/CT.  Also included in the classification are staging and reponse to treatm...
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Lymph node enlargement

Lymph node enlargement (rarely lymphadenomegaly) is often used synonymously with lymphadenopathy, which is not strictly correct. Terminology Lymphadenopathy (or adenopathy) is, if anything, a broader term, referring to any pathology of lymph nodes, not necessarily resulting in increased size; ...
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Lymphoma

Lymphoma is a malignancy arising from lymphocytes or lymphoblasts. Lymphoma can be restricted to the lymphatic system or can arise as extranodal disease. This, along with variable aggressiveness results in a diverse imaging appearance. Epidemiology Lymphoma accounts for ~4% of all cancers 4. T...
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Lymphoma of the spinal cord

Lymphoma of the spinal cord is an uncommon manifestation of lymphoma. Although lymphoma more commonly involves the vertebral body (vertebral body tumors) or epidural compartment, intramedullary lymphoma may rarely occur.   Apparent intramedullary spinal cord lymphoma may often, in fact, represe...
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Lymphoma of the uterine cervix

Lymphoma of the uterine cervix is generally uncommon and when it does occur tends to present as cervical involvement with added background multi-organ disease rather than isolated primary cervical lymphoma 1. It is often considered part of the spectrum of uterine lymphoma. Epidemiology In the ...
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Lymphoma response to immunomodulatory therapy criteria (LYRIC)

The Lymphoma Response to Immunomodulatory Therapy Criteria (LYRIC) represents an adaptation of the Lugano classification for the evaluation of lymphoma after immune-based treatment. During immunomodulatory agents (e.g. checkpoint inhibitors) therapy, imaging findings suggestive of progressive d...
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Lymphoma (staging)

There are a number of lymphoma staging systems for both Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma including the Ann Arbor classification, Cotswolds-modified Ann Arbor classification, the Lugano classification and the most current LYRIC classification Evolution of lymphoma staging and treatment ...
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Lymphomatoid granulomatosis

Lymphomatoid granulomatosis (LG), also known as angiocentric lymphoma or angiocentric immunoproliferative lesion, is a rare type of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Pathology There is a recognised association with antecedent infection with the Epstein Barr virus (EBV).   It can affect a variety of org...
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Lymphomatoid granulomatosis (CNS manifestations)

Lymphomatoid granulomatosis of the central nervous system is uncommon, but represents the second most common site of involvement in patients with systemic lymphomatoid granulomatosis, after the lungs, which are most commonly involved. It is considered one of the immunodeficiency-associated CNS l...
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Lymphomatoid granulomatosis (pulmonary manifestations)

Pulmonary manifestations of lymphomatoid granulomatosis are important since the lung is one of the most frequent sites of involvement in lymphomatoid granulomatosis. It falls under the group of pulmonary angiitis and granulomatosis. Pathology Some consider the condition to be midway between ov...
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MALT lymphoma

Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma, also called extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma, is a type of low-grade extranodal lymphoma.  Epidemiology MALT lymphoma represents ~7.5% of non-Hodgkin lymphomas. The average age of presentation is 60 years with a slight female predomina...
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Mannose-binding lectin deficiency

Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) deficiency is a condition that affects the immune system. Epidemiology It may be prevalent in 10-30% of the general population. Pathology Affected individuals have low levels of an immune protein named mannose-binding lectin in their blood. They are prone to recu...
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Mantle cell lymphoma

Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is a type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and accounts for ~5% of all NHL. It is a malignant neoplasm of virgin B cells that closely resemble normal mantle zone B cells surrounding germinal centers. Epidemiology They occur in older adults (mean age ~60 years). There is...
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Marginal zone lymphoma

Marginal zone lymphomas are a group of low grade Non Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) that arise from the marginal zone of B cell germinal follicles in lymph nodes. There are three types of marginal zone lymphomas depending on the site of origin. These include: Mucosa-accosiated lymphoid tissue (MALT) s...
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Mediastinal lymph node enlargement

Mediastinal lymph node enlargement can occur from a wide range of pathologies. It may occur on its own or in association with other lung pathology. Terminology Although mediastinal lymphadenopathy is used interchangeably - by some - with "mediastinal lymph node enlargement", they are not synon...
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Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance

Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) is the most common plasma cell disorder and refers to the presence of an abnormal monoclonal antibody in the blood but the absence of the overt bone marrow and clinical signs of multiple myeloma. Epidemiology MGUS is the most common pla...
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MR liver iron quantification

MR liver iron quantification is a non-invasive means of measuring liver iron concentration, a key indicator in the management of patients with hemochromatosis (primary or secondary). Advantages Apart from being non-invasive, sampling occurs in a large cross-section of the liver, as opposed to ...
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Multiple myeloma

Multiple myeloma is the most common primary malignant bone neoplasm in adults. It arises from red marrow due to monoclonal proliferation of plasma cells and manifests in a wide range of radiographic abnormalities. Multiple myeloma remains incurable. Terminology Four main patterns are recognise...
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Multiple myeloma (extraosseous manifestations)

Extraosseous myeloma refers to any manifestation of multiple myeloma where there is plasma cell proliferation outside the skeletal system. This can potentially affect any organ system and the reported disease spectrum includes: reticuloendothelial system lymph nodes (considered to be most comm...
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Muscle lymphoma

Muscle lymphoma is a rare manifestation of lymphoma. Epidemiology Muscle lymphoma is rare, representing <2% of all lymphomas. The average age of presentation is 70 years 1. Clinical presentation Focal swelling and/or pain along with B-type symptoms 2. Any muscle can be involved but most comm...
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Myelodysplastic syndrome

Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are a heterogeneous group of clonal haematologic stem cell disorders. It has sometimes been referred to as a preleukaemia or a preleukaemic condition. Epidemiology Its overall incidence is thought to be around 3.3 per 100,000. The incidence in patients older tha...
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Myelofibrosis

Myelofibrosis is a haematologic disorder where there is the replacement of bone marrow with collagenous connective tissue and progressive fibrosis. It is also classified as a myeloproliferative disorder. It is characterized by: extramedullary hematopoiesis progressive splenomegaly anemia var...
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Myeloproliferative disorder

Myeloproliferative disorders (MPDs) are a diverse group of conditions that are characterized by the overproduction of red cells, white cells and/or platelets in bone marrow. There are numerous conditions considered in this group but the most common are:  myelofibrosis polycythemia vera essent...
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Necrobiotic xanthogranuloma

Necrobiotic xanthogranulomas are a rare form of cutaneous non-Langerhans cell histiocytosis. Epidemiology The condition occurs mostly in older adults 2. Clinical presentation Patients demonstrate cutaneous papules that develop into large, firm plaques, papules and nodules, which are often ye...
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Neurolymphomatosis

Neurolymphomatosis is a rare condition characterized by the direct invasion of the cranial and peripheral nerves and roots by lymphoma, in the great majority B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma. It should be differentiated from non-tumor conditions associated with lymphoma that also affect the peripher...
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Nodular lymphoid hyperplasia

Nodular lymphoid hyperplasia (NLH) is a type of rare, benign, lymphoproliferative disease. It is most commonly reported affecting the gastrointestinal and respiratory systems. The presence of gut/mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (GALT/MALT) can be seen in children and young adults as a normal ...
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Non-Hodgkin lymphoma

Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is a catch-all term for lymphomas that are not of the Hodgkin subtype. It is a heterogeneous group of malignancies in terms of histology, clinical presentation, and prognosis.  See 2008 WHO classification for further information on subtypes. 
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Non lymphomatous pulmonary lymphoid disorders

There are several non lymphomatous lymphoid disorders that can affect the lung. This implies that they consist of lymphoid tissue but may not have progressed as far as an overt lymphoma. They include: Castleman disease plasma-cell granuloma lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia angioimmunoblast...
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Normal gastrointestinal tract imaging examples

This article lists examples of normal imaging of the gastrointestinal tract and surrounding structures, divided by modality. Plain radiograph example 1: abdominal film example 2: erect and supine example 3, example 4: pediatric example 5: young adult male Barium studies example 1, example...
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Normal hepatobiliary imaging examples

This article lists examples of normal imaging of the liver and biliary tree and surrounding structures, divided by region and modality. Liver Plain radiographs liver silhouette: example Ultrasound liver ultrasound example 1 with shear wave elastography liver Doppler ultrasound: example ne...
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Normal mesenteric lymph nodes

In the pre-multidetector CT era, mesenteric lymph nodes were only really appreciated when enlarged. Following the advent of routine volume acquisition CT (and especially coronal reformats) they are commonly seen in normal individuals, which has raised the obvious question of what counts as mesen...
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Pancreatic lymphoma

Pancreatic lymphoma is most commonly a B-cell sub-type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Epidemiology Pancreatic lymphoma is typically seen in middle-aged patients with a mean age of around 55 years old and is more common in immunocompromised patients. Clinical presentation Symptoms are often non-spe...
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Paraneoplastic syndromes

Paraneoplastic syndromes occur secondary to the indirect effects of a malignancy and occur remotely to the primary malignancy. Symptoms are mediated by cytokines, hormones or immune cross-reactivity. These syndromes can cause a diverse range of symptoms and can affect multiple systems. Epidemio...
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Paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria

Paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria (PNH) is an acquired hematopoietic stem cell disorder whereby some of the red blood cells produced are defective and are susceptible to premature destruction by the immune system, leading to haemoglobinuria. Terminology The term comes from a mistaken 19th c...
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Periprocedural anticoagulation

When planning an interventional procedure a patient’s coagulation status must be assessed and optimised to best balance the risk of bleeding and thrombosis. The following must be considered; bleeding risks associated with the procedure medications the patient is taking that alter coagulation o...
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Perisplenitis

Perisplenitis is acute inflammation of the splenic capsule and its peritoneal covering. Epidemiology It is seen uncommonly but there is no data on its actual incidence. Clinical Presentation It is seen usually in young and middle-aged patients, with acute left hypochondrial or lower chest pa...
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Pernicious anemia

Pernicious anemia (PA) is the commonest cause of vitamin B12 deficiency (or hypocobalaminaemia) in the world, due to an autoantibody against intrinsic factor, the cofactor required for absorption of this vitamin. Epidemiology Pernicious anemia is the commonest cause of hypovitaminosis B12 glob...
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PET-CT indications

PET-CT is a combination of cross-sectional anatomic information provided by CT and the metabolic information provided by positron emission tomography (PET). PET is most commonly performed with 2-[F-18]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG). Fluorine-18 (F-18) is an unstable radioisotope and has a half-...
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Pituitary lymphoma

Pituitary lymphoma is very rare, although lymphomatous (or leukemic) infiltration of the perisellar dura is not infrequently encountered as part of more widespread CNS disease. This article concerns itself with involvement of the pituitary itself rather than the region more broadly. For a genera...
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Plasmacytoma

Plasmacytomas are discrete, solitary tumors of neoplastic monoclonal plasma cells in either bone or soft tissue (extramedullary). It is a rare tumor that is associated with latent systemic disease in the majority of affected patients. In contradistinction to multiple myeloma, there is minimal or...
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Pleural lymphoma

Pleural involvement with lymphoma can occur in two situations: primary pleural lymphoma primary effusion lymphoma secondary involvement of the pleura with lymphoma
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Pneumocystis pneumonia

Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP), also referred to as Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PJP), is an atypical pulmonary infection and the most common opportunistic infection in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Terminology Classically, PCP was the acronym for Pneumocystis car...
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POEMS syndrome

POEMS syndrome is the acronymic name for a rare multisystem paraneoplastic disorder comprising of a minimum of three of the following features in the setting of a plasma cell dyscrasia: P: polyneuropathy O: organomegaly hepatomegaly, splenomegaly or lymphadenopathy E: endocrinopathy diabete...
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Polycythemia vera

Polycythemia vera (older term: polycythemia rubra vera) is a myeloproliferative disorder that results in an excess of red blood cells in the bloodstream. Epidemiology The estimated prevalence is around 2-3 per 10,000 people. It typically presents in older individuals. There may be a slightly g...
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Polyglandular autoimmune syndromes

Polyglandular autoimmune syndromes (PAS) are a rare set of diseases characterized by the presence of ≥2 autoimmune endocrine disease. Pathology Three types of PAS have been described.  PAS type I a.k.a. APECED (autoimmune polyendocrinopathy, candidiasis and ectodermal dystrophy) or MEDAC (mu...
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Primary bone lymphoma

Primary bone (skeletal/osseous) lymphoma (PBL) is a less common manifestation of lymphoma than secondary involvement from disseminated lymphoma. It is rare, accounting for <5% of bone tumors and <1% of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Terminology PBL is defined as the presence of lymphoma isolated to one...
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Primary effusion lymphoma

Primary effusion lymphoma is a rare form of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (diffuse large cell B cell lymphoma) characterized by malignant fluid accumulation in the absence of lymphadenopathy. Typical sites of accumulation include pleural space pericardium peritoneal space Associations immunodeficie...
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Primary hepatic lymphoma

Primary hepatic lymphoma (PHL) is rare accounting for roughly 100 described cases. If it is being considered as a diagnosis, distal lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, bone marrow disease, and leukemia should not be present for at least 6 months after the liver tumor is detected (see: secondary hepat...
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Primary immunodeficiency states

Primary immunodeficiency states are heterogenous group of disorders that occur when there is an impairment of humoral or cell-mediated immunity in the absence of any recognised precipitating cause such as drug therapy or infective agent such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Epidemiology ...
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Primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma

Primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma is a distinct entity, recognised in the WHO classification of lymphoma. Epidemiology Primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma accounts approximately 5% of large B-cell lymphoma, which is usually disseminated or found in the abdomen. There appears to b...
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Primary ovarian lymphoma

Primary ovarian lymphoma (POL) refers to involvement of the ovary with lymphoma but without the involvement of any other site. It is an extremely rare yet well-recognised condition. Epidemiology POL accounts for ~1.5% of ovarian tumors 5. Pathology The rarity of this condition is probably co...
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Primary pleural lymphoma

Primary pleural lymphoma is extremely rare, especially in immunocompetent patients. Epidemiology Primary pleural lymphoma accounts for <0.5% of all non-Hodgkin lymphoma 2 and ~2.5% of primary chest wall tumors 4.  Pathology Primary pleural lymphoma may be Hodgkin or non-Hodgkin lymphoma with...
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Primary pulmonary lymphoma

Primary pulmonary lymphomas refer to clonal lymphoid proliferation affecting the lungs without any detectable extrapulmonary involvement. It is much rarer than secondary pulmonary lymphoma and is most frequently represented by lymphoma of B-cell lineage - often marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of m...
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Protein C deficiency

Protein C deficiency is a hypercoagulable state due to reduced activity or an absolute deficiency of protein C, an anticoagulant protein. Protein C deficiency increases the risk of venous thrombosis. Epidemiology The prevalence of protein C deficiency in the general population is around 1 per ...
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Protein S deficiency

Protein S deficiency is a hyperocoagulable state associated with increased risk of venous thrombosis (up to 5% of patients with deep venous thrombosis may carry this deficiency). Epidemiology Protein S deficiency may be expected in ≈1 of every 500 people 3. Pathology Protein S, a vitamin K-d...
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Pulmonary artery stump thrombosis

Pulmonary artery stump thrombosis describes thrombus formation occurring at the site of the pulmonary arterial stump, a complication following lobectomy or pneumonectomy. It is usually discovered as an incidental finding on routine follow-up chest CT scans. Epidemiology The prevalence of pulmo...
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Pulmonary leukostasis

Pulmonary leukostasis is a medical emergency that is most commonly seen as a complication of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) in blast crisis, and acute myeloid leukemia when white blood cell (WBC) counts are over 100 x 109/L (100,000/microL). It needs to be considered in any patient with myelogen...
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Pulmonary lymphoma

Pulmonary lymphoma refers to lung parenchymal involvement with lymphoma. Pathology It can be broadly divided as primary or secondary: primary pulmonary lymphoma: (rare) usually non-Hodgkin lymphoma which is limited to the lung with or without mediastinal lymph node involvement and with no evi...
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Rai staging system for chronic lymphoid leukemia

The Rai staging system is one of the two staging systems currently adopted in assessment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). It comprises of stages 0 to IV and classifies chronic lymphocytic leukemia into low, intermediate and high-risk categories, which correspond with stages 0, I & II, and...
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Reactive vs malignant lymph nodes (ultrasound features)

A number of sonographic features are helpful in distinguishing reactive versus malignant lymph nodes. Grey scale features Features that favour reactive/infective nodes over malignancy include: nodal matting surrounding soft tissue edema Doppler features Doppler examination is particularly ...
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Reed-Sternberg cells

Reed-Sternberg cells are a classical finding diagnostic of Hodgkin lymphoma. They are giant, multinucleated cells with abundant pale cytoplasm. Reed-Sternberg cells are rare, making up <1% of lymphoid tissue, with the background consisting of lymphocytes, plasma cells, eosinophils and macrophages.
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Renal lymphoma

Renal lymphoma is usually a part component of multi-systemic lymphoma - primary renal lymphoma is unusual. Typical imaging findings are multiple bilateral hypodense or infiltrative renal masses. Epidemiology While renal lymphoma has an autopsy incidence of ~45% (range 30-60%) in lymphoma pati...
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Reticuloendothelial system

The reticuloendothelial system (RES) comprises a number of tissues: spleen bone marrow liver Kupffer cells
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Retrorenal spleen

Retrorenal spleen refers to variant position of the spleen, when its inferior portion lies posterior to the upper pole of the left kidney. This normal variant occurs in ~20% of patients, with the finding more common in patients who lie supine 1. Recognition of this variant is important to avoi...
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Richter transformation

Richter transformation is defined as development of high-grade non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) or small lymphocytic lymphoma. It has been expanded to include other lymphoid malignancies that develop in CLL patients, including Hodgkin disease, proly...
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Rosai-Dorfman disease

Rosai-Dorfman disease, also known as sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy, is a rare benign idiopathic proliferative disease that involves phagocytic histiocytes. Epidemiology The disease predominantly occurs in young adults with a mean age at presentation of 21 years. There may be...
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Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome

Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome (RTS) is a very rare genetic multi-system disorder primarily characterized by mental retardation, broad and often angulated thumbs and halluces, and distinctive facial features. Epidemiology The estimated incidence is 1 in 100,000-125,000 live births 5. Clinical pres...
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Sclerosing angiomatoid nodular transformation of the spleen

Sclerosing angiomatoid nodular transformation (SANT) of the spleen is a recently recognised, rare, non-neoplastic vascular splenic lesion of uncertain etiology.  Terminology The term SANT first appeared in the literature in a 2004 paper by Martel et al. which examined a series of 25 cases 3. T...
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Secondary hepatic involvement with lymphoma

Secondary hepatic involvement with lymphoma (secondary hepatic lymphoma) is common, much more so than primary hepatic lymphoma.  Clinical presentation Hepatomegaly with deranged liver function tests is the most common presentation. Jaundice is common. Rarely, patients may present with acute li...
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Secondary involvement of the bone with lymphoma

Secondary involvement of the bone with lymphoma, also referred as secondary bone lymphoma, is much more common than primary bone lymphoma, occurring in ~15% of disseminated lymphomas. Terminology Secondary bone lymphoma is defined as lymphoma involving the bone with nodal disease occurring wit...
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Secondary involvement of the pleura with lymphoma

Secondary involvement of the pleura with lymphoma (secondary pleural lymphoma) is very common, occurring in ~20% of lymphomas. It may be a result of an extension of lymphoma into the visceral or parietal pleura or be a complicating pleural effusion and is a poor prognostic factor.  Epidemiology...
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Secondary organising pneumonia

Secondary organising pneumonia (SOP) refers to organising pneumonia that can be attributed to a specific cause, in contrast to cryptogenic organising pneumonia (COP). Pathology Etiology SOP can be attributed to the following causes 1: Prior infection bacteria atypical pneumonias (e.g. Legi...
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Secondary pulmonary lymphoma

Secondary pulmonary lymphomas refer to pulmonary involvement with lymphoma when the condition is not limited to the lung and has mediastinal lymph node involvement or evidence of extrathoracic dissemination for at least three months after the initial diagnosis. This is a more common form of pulm...
Article

Sezary syndrome

Sézary syndrome (SS) is a type of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. It is sometimes considered an advanced and leukemic form of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL). Clinical presentation It is clinically characterized by an extensive erythematous rash covering most of the body as well as the presence of...
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Sickle cell disease

Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a hereditary (autosomal recessive) condition resulting in the formation of abnormal hemoglobin (a hemoglobinopathy), which manifests as multisystem ischemia and infarction, as well as hemolytic anemia.  Epidemiology There is no recognised gender predilection. The h...
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Sickle cell disease (abdominal manifestations)

Abdominal manifestations of sickle cell disease (SCD) are wide and can involve many organs. For a general discussion, please refer to sickle cell disease. Splenic splenomegaly may occur transiently with the sequestration syndrome, where rapid pooling of blood occurs in the spleen, resulting ...
Article

Sickle cell disease (acute chest syndrome)

Acute chest syndrome (ACS) in sickle cell disease is a leading thoracic complication - as well as leading cause of mortality - in those affected by sickle cell disease. The diagnosis is made on the combination of new pulmonary opacity on chest x-ray with at least one new clinical symptom or sign...
Article

Sideroblastic anemia

Sideroblastic anemia (also known as sideroachrestic anemia) is a rare cause of anemia characterized by the presence of ring sideroblasts rather than normal red blood cells in the bloodstream. Sideroblastic anemia is either congenital or acquired. Clinical presentation Symptoms and signs reflec...
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Small bowel lymphoma

Small bowel lymphoma is the most common small bowel malignancy, accounting accounts for ~25% of all primary small bowel malignancies and ~40% of all primary gastrointestinal lymphomas. Epidemiology Small bowel lymphoma is most commonly secondary extranodal involvement in widespread systemic ly...
Article

Small lymphocytic lymphoma

Small lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL) is a non-Hodgkin lymphoma affecting the B-lymphocytes of the immune system. ​It is considered the same disease process as chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) although unlike CLL, the tumor cells are mostly confined to the lymph nodes rather than the blood stream. ...
Article

Smouldering multiple myeloma

Smouldering multiple myeloma (SMM) is a precursor to multiple myeloma. Clinical presentation Similar to MGUS patients, smoulder multiple myeloma patients are asymptomatic. Diagnostic criteria The criteria for smouldering multiple myeloma diagnosis according to the International Myeloma Worki...
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Solitary plasmacytoma with minimal bone marrow involvement

Solitary plasmacytoma with minimal bone marrow involvement refers to a type of plasmacytoma with bone marrow cytology positive for monoclonal plasma cell infiltration. Criteria In order to fulfill the International Myeloma Working Group criteria for the diagnosis of solitary plasmacytoma with ...
Article

Spleen

The spleen is an organ of the haematologic system and has a role in immune response, storage of red blood cells and hematopoiesis. Gross anatomy The spleen is a wedge-shaped organ lying mainly in the left upper quadrant (left hypochondrium and partly in the epigastrium) and is protected by the...
Article

Splenic artery aneurysm

Splenic artery aneuryms are the commonest visceral arterial aneurysm formation as well as the 3rd commonest abdominal aneurysm (after the aorta and iliac vessels). Aneurysms are usually saccular in configuration and they can either be in the form of a true aneurysm (much more common) or as a pse...
Article

Splenic cyst

Splenic epithelial cysts, also referred as splenic epidermoid cysts or primary splenic cysts, are unilocular fluid lesions with thin and smooth walls and no enhancement. They represent ~20% of cysts found in the spleen, and are usually an innocuous incidental imaging finding. Note that most (~8...
Article

Splenic embolization

Splenic (artery) embolization is an endovascular technique for treatment of splenic and splenic artery pathology as an alternative to splenic artery ligation or splenectomy. It often results in successfully treating the underlying pathology, while maintaining at least partial splenic function.  ...
Article

Splenic granulomatous disease

Splenic granulomatous disease refers to sequelae arising from granulomatous infection-inflammation of the spleen.  They are a result of: infective splenic tuberculosis splenic histoplasmosis splenic brucellosis non-infective splenic sarcoidosis Radiographic features General In latent s...
Article

Splenic hamartoma

Splenic hamartomas are very rare lesions commonly found incidentally on imaging. They are most often solitary but may be present as multiple nodules in patients with tuberous sclerosis or Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome. Terminology  The recently-described sclerosing angiomatoid nodular transformatio...
Article

Splenic lymphoma

Splenic lymphoma, also termed as lymphomatous involvement of the spleen, represents the most common malignancy to involve the spleen. They are commonly secondary, rarely being primary (referred as primary splenic lymphoma).   This article focuses on the location-specific primary and secondary l...
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Splenic metastases

Splenic metastases are relatively rare on imaging, although they are more commonly found on autopsy. Typically they are part of a widespread metastatic disease. Epidemiology The rate of splenic metastases varies between 1-10% of autopsy studies, depending on whether microscopic or macroscopic ...

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