Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

197 results found
Article

2008 WHO classification of tumours of haematopoietic and lymphoid tissues

The 2008 WHO classification of tumours of haematopoietic and lymphoid tissues is at the time of writing (mid 2016) the most widely used classification system.   Classification Hodgkin lymphoma nodular lymphocyte predominance classical Hodgkin lymphoma nodular sclerosing mixed cellularity ...
Article

2016 Histiocyte Society classification of histiocytoses

The 2016 Histiocyte Society classification of histiocytoses and neoplasms of macrophage-dendritic cell lineages is a proposed revision of the organisation's initial classification system from 1987. Terminology Histiocytes are mononuclear phagocytes that reside in tissues, including macrophages...
Article

Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia

Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) is a malignant disorder of the bone marrow characterised by the proliferation of the lymphoid progenitor cells. Epidemiology Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia is the commonest form of childhood leukaemia. It accounts for 80% of paediatric leukaemia cases but onl...
Article

Acute promyelocytic leukemia

Acute promyelocytic leukaemia (APML) is a distinct subtype of acute myeloid leukaemia. Pathology Genetics It is defined by a balanced translocation between chromosomes 15 and 17 resulting in fusion of the promyelocytic leukemia gene (PML) on chromosome 15 with the retinoic acid receptor-alpha...
Article

AIDS-defining illness

AIDS-defining illnesses are conditions that in the setting of a HIV infection confirm the diagnosis of AIDS, and do not commonly occur in immunocompetent individuals 2. According to the CDC surveillance case definition 1, they are: Infectious bacterial infections: multiple or recurrent candid...
Article

AIDS-related pulmonary lymphoma

AIDS-related pulmonary lymphoma (ARPL) is classified as a distinct form of pulmonary lymphoma. Pulmonary involvement is a common extranodal site in AIDS-related NHL. Pathology ARPL is typically a high-grade B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and the majority of patients have advanced HIV infection,...
Article

All-trans retinoic acid syndrome

All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) syndrome (more recently known as differentiation syndrome (DS)8) is a condition that can occur with patients with acute promyelocytic leukaemia who are on therapeutic all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA). All-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) is a normal constituent of plasma....
Article

Anatomy curriculum

The anatomy curriculum is one of our curriculum articles and aims to be a collection of articles that represent the core anatomy knowledge for radiologists and imaging specialists. General anatomy Neuroanatomy Head and neck anatomy Thoracic anatomy Abdominal and pelvic anatomy Spinal anat...
Article

Angioimmunoblastic T cell lymphoma

Angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AITL) is a rare, aggressive (fast-growing) form of peripheral T-cell lymphoma. It only accounts for around 1-2% of all non-Hodgkin lymphoma. It is one of the more common subtypes of mature T-cell lymphomas.  Epidemiology It can be more common in the elderly....
Article

Ann Arbor staging system

The Ann Arbor staging system is the landmark lymphoma staging classification system for both Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma.  It is named after the town of Ann Arbor in the US state of Michigan where the Committee on Hodgkin's Disease Staging Classification met in 1971 to agree on it...
Article

Antiphospholipid syndrome

Antiphospholipid syndrome is a systemic autoimmune disorder. It is usually defined as the clinical complex of vascular occlusion and ischaemic events occurring in patients who have circulating antiphospholipid antibodies. Clinical presentation Antiphospholipid syndrome is characterised by veno...
Article

Antithrombin III deficiency

Antithrombin (AT) III deficiency (now simply called antithrombin deficiency) refers to a congenital lack of the endogenous anticoagulant antithrombin. Epidemiology Antithrombin deficiency is considered the least common of the three main anticoagulant deficiencies (the other two being protein C...
Article

Aplastic anaemia

Aplastic anaemia is a rare haematopoietic stem-cell disorder. The condition results in pancytopaenia and hypocellular bone marrow. Most cases are acquired, however there are unusual inherited forms. Pathophysiology Aplastic anaemia manifests as a marked reduction in the number of pluripotent h...
Article

Autosplenectomy

Autosplenectomy denotes spontaneous infarction of the spleen with resulting hyposplenism. Epidemiology Autosplenectomy is most frequently encountered in patients with homozygous sickle cell disease, although it has also been reported in pneumococcal septicaemia 1, and SLE 2. The demographics t...
Article

BALT lymphoma

BALT lymphoma is an abbreviated term for bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. These neoplasms fall under the broader umbrella of mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphomas. It is sometimes considered a type of primary pulmonary lymphoma. Clinical presentation Up to half of pat...
Article

Binet staging system for chronic lymphocytic leukaemia

The Binet staging system is one of the two staging systems currently adopted in assessment of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL). It classifies CLL according to the number of lymphoid tissues that are involved (i.e. the spleen and the lymph nodes of the neck, groin, and underarms), as well as ...
Article

Bing-Neel syndrome

Bing-Neel syndrome is an extremely rare neurological complication of Waldenström macroglobulinemia where there is malignant lymphocyte infiltration into the central nervous system (CNS). Epidemiology The exact incidence is unknown, however in one study of patients with Waldenström macroglobuli...
Article

Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm

Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm (BPDCN) is a rare haematological malignancy. It was previously termed as blastic natural-killer lymphoma or agranular CD4+ natural killer cell leukaemia. Epidemiology It only represent a very small proportion (~0.44%) of all haematological malignanc...
Article

Bone marrow

Normal bone marrow is divided into red and yellow marrow, a distinction made on the grounds of how much fat it contains. Gross anatomy Red marrow is composed of: haematopoietic cells supporting stroma reticulum (phagocytes and undifferentiated progenitor cells) scattered fat cells a rich ...
Article

Burkitt lymphoma

Burkitt lymphoma is an aggressive B-cell lymphoma predominantly affecting children. Epidemiology Burkitt lymphoma is the most common (40%) type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma in childhood. Median age is eight years with a male predominance (M:F = 4:1) 1. It is less common in adults, accounting for 1-...
Article

Capillary leak syndrome

Capillary leak syndrome is is a situations characterised by the escape of blood plasma through capillary walls, from the blood vessels to surrounding tissues, muscle compartments, organs or body cavities. Clinical presentation The idiopathic form of the syndrome is characterised by three phase...
Article

Carbon monoxide poisoning

Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning may result in an anoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy, with acute as well as delayed effects. Epidemiology Carbon monoxide poisoning is mostly preventable with common causes including malfunctioning heating systems, improperly ventilated motor vehicles, and residentia...
Article

Catheter-directed thrombolysis

Catheter-directed thrombolysis (CDT) is an endovascular approach to the treatment of acute iliofemoral deep vein thrombosis. It involves the administration of a lytic agent directly into a thrombus.  Indications precise diagnosis of iliofemoral deep vein thrombosis  first episode of acute ili...
Article

Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia

Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) is a haematological malignancy.  Epidemiology CLL is considered the most common type of leukaemia in the Western hemisphere; its prevalence in Europe and North America ranges from 29-38% of all leukaemias 1. It primarily affects adults ~65-70 years of age 3....
Article

Chronic myelomonocytic leukaemia

Chronic myelomonocytic leukaemia (CMML) is a relatively rare clonal haematologic disorder. It is sometimes classified as a type of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) but also has features of myeloproliferative disease (MPD). Clinical presentation Can be variable but many patients tend to present w...
Article

CNS lymphoma

CNS lymphoma refers to the involvement of the central nervous system with lymphoma. It can be broadly divided into primary and secondary, with a number of special types of also recognised.  primary CNS lymphoma (PCNSL) intravascular lymphoma MALT lymphoma of the dura 5 secondary CNS lymphoma...
Article

Cryoglobulinaemic vasculitis

Cryoglobulinaemic vasculitis (CV) is a form of immune mediated primary vasculitis involving small to medium sized vessels. It may involve multiple organs and can have a range of clinical presentations. Terminology There are three main types of cryoglobulinaemia which are grouped, as per the Br...
Article

Deauville five-point scale

The Deauville five-point scale (Deauville 5ps) is an internationally-recommended scale for routine clinical reporting and clinical trials using FDG-PET/CT in the initial staging and assessment of treatment response in Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and certain types of non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL).  Incl...
Article

Diamond-Blackfan anaemia

Diamond-Blackfan anaemia, also known as pure red cell aplasia, is a rare congenital anaemia that typically presents in the first few years of life as a normocytic or macrocytic anaemia usually only affecting cells of the erythroid lineage 2. However, neutropenia and thrombocytopenia may occasion...
Article

Diffuse T1 bone marrow signal loss

Diffuse T1 vertebral bone marrow signal loss has a number of causes. T1-weighted imaging without fat suppression is one of the most important sequences for distinguishing between normal and abnormal bone marrow. Given the homogeneity, this appearance can often be difficult to spot as abnormal.  ...
Article

Ebola virus disease

Ebola virus disease (EVD) (also known as Ebola haemorrhagic fever (EHF) or simply Ebola) is a viral haemorrhagic disease caused by the Ebola Filovirus. Ebola is an extremely virulent virus with case fatality rates of approximately 70% 1. Epidemiology First recognized in 1967 after polio vaccin...
Article

Engraftment syndrome

Engraftment syndrome (ES) refers to a potential early complication of haematopoetic stem cell transplantation. It is thought to be related to increased capillary permeability and comprises of a combination of symptoms and signs which include fever erythrodermatous skin rash noncardiogenic pul...
Article

Eosinophil

Eosinophils (or less commonly acidophiles) are myeloid granulocytes and form one of the main types of white blood cells. Their counts are routinely measured as part of a full blood count. They have important roles in fighting parasitic infections, but it is increasingly recognised that they have...
Article

Erythrocyte sedimentation rate

Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) is a non-specific marker of acute inflammation which is seen in a very wide spectrum of pathologies. In recent years it has been sidelined by the use of C-reactive protein and other acute phase markers but it still has an important role to play in the managem...
Article

Erythrocytosis

Erythrocytosis (or polycythaemia) is the presence of an excessive number of red blood cells in the circulation. It can be primary or arise secondarily to another pathology. Definition Absolute erythrocytosis is defined as a red cell mass which is >125% predicted for sex and age 2. Although th...
Article

Essential thrombocythaemia

Essential thrombocythaemia (ET) refers to an acquired myeloproliferative neoplastic state characterised by an expansion of the megakaryocytic lineage, leading to an isolated elevation of platelets. It falls under the group of myeloproliferative disorders. It increases the risk of both thrombosis...
Article

Extramedullary haematopoiesis

Extramedullary haematopoiesis is a response to the failure of erythropoiesis in the bone marrow. This article aims to a general approach on the condition, for a dedicated discussion for a particularly involved organ, please refer to the specific articles on:  extramedullary haematopoiesis in t...
Article

Extramedullary haematopoiesis in the adrenal gland

Extramedullary haematopoiesis in the adrenal gland is a rare physiologic compensatory event in many haematologic diseases. For a general discussion on this subject, please refer to the main article on extramedullary haematopoiesis. Epidemiology Extramedullary haematopoiesis in the adrenal gla...
Article

Extramedullary plasmacytoma

Extramedullary plasmacytoma is an uncommon plasma cell tumour that is composed of monoclonal plasma cells arranged in clusters or sheets. The rate of progression to multiple myeloma (MM) varies from 10% to 30%. Epidemiology EMP occurs most commonly during the fourth through to seventh decades ...
Article

Factor V Leiden

Factor V Leiden is a primary hypercoagulable state due to a variant (mutated form) of human factor V. Factor V one of several coagulation factors that assist in the clotting pathway. Epidemiology Heterozygous factor V Leiden may be present is around 5% of the European population and is most co...
Article

Fanconi anaemia

Fanconi anaemia is a rare disorder characterised by progressive bone marrow failure, various congenital abnormalities, and predisposition to malignancies (often acute myeloid leukaemia). It is considered the commonest type of inherited marrow failure syndrome 7.  Terminology Fanconi anaemia sh...
Article

Fetal anaemia

Fetal anaemia can result from many causes. Pathology Aetiology haemolytic disease of the newborn fetomaternal ABO incompatibility fetomaternal rhesus (Rh) incompatibility fetal infections fetal parvovirus B19 infection haematopoetic abnomalities homozygous alpha thalassaemia 7 syndrome...
Article

Follicular lymphoma

Follicular lymphoma is the most common subtype of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) Epidemiology Estimated to account for ~45% of all NHL cases 1. Higher rates in North America and Europe 4.  Pathology Nodal effacement by closely packed follicles containing small cleaved cells without nucleoli (cen...
Article

Gaucher disease

Gaucher disease (GD) is the most common lysosomal storage disease in humans. It is an autosomal recessive, multisystem disease arising from a deficiency of glucocerebrosidase or beta-glucosidase activity, resulting in accumulation of a glycolipid (glucocerebroside) within the lysosomes of macrop...
Article

Graft versus host disease (pulmonary manifestations)

Pulmonary graft versus host disease (GvHD) is one of the thoracic manifestations that can complicate haematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Pulmonary GvHD can be broadly divided into acute and chronic disease 1-4: acute pulmonary GvHD pulmonary involvement is rare the median time of onset ...
Article

Haematopoietic stem cell transplantation

Haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is a relatively common procedure used to treat a wide spectrum of conditions 1,2: lymphoproliferative disorders, e.g. lymphoma, multiple myeloma (most common indication) leukaemia solid tumours, e.g. neuroblastoma, Ewing sarcoma, extragonadal ge...
Article

Haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (abdominal complications)

Abdominal complications of haematopoietic stem cell transplantation can occur early (0-100 days) or late (>100 days) post-transplant.  Complications Early bacterial infections, e.g. pseudomembranous colitis fungal infections, often affecting the oesophagus or as hepatic/splenic microabscesse...
Article

Haemochromatosis

Haemochromatosis is an iron overload disorder characterised by a progressive increase in total body iron stores and deposition of iron in some non-reticuloendothelial system (RES) body organs which results in some instances in organ dysfunction. This article focus on the general principles of h...
Article

Haemochromatosis (cardiac manifestations)

Cardiac involvement in haemochromatosis typically occurs with primary haemochromatosis, as the organ is usually spared in the secondary form of the disease. For a general discussion, and for links to other system specific manifestations, please refer to the article on haemochromatosis.  Epidem...
Article

Haemochromatosis (CNS manifestations)

Central nervous system manifestations of haemochromatosis are uncommon and can occur in either primary or secondary haemochromatosis. For a general discussion, and for links to other system specific manifestations, please refer to the article on haemochromatosis. Epidemiology Studies reportin...
Article

Haemochromatosis (pancreatic manifestations)

Pancreatic manifestations of haemochromatosis typically occur with primary haemochromatosis, as the organ is usually spared in the secondary form of the disease. For a general discussion, and for links to other system specific manifestations, please refer to the article on haemochromatosis. Cl...
Article

Haemochromatosis (skeletal manifestations)

Haemochromatosis is a systemic disease which affects many organs systems, including the joints, characterised by haemosiderin and calcium pyrophosphate deposition. For a general discussion, and for links to other system specific manifestations, please refer to the article on haemochromatosis.  ...
Article

Haemoglobinopathies

A haemoglobinopathy is a genetic disorder which alters the structure of haemoglobin 1. The result is reduced oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood to the tissues. Terminology Types of haemoglobinopathies include the following: sickle cell disease (Hb S) sickle cell trait (HB AS) sickle cell...
Article

Haemolytic anaemia

Haemolytic anaemia is a form of anaemia where red blood cells (RBCs) are destroyed either intravascularly or extravascularly. Clinical presentation The patient presents with anaemia and jaundice. Diagnosis is based on several laboratory parameters 1: reticulocytosis increased unconjugated bi...
Article

Haemolytic uraemic syndrome

Haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS) is a multisystem thrombotic microangiopathic disease characterised by the triad of renal failure, haemolytic anaemia and thrombocytopenia. It is the most common cause of renal failure in infancy and childhood requiring dialysis.  There are two forms of this syn...
Article

Haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis

Haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH), also known as macrophage activation syndrome when occurring in the setting of a rheumatologic disorder, is a non-malignant but often-fatal disorder of immune dysregulation affecting multiple organs. Epidemiology It typically affects infants and young ...
Article

Haemophilia

Haemophilia is an inherited bleeding disorder which is X-linked recessive and therefore occurs almost exclusively in males. There are two subtypes - haemophilia A (80%) and haemophilia B (20%).  Epidemiology The incidence of haemophilia A is around 1 in 5000 male births, and the incidence of h...
Article

Haemophilic arthropathy

Haemophilic arthropathy refers to permanent joint disease occurring in haemophilia sufferers as a long-term consequence of repeated haemarthrosis. Around 50% of patients with haemophilia will develop a severe arthropathy. Epidemiology Haemophilia is an X-linked recessive disease affecting male...
Article

Haemosiderosis

Haemosiderosis is a general term referring to the accumulation of haemosiderin, which particularly occurs in the reticuloendothelial system (RES) and does not cause organ damage. Pathology Some causes include: frequent transfusion  mainly depositional siderosis in RES if >40 units transfuse...
Article

Hand-foot syndrome (sickle cell disease)

Hand-foot syndrome, also simply referred to as dactylitis, is a self-limiting manifestation of a vaso-occlusive crisis in individuals with sickle cell anaemia. Terminology Dactylitis is not a specific finding in sickle cell disease, therefore cautious usage is advised if one chooses to employ ...
Article

Hand-Schüller-Christian disease

Hand-Schüller-Christian disease is a clinically intermediate form of a spectrum of histiocytic disorders, which ranges from acute fulminant to chronic indolent disease. It primarily affects children, less often young adults, and rarely older adults. Hand-Schüller-Christian disease has been desc...
Article

Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (thoracic complications)

There are many thoracic complications that can occur following haematopoietic stem cell transplantation. These can precipitate during various stages following transplantation and can be either infectious or noninfectious. Complications Early pulmonary oedema engraftment syndrome diffuse alv...
Article

Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia

Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is a paradoxical thrombotic state resulting from an immune response to heparin. Epidemiology Occurs in 1:5000 patients who have received heparin, most commonly unfractionated heparin. Pathology HIT is induced by IgG antibodies. Clinical presentation T...
Article

Hepatic lymphoma

Hepatic lymphoma is a term given to any form of hepatic involvement with lymphoma. This can be broadly divided into: secondary hepatic involvement with lymphoma: most common by far, many tend to be non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) 1 primary hepatic lymphoma: extremely rare Pathology Risk factors f...
Article

Hepatic myeloid sarcoma

Hepatic myeloid sarcoma is a collection of immature myeloid cells than can present as a mass (or as masses) in the liver. It is a rare complication of haematologic disease. Terminology Hepatic myeloid sarcoma is also referred to as "granulocytic sarcoma" or "chloroma". Epidemiology Myeloid s...
Article

Hepatic veno-occlusive disease

Hepatic veno-occlusive disease (VOD), also known as sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS), is a condition arising from occlusion of hepatic venules. Clinical presentation right upper quadrant pain painful hepatomegaly ascites abnormal liver function tests Pathology Toxic injury to liver s...
Article

Histiocytic sarcoma

Histiocytic sarcoma is a rare malignant haematopoietic neoplasm that has been reported in association with other haematological malignancies (particularly B and T cell lymphomas). Pathology It comprises of tumour cells derived from the monocyte/macrophage lineage. Location It usually occurs ...
Article

Hodgkin lymphoma

Hodgkin lymphoma or Hodgkin disease (HD) is a type of lymphoma and accounts for ~1% of all cancers. HD spreads contiguously and predictably along lymphatic pathways and is curable in ~90% of cases, depending on its stage and sub-type. Epidemiology There is a bimodal distribution in the age of ...
Article

Hodgkin lymphoma (pulmonary manifestations)

Pulmonary manifestations of Hodgkin lymphoma are relatively rare, present in  5-12% of patients at the time of diagnosis. It is relatively more common with the nodular sclerosing subtype. Pulmonary involvement usually indicates stage IV disease.  Radiographic features Bilateral involvement is ...
Article

How you can help build Radiopaedia.org

Contributing to Radiopaedia.org does not need to be a massive commitment. Even a few minutes here and there can make a real difference. This page is a great place to start if you want to get involved. There are many ways to do this: create your own case library and make your existing cases comp...
Article

H-shaped vertebra

H-shaped vertebrae, also known as Lincoln log vertebrae, are a characteristic finding of sharply delimited central endplate depression, classically seen in approximately 10% of patients with sickle-cell anaemia, and results from microvascular endplate infarction (figure 1) 3. It may occasionall...
Article

Hypersplenism

Hypersplenism is a cytopenia resulting from blood pooling in the spleen and is almost always associated with splenomegaly.  Pathology Aetiology There is an almost overwhelming list, some more common causes are given below 1,3,4: congestive splenomegaly: cirrhosis, Budd-Chiari syndrome, porta...
Article

Hypogammaglobulinaemia

Hypogammaglobulinaemia is an immune disorder characterised by a reduction in all types of gammaglobulins.  Terminology While hypogammaglobulinaemia means some of loss of gammaglobulins, a total loss is termed agammaglobulinaemia which can occur in as an x linked form - X-linked agammaglobuline...
Article

Idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome

Idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome (IHES) is a leukoproliferative disorder and refers to a situation when there is an unexplained prolonged eosinophilia with associated organ system dysfunction. The condition can affect several organ systems which includes: heart: cardiac involvement in idio...
Article

Idiopathic portal hypertension

Idiopathic portal hypertension (non-cirrhotic portal hypertension or Banti syndrome) is a term that has been given to portal hypertension occurring without hepatic cirrhosis, parasitic infection, or portal venous thrombosis. Epidemiology Rare condition. More common in India and Japan. Patholo...
Article

Immunity

The human body regularly encounters harmful micro-organisms, and because of this it has developed a system of defences to help identify and eliminate infective pathogens in the body, known as the immune system. Humans have two types of immunity: innate immunity and acquired immunity. innate im...
Article

Infectious mononucleosis

Infectious mononucleosis (also known as glandular fever) is the term for infection with Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV). The infection classically occurs in teenagers and young adults. It usually is diagnosed clinically supported by serum testing, but also may have suggestive imaging findings. Epidemi...
Article

Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumour of the spleen

Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumours of the spleen are rare spindle cells tumours of indeterminate clinical behaviour. Please refer to the article on inflammatory myofibroblastic tumours for a broad discussion on the subject.  Radiographic features Ultrasound They usually present as a well de...
Article

Langerhans cell histiocytosis

Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare multi-system disease with a wide and heterogeneous clinical spectrum and variable extent of involvement.  Terminology Langerhans cell histiocytosis was previously known as histiocytosis X. The newer term is preferred as it's more descriptive of its...
Article

Large bowel lymphoma

Large bowel (colorectal) lymphoma is a very rare tumour, accounting for <0.5% of primary colorectal malignancies, ~1.5% of all lymphomas, and ~15% of gastrointestinal lymphoma. Large bowel lymphoma differs from gastric and small bowel lymphoma in clinical presentation, management and prognosis. ...
Article

Leukaemia (CNS manifestations)

Leukaemia CNS manifestations can be divided into those related to the disease itself and those associated with its treatment. Leukaemias are haematologic malignancies in which occur a proliferation of haematopoietic cells at an undifferentiated or partially differentiated stage of maturation 1. ...
Article

Leukaemic infiltration of liver

Leukaemic infiltration of the liver can occur with several forms of leukaemia inclusive of acute myeloid leukaemia (AML), acute lymphoid leukaemia (ALL) and chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML).  Radiographic features CT Described features are non-specific but include: hepatomegaly periportal lo...
Article

Li-Fraumeni syndrome

Li-Fraumeni syndrome is a hereditary cancer syndrome due to mutations in the tumour suppressor gene TP53. Approximately half of affected individuals are thought to develop invasive cancer by 30 years of age 1. Associated malignancies sarcomas osteosarcoma rhabdomyosarcoma CNS tumours gliom...
Article

Low attenuation lymphadenopathy

Low attenuation lymphadenopathy suggests underlying necrosis and can be seen in: metastatic carcinoma (or lymphoma) infections (tuberculous or fungal) Whipple disease coeliac sprue inflammatory necrotic disorders (e.g. Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease) See also lymphadenopathy low attenuation ly...
Article

Lugano classification

The Lugano staging system is a lymphoma staging classification system resulting from recommend changes to the Cotswolds-modified Ann Arbor classification following meetings in 2011. The goal was to simplify and standardise the response assessment enabling better understanding and communication ...
Article

Lugano classification (lesion measurement guidelines)

The Lugano classification is a lymphoma staging system resulting from recommended changes in 2011 to the Cotswolds modified Ann Arbor staging. This article outlines the lesion measurement guidelines for the system: Eligible lesions lymph nodes: the longest diameter in axial plane should be >1....
Article

Lugano classification (response to treatment on CT)

The Lugano classification is a lymphoma staging system resulting from recommended changes in 2011 to the Ann Arbor staging with Cotswolds modifications. This article outlines the classification's response to treatment based on CT.  Also included in the classification are staging and reponse to ...
Article

Lugano classification (response to treatment on PET/CT)

The Lugano classification is a lymphoma staging system resulting from recommended changes in 2011 to the Cotswolds modified Ann Arbor staging. This article outlines the classification's response to treatment based on PET/CT.  Also included in the classification are staging and reponse to treatm...
Article

Lymph node enlargement

Lymph node enlargement (rarely lymphadenomegaly) is often used synonymously with lymphadenopathy, which is not strictly correct. Terminology Lymphadenopathy (or adenopathy) is, if anything, a broader term, referring to any pathology of lymph nodes, not necessarily resulting in increased size; ...
Article

Lymphoma

Lymphoma is a malignancy arising from lymphocytes or lymphoblasts. Lymphoma can be restricted to the lymphatic system or can arise as extranodal disease. This, along with variable aggressiveness results in a diverse imaging appearance. Epidemiology Lymphoma accounts for ~4% of all cancers 4. T...
Article

Lymphoma of the spinal cord

Lymphoma of the spinal cord is an uncommon manifestation of lymphoma. Although lymphoma more commonly involves the vertebral body (vertebral body tumours) or epidural compartment, intramedullary lymphoma may rarely occur.   Apparent intramedullary spinal cord lymphoma may often, in fact, repres...
Article

Lymphoma of the uterine cervix

Lymphoma of the uterine cervix is generally uncommon and when it does occur tends to present as cervical involvement with added background multi-organ disease rather than isolated primary cervical lymphoma 1. It is often considered part of the spectrum of uterine lymphoma. Epidemiology In the ...
Article

Lymphoma response to immunomodulatory therapy criteria (LYRIC)

The Lymphoma Response to Immunomodulatory Therapy Criteria (LYRIC) represents an adaptation of the Lugano classification for the evaluation of lymphoma after immune-based treatment. During immunomodulatory agents (e.g. checkpoint inhibitors) therapy, imaging findings suggestive of progressive d...

Updating… Please wait.
Loadinganimation

Alert accept

Error Unable to process the form. Check for errors and try again.

Alert accept Thank you for updating your details.