Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

212 results found
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Splenic trauma

Splenic trauma can occur after blunt or penetrating trauma or secondary to medical intervention (i.e. iatrogenic). The spleen is the most frequently injured internal organ after blunt trauma. Epidemiology In blunt trauma, the spleen can account for up to 49% of abdominal organ injuries 2. Cli...
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Splenomegaly

Splenomegaly is a term which refers to enlargement of the spleen. The normal adult splenic length upper limit is usually around 12-15 cm. It can also be helpful to know how to calculate splenic index, volume and mass by CT and MR techniques. Massive splenomegaly is a term used when the spleen we...
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Splenunculus

Splenunculi (also known as supernumerary spleens, accessory spleens, or splenules) are small nodules of spleen that are separate from the rest of the organ.  Epidemiology They are common, seen in up to 16% of CTs of the abdomen and up to 30% of autopsies 2.  Pathology Accessory spleens are c...
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Sweet syndrome

Sweet syndrome (acute febrile neutrophilic dermatosis) is characterized by a constellation of clinical symptoms, physical features, and pathologic findings which include: fever neutrophilia tender erythematous skin lesions (papules, nodules, and plaques) a diffuse infiltrate consisting predo...
Article

T-cell prolymphocytic leukemia

T-cell prolymphocytic leukemia (T-PLL) is a rare and unusual haematologic malignancy. Epidemiology It represents around 2% of all mature lymphocytic leukaemias in adults over the age of 30 1. It usually affects older adults with an average age at presentation being around 65 years. There may b...
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Technetium agents

Technetium agents based on the technetium-99m (Tc-99m) radioisotope are frequently used agents in medical imaging. The radioactive technetium radiotracer can be chelated to a number of different compounds to create specific radiopharmaceuticals and optimise the functional imaging of various stru...
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Testicular leukemia

Testicular leukemia can be seen in patients during and after acute leukemia. The blood-testis barrier limits chemotherapy from reaching the testicle, and therefore the testicle can act as a harbor for leukemic cells. Clinical presentation Typically presents with painless testicular enlargement...
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Testicular lymphoma

Testicular lymphoma is an uncommon testicular malignancy. Lymphoma can involve the testes in three ways: primary site of extranodal disease (primary testicular lymphoma) secondary involvement of systemic disease primary manifestation of subclinical systemic disease This article is concerned ...
Article

Thalassemia

Thalassemia is an autosomal recessive hemoglobinopathy that originated in the Mediterranean region. The genetic defect causes a reduction in the rate of globin chain synthesis which causes the formation of abnormal hemoglobin molecules. The resultant microcytic anemia is the characteristic prese...
Article

Thrombotic thrombocytopaenic purpura

Thrombotic thrombocytopaenic purpura (TTP) is a rare but life-threatening condition characterized by thrombocytopaenia, microangiopathic hemolytic anemia and end-organ damage. Epidemiology The prevalence of TTP is ten cases per one million people 2. Ninety-percent of cases occur in adulthood a...
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Thymic rebound hyperplasia

In periods of bodily stress the thymus may acutely shrink to 40% of its original volume (depending on the severity and duration of the stress). During the recovery phase it can grow back to its original size or even larger (up to 50% larger). This "rebound effect" is known as thymic rebound hype...
Article

Tower vertebrae

Tower vertebrae a rare manifestation of sickle cell disease, in which short infarcted vertebrae are seen adjacent to other abnormally grown in height vertebrae.  See also codfish or h-shaped vertebrae anterior vertebral vascular notches vanishing vertebrae
Article

Trousseau syndrome

Trousseau syndrome (not to be confused with Trousseau sign) represents the association between migratory thrombophlebitis and malignancy; hence one of its other names: cancer-associated thromboembolism. History and etymology  Armand Trousseau (1801-1867), was a French physician who was the fir...
Article

Tumors associated with increased erythropoetin

Tumors associated with increased erythropoetin are varied and numerous. Patients will be polycythaemic due to erythropoetin secretion. Tumors in this group include: renal cell carcinoma (RCC) 2 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) hemangioblastoma
Article

Twin anemia polycythemia sequence

Twin anemia polycythemia sequence (TAPS) is considered a variant of the twin to twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS). Epidemiology TAPS may occur spontaneously in up to 5% of monochorionic twins and may also develop after incomplete laser treatment in twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome cases 2. Pa...
Article

Typhlitis

Typhlitis, also called cecitis or neutropaenic colitis, is a necrotizing inflammatory condition which typically involves the cecum and, sometimes, can extend into the ascending colon or terminal ileum. Epidemiology Typhlitis was first described in children with leukemia and severe neutropaenia...
Article

Uterine lymphoma

Uterine lymphoma refers to involvement of the uterus with lymphoma. Some authors also place lymphoma of the uterine cervix under this group. Epidemiology It is rare condition with initial uterine involvement occurring in only 1% of patients with lymphoma 3. However, uterine involvement is more...
Article

Vaginal lymphoma

Vaginal lymphoma can refer to: secondary involvement of the vagina (secondary vaginal lymphoma) from widespread generalised lymphoma relatively commoner usually comprises of diffuse large cell B non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (DLBCL) 2 primary vaginal lymphoma much rarer
Article

Vanishing vertebrae

Vanishing vertebrae is a rare ischemic manifestation of sickle cell disease, in which a completely infarcted vertebral body literally disappears or vanishes, as a result of infarction. In the few reported cases, the posterior elements remain intact. See also codfish or h-shaped vertebrae ante...
Article

Vitamin B12 deficiency

Vitamin B12 deficiency, also known as hypovitaminosis B12 or hypocobalaminaemia, is not uncommon, with potentially serious sequelae if not adequately treated. Clinical presentation Vitamin B12 deficiency presents with a wide spectrum of dysfunction, from no symptoms at all (i.e. subclinical di...
Article

Vitamin K

Vitamin K is a family of fat-soluble vitamins essential for normal blood-clotting function and comprises two vitamers that are found naturally: phytomenadione (also known as phylloquinone or K1) and menaquinone (or K2). Menadione is a synthetic molecule which is occasionally called vitamin K3 h...
Article

Von Willebrand disease

Von Willebrand disease (vWD) is the most common inherited bleeding diathesis (easy bleeding). Clinical presentation Bruising and mucosal bleeding are typical presentations, but there is a spectrum of severity. The more residual vWF a patient has, the less severe the bleeding. Pathology There...
Article

Waldenström macroglobulinemia

Waldenström macroglobulinemia, previously also known as lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma, is a type of B-cell lymphoma. Terminology Recent publications classify Waldenström macroglobulinemia as a lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma with any level of an IgM paraprotein 10.  Therefore the two entities are not ...
Article

Wells criteria for pulmonary embolism

The Wells criteria for pulmonary embolism is a risk stratification score and clinical decision rule to estimate the probability for acute pulmonary embolism (PE) in patients in which history and examination suggests acute PE is a diagnostic possibility. It provides a pre-test probability which, ...
Article

Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome

Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS) is a rare immunodeficiency disease with a characteristic phenotype that includes: X-linked recessive petechiae, bloody diarrhea, epistaxis due to thrombocytopenia with small platelets eczema starts in first month of life recurrent infections with encapsulated b...
Article

Zebra spleen

Zebra spleen, also referred to as psychedelic spleen or more correctly inhomogeneous splenic enhancement refers to the transient heterogeneous parenchymal enhancement of the spleen during the arterial or early portal venous phases of contrast enhancement in CT, MRI, or ultrasound imaging. It is...

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