Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

181 results found
Article

Splenomegaly

Splenomegaly is a term which refers to enlargement of the spleen. The normal adult splenic length upper limit is usually around 12-15 cm. It can also be helpful to know how to calculate splenic index, volume and mass by CT and MR techniques. Massive splenomegaly is a term used when the spleen we...
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Normal gastrointestinal tract imaging examples

This article lists examples of normal imaging of the gastrointestinal tract and surrounding structures, divided by modality. Plain radiograph example 1: abdominal film example 2: erect and supine example 3, example 4: paediatric example 5: young adult male Barium studies example 1, exampl...
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Anatomy curriculum

The anatomy curriculum is one of our curriculum articles and aims to be a collection of articles that represent the core anatomy knowledge for radiologists and imaging specialists. General anatomy Neuroanatomy Head and neck anatomy Thoracic anatomy Abdominal and pelvic anatomy Spinal anat...
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Lymphoma

Lymphoma is a malignancy arising from lymphocytes or lymphoblasts. Lymphoma can be restricted to the lymphatic system or can arise as extranodal disease. This, along with variable aggressiveness results in a diverse imaging appearance. Epidemiology Lymphoma accounts for ~4% of all cancers 4. T...
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Splenic metastases

Splenic metastases are relatively rare on imaging, although they are more commonly found on autopsy. Typically they are part of a widespread metastatic disease. Epidemiology The rate of splenic metastases varies between 1-10% of autopsy studies, depending on whether microscopic or macroscopic ...
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Primary pulmonary lymphoma

Primary pulmonary lymphomas refer to clonal lymphoid proliferation affecting the lungs without any detectable extrapulmonary involvement. It is much rarer than secondary pulmonary lymphoma and is most frequently represented by lymphoma of B-cell lineage - often marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of m...
Article

Carbon monoxide poisoning

Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning may result in an anoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy, with acute as well as delayed effects. Epidemiology Carbon monoxide poisoning is mostly preventable with common causes including malfunctioning heating systems, improperly ventilated motor vehicles, and residentia...
Article

Deauville five-point scale

The Deauville five-point scale (Deauville 5ps) is an internationally-recommended scale for routine clinical reporting and clinical trials using FDG-PET/CT in the initial staging and assessment of treatment response in Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and certain types of non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL).  Incl...
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Non-Hodgkin lymphoma

Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is a catch-all term for lymphomas that are not of the Hodgkin subtype. It is a heterogeneous group of malignancies in terms of histology, clinical presentation, and prognosis.  See 2008 WHO classification for further information on subtypes. 
Article

Primary hepatic lymphoma

Primary hepatic lymphoma (PHL) is rare accounting for roughly 100 described cases. If it is being considered as a diagnosis, distal lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, bone marrow disease, and leukaemia should not be present for at least 6 months after the liver tumour is detected (see: secondary hep...
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Muscle lymphoma

Muscle lymphoma is a rare manifestation of lymphoma. Epidemiology Muscle lymphoma is rare, representing <2% of all lymphomas. The average age of presentation is 70 years 1. Clinical presentation Focal swelling and/or pain along with B-type symptoms 2. Any muscle can be involved but most comm...
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Extramedullary haematopoiesis

Extramedullary haematopoiesis is a response to the failure of erythropoiesis in the bone marrow. This article aims to a general approach on the condition, for a dedicated discussion for a particularly involved organ, please refer to the specific articles on:  extramedullary haematopoiesis in t...
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Lymph node enlargement

Lymph node enlargement (rarely lymphadenomegaly) is often used synonymously with lymphadenopathy, which is not strictly correct. Terminology Lymphadenopathy (or adenopathy) is, if anything, a broader term, referring to any pathology of lymph nodes, not necessarily resulting in increased size; ...
Article

Waldenström macroglobulinaemia

Waldenström macroglobulinaemia, previously also known as lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma, is a type of B-cell lymphoma. Terminology Recent publications classify Waldenström macroglobulinaemia as a lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma with any level of an IgM paraprotein 10.  Therefore the two entities are no...
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Bing-Neel syndrome

Bing-Neel syndrome is an extremely rare neurological complication of Waldenström macroglobulinemia where there is malignant lymphocyte infiltration into the central nervous system (CNS). Epidemiology The exact incidence is unknown, however in one study of patients with Waldenström macroglobuli...
Article

Sweet syndrome

Sweet syndrome (acute febrile neutrophilic dermatosis) is characterised by a constellation of clinical symptoms, physical features, and pathologic findings which include: fever neutrophilia tender erythematous skin lesions (papules, nodules, and plaques) a diffuse infiltrate consisting predo...
Article

BALT lymphoma

BALT lymphoma is an abbreviated term for bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. These neoplasms fall under the broader umbrella of mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphomas. It is sometimes considered a type of primary pulmonary lymphoma. Clinical presentation Up to half of pat...
Article

Pulmonary lymphoma

Pulmonary lymphoma refers to lung parenchymal involvement with lymphoma. Pathology It can be broadly divided as primary or secondary: primary pulmonary lymphoma: (rare) usually non-Hodgkin lymphoma which is limited to the lung with or without mediastinal lymph node involvement and with no evi...
Article

Secondary pulmonary lymphoma

Secondary pulmonary lymphomas refer to pulmonary involvement with lymphoma when the condition is not limited to the lung and has mediastinal lymph node involvement or evidence of extrathoracic dissemination for at least three months after the initial diagnosis. This is a more common form of pulm...
Article

Testicular lymphoma

Testicular lymphoma is an uncommon testicular malignancy. Lymphoma can involve the testes in three ways: primary site of extranodal disease (primary testicular lymphoma) secondary involvement of systemic disease primary manifestation of subclinical systemic disease This article is concerned ...
Article

Typhlitis

Typhlitis, also called caecitis or neutropaenic colitis, is a necrotising inflammatory condition which typically involves the caecum and, sometimes, can extend into the ascending colon or terminal ileum. Epidemiology Typhlitis was first described in children with leukaemia and severe neutropae...
Article

Wells criteria for pulmonary embolism

The Wells criteria for pulmonary embolism is a risk stratification score and clinical decision rule to estimate the probability for acute pulmonary embolism (PE) in patients in which history and examination suggests acute PE is a diagnostic possibility. It provides a pre-test probability which, ...
Article

Periprocedural anticoagulation

When planning an interventional procedure a patient’s coagulation status must be assessed and optimised to best balance the risk of bleeding and thrombosis. The following must be considered; bleeding risks associated with the procedure medications the patient is taking that alter coagulation o...
Article

Primary pleural lymphoma

Primary pleural lymphoma is extremely rare, especially in immunocompetent patients. Epidemiology Primary pleural lymphoma accounts for <0.5% of all non-Hodgkin lymphoma 2 and ~2.5% of primary chest wall tumours 4.  Pathology Primary pleural lymphoma may be Hodgkin or non-Hodgkin lymphoma wit...
Article

Splenic trauma

Splenic trauma can occur after blunt or penetrating trauma or secondary to medical intervention (i.e. iatrogenic). The spleen is the most frequently injured internal organ after blunt trauma. Epidemiology In blunt trauma, the spleen can account for up to 49% of abdominal organ injuries 2. Cli...
Article

Splenunculus

Splenunculi (also known as supernumerary, accessory spleens, or splenules) are small nodules of spleen that are separate from the rest of the organ. They are benign and asymptomatic, their importance is mainly related to the need to distinguish them from more sinister pathology.   Epidemiology ...
Article

Spleen

The spleen is an organ of the haematological system and has a role in immune response, storage of red blood cells and haematopoiesis. Gross anatomy The spleen is a wedge-shaped organ lying mainly in the left upper quadrant (left hypochondrium and partly in the epigastrium) and is protected by ...
Article

Pulmonary artery stump thrombosis

Pulmonary artery stump thrombosis describes thrombus formation occurring at the site of the pulmonary arterial stump, a complication following lobectomy or pneumonectomy. It is usually discovered as an incidental finding on routine follow-up chest CT scans. Epidemiology The prevalence of pulmo...
Article

Follicular lymphoma

Follicular lymphoma is the most common subtype of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) Epidemiology Estimated to account for ~45% of all NHL cases 1. Higher rates in North America and Europe 4.  Pathology Nodal effacement by closely packed follicles containing small cleaved cells without nucleoli (cen...
Article

Splenic cyst

Splenic epithelial cysts, also referred as splenic epidermoid cysts or primary splenic cysts, are unilocular fluid lesions with thin and smooth walls and no enhancement. They represent ~20% of cysts found in the spleen, and are usually an innocuous incidental imaging finding. Note that most (~8...
Article

Burkitt lymphoma

Burkitt lymphoma is an aggressive B-cell lymphoma predominantly affecting children. Epidemiology Burkitt lymphoma is the most common (40%) type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma in childhood. Median age is eight years with a male predominance (M:F = 4:1) 1. It is less common in adults, accounting for 1-...
Article

MALT lymphoma

Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma, also called extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma, is a type of low-grade extranodal lymphoma.  Epidemiology MALT lymphoma represents ~7.5% of non-Hodgkin lymphomas. The average age of presentation is 60 years with a slight female predomina...
Article

Marginal zone lymphoma

Marginal zone lymphomas are a group of low grade Non Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) that arise from the marginal zone of B cell germinal follicles in lymph nodes. There are three types of marginal zone lymphomas depending on the site of origin. These include: Mucosa-accosiated lymphoid tissue (MALT) s...
Article

Gaucher disease

Gaucher disease (GD) is the most common lysosomal storage disease in humans. It is an autosomal recessive, multisystem disease arising from a deficiency of glucocerebrosidase or beta-glucosidase activity, resulting in accumulation of a glycolipid (glucocerebroside) within the lysosomes of macrop...
Article

Fanconi anaemia

Fanconi anaemia is a rare disorder characterised by progressive bone marrow failure, various congenital abnormalities, and predisposition to malignancies (often acute myeloid leukaemia). It is considered the commonest type of inherited marrow failure syndrome 7.  Terminology Fanconi anaemia sh...
Article

Graft versus host disease (pulmonary manifestations)

Pulmonary graft versus host disease (GvHD) is one of the thoracic manifestations that can complicate haematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Pulmonary GvHD can be broadly divided into acute and chronic disease 1-4: acute pulmonary GvHD pulmonary involvement is rare the median time of onset ...
Article

Haemophilic arthropathy

Haemophilic arthropathy refers to permanent joint disease occurring in haemophilia sufferers as a long-term consequence of repeated haemarthrosis. Around 50% of patients with haemophilia will develop a severe arthropathy. Epidemiology Haemophilia is an X-linked recessive disease affecting male...
Article

Capillary leak syndrome

Capillary leak syndrome is is a situations characterised by the escape of blood plasma through capillary walls, from the blood vessels to surrounding tissues, muscle compartments, organs or body cavities. Clinical presentation The idiopathic form of the syndrome is characterised by three phase...
Article

Hand-foot syndrome (sickle cell disease)

Hand-foot syndrome, also simply referred to as dactylitis, is a self-limiting manifestation of a vaso-occlusive crisis in individuals with sickle cell anaemia. Terminology Dactylitis is not a specific finding in sickle cell disease, therefore cautious usage is advised if one chooses to employ ...
Article

Sickle cell disease

Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a hereditary (autosomal recessive) condition resulting in the formation of abnormal haemoglobin (a haemoglobinopathy), which manifests as multisystem ischaemia and infarction, as well as haemolytic anaemia.  Epidemiology There is no recognised gender predilection. ...
Article

Haemosiderosis

Haemosiderosis is a general term referring to the accumulation of haemosiderin, which particularly occurs in the reticuloendothelial system (RES) and does not cause organ damage. Pathology Some causes include: frequent transfusion  mainly depositional siderosis in RES if >40 units transfuse...
Article

Haemochromatosis (CNS manifestations)

Central nervous system manifestations of haemochromatosis are uncommon and can occur in either primary or secondary haemochromatosis. For a general discussion, and for links to other system specific manifestations, please refer to the article on haemochromatosis. Epidemiology Studies reportin...
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Haemochromatosis (pancreatic manifestations)

Pancreatic manifestations of haemochromatosis typically occur with primary haemochromatosis, as the organ is usually spared in the secondary form of the disease. For a general discussion, and for links to other system specific manifestations, please refer to the article on haemochromatosis. Cl...
Article

Haemochromatosis

Haemochromatosis is an iron overload disorder characterised by a progressive increase in total body iron stores and deposition of iron in some non-reticuloendothelial system (RES) body organs which results in some instances in organ dysfunction. This article focus on the general principles of h...
Article

Haemochromatosis (skeletal manifestations)

Haemochromatosis is a systemic disease which affects many organs systems, including the joints, characterised by haemosiderin and calcium pyrophosphate deposition. For a general discussion, and for links to other system specific manifestations, please refer to the article on haemochromatosis.  ...
Article

Factor V Leiden

Factor V Leiden is a primary hypercoagulable state due to a variant (mutated form) of human factor V. Factor V one of several coagulation factors that assist in the clotting pathway. Epidemiology Heterozygous factor V Leiden may be present is around 5% of the European population and is most co...
Article

Haemochromatosis (cardiac manifestations)

Cardiac involvement in haemochromatosis typically occurs with primary haemochromatosis, as the organ is usually spared in the secondary form of the disease. For a general discussion, and for links to other system specific manifestations, please refer to the article on haemochromatosis.  Epidem...
Article

Langerhans cell histiocytosis

Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare multi-system disease with a wide and heterogeneous clinical spectrum and variable extent of involvement.  Terminology Langerhans cell histiocytosis was previously known as histiocytosis X. The newer term is preferred as it's more descriptive of its...
Article

Hepatic lymphoma

Hepatic lymphoma is a term given to any form of hepatic involvement with lymphoma. This can be broadly divided into: secondary hepatic involvement with lymphoma: most common by far, many tend to be non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) 1 primary hepatic lymphoma: extremely rare Pathology Risk factors f...
Article

Low attenuation lymphadenopathy

Low attenuation lymphadenopathy suggests underlying necrosis and can be seen in: metastatic carcinoma (or lymphoma) infections (tuberculous or fungal) Whipple disease coeliac sprue inflammatory necrotic disorders (e.g. Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease) See also lymphadenopathy low attenuation ly...
Article

Acute promyelocytic leukemia

Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APML) is a distinct subtype of acute myeloid leukemia. Pathology Genetics It is defined by a balanced translocation between chromosomes 15 and 17 resulting in fusion of the promyelocytic leukemia gene (PML) on chromosome 15 with the retinoic acid receptor-alpha g...
Article

All-trans retinoic acid syndrome

All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) syndrome (more recently known as differentiation syndrome (DS)8) is a condition that can occur with patients with acute promyelocytic leukaemia who are on therapeutic all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA). All-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) is a normal constituent of plasma....
Article

How you can help build Radiopaedia.org

Contributing to Radiopaedia.org does not need to be a massive commitment. Even a few minutes here and there can make a real difference. This page is a great place to start if you want to get involved. There are many ways to do this: create your own case library and make your existing cases comp...
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Immunity

The human body regularly encounters harmful micro-organisms, and because of this it has developed a system of defences to help identify and eliminate infective pathogens in the body, known as the immune system. Humans have two types of immunity: innate immunity and acquired immunity. innate im...
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Leukaemia (CNS manifestations)

Leukaemia CNS manifestations can be divided into those related to the disease itself and those associated with its treatment. Leukaemias are haematologic malignancies in which occur a proliferation of haematopoietic cells at an undifferentiated or partially differentiated stage of maturation 1. ...
Article

Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia

Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) is a malignant disorder of the bone marrow characterised by the proliferation of the lymphoid progenitor cells. Epidemiology Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia is the commonest form of childhood leukaemia. It accounts for 80% of paediatric leukaemia cases but onl...
Article

Plasmacytoma

Plasmacytomas are a discrete, solitary mass of neoplastic monoclonal plasma cells in either bone or soft tissue (extramedullary). It is a rare tumour that is associated with latent systemic disease in the majority of affected patients. It can be considered as a singular counterpart of multiple m...
Article

Protein C deficiency

Protein C deficiency is a hypercoagulable state due to reduced activity or an absolute deficiency of protein C, an anticoagulant protein. Protein C deficiency increases the risk of venous thrombosis. Epidemiology The prevalence of protein C deficiency in the general population is around 1 per ...
Article

Infectious mononucleosis

Infectious mononucleosis (also known as glandular fever) is the term for infection with Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV). The infection classically occurs in teenagers and young adults. It usually is diagnosed clinically supported by serum testing, but also may have suggestive imaging findings. Epidemi...
Article

Antiphospholipid syndrome

Antiphospholipid syndrome is a systemic autoimmune disorder. It is usually defined as the clinical complex of vascular occlusion and ischaemic events occurring in patients who have circulating antiphospholipid antibodies. Pathology Patients have circulating antiphospholipid antibodies cross-re...
Article

Smouldering multiple myeloma

Smouldering multiple myeloma (SMM) is a precursor to multiple myeloma. Clinical presentation Similar to MGUS patients, smoulder multiple myeloma patients are asymptomatic. Diagnostic criteria The criteria for smouldering multiple myeloma diagnosis according to the International Myeloma Worki...
Article

Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance

Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) is the most common plasma cell disorder and refers to the presence of an abnormal monoclonal antibody in the blood but the absence of the overt bone marrow and clinical signs of multiple myeloma. Epidemiology MGUS is the most common pla...
Article

Bone marrow

Normal bone marrow is divided into red and yellow marrow, a distinction made on the grounds of how much fat it contains. Gross anatomy Red marrow is composed of: haematopoietic cells supporting stroma reticulum (phagocytes and undifferentiated progenitor cells) scattered fat cells a rich ...
Article

Multiple myeloma

Multiple myeloma is the most common primary malignant bone neoplasm in adults. It arises from red marrow due to monoclonal proliferation of plasma cells and manifests in a wide range of radiographic abnormalities. Multiple myeloma remains incurable. Terminology Four main patterns are recognise...
Article

Thrombotic thrombocytopaenic purpura

Thrombotic thrombocytopaenic purpura (TTP) is a rare but life-threatening condition characterised by thrombocytopaenia, microangiopathic haemolytic anaemia and end-organ damage. Epidemiology The prevalence of TTP is ten cases per one million people 2. Ninety-percent of cases occur in adulthood...
Article

Hypogammaglobulinaemia

Hypogammaglobulinaemia is an immune disorder characterised by a reduction in all types of gammaglobulins.  Terminology While hypogammaglobulinaemia means some of loss of gammaglobulins, a total loss is termed agammaglobulinaemia which can occur in as an x linked form - X-linked agammaglobuline...
Article

Eosinophil

Eosinophils (or less commonly acidophiles) are myeloid granulocytes and form one of the main types of white blood cells. Their counts are routinely measured as part of a full blood count. They have important roles in fighting parasitic infections, but it is increasingly recognised that they have...
Article

Erythrocyte sedimentation rate

Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) is a non-specific marker of acute inflammation which is seen in a very wide spectrum of pathologies. In recent years it has been sidelined by the use of C-reactive protein and other acute phase markers but it still has an important role to play in the managem...
Article

Polycythaemia vera

Polycythaemia vera (older term: polycythaemia rubra vera) is a myeloproliferative disorder that results in an excess of red blood cells in the bloodstream. Epidemiology The estimated prevalence is around 2-3 per 10,000 people. It typically presents in older individuals. There may be a slightly...
Article

Erythrocytosis

Erythrocytosis (or polycythaemia) is the presence of an excessive number of red blood cells in the circulation. It can be primary or arise secondarily to another pathology. Definition Absolute erythrocytosis is defined as a red cell mass which is >125% predicted for sex and age 2. Although th...
Article

Catheter-directed thrombolysis

Catheter-directed thrombolysis (CDT) is an endovascular approach to the treatment of acute iliofemoral deep vein thrombosis. It involves the administration of a lytic agent directly into a thrombus.  Indications precise diagnosis of iliofemoral deep vein thrombosis  first episode of acute ili...
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Pleural lymphoma

Pleural involvement with lymphoma can occur in two situations: primary pleural lymphoma primary effusion lymphoma secondary involvement of the pleura with lymphoma
Article

Primary effusion lymphoma

Primary effusion lymphoma is a rare form of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (diffuse large cell B cell lymphoma) characterised by malignant fluid accumulation in the absence of lymphadenopathy. Typical sites of accumulation include pleural space pericardium peritoneal space Associations immunodeficie...
Article

Sclerosing angiomatoid nodular transformation of the spleen

Sclerosing angiomatoid nodular transformation (SANT) of the spleen is a recently recognised, rare, non-neoplastic vascular splenic lesion of uncertain aetiology.  Terminology The term SANT first appeared in the literature in a 2004 paper by Martel et al. which examined a series of 25 cases 3. ...
Article

Splenic hamartoma

Splenic hamartomas are very rare lesions commonly found incidentally on imaging. They are most often solitary but may be present as multiple nodules in patients with tuberous sclerosis or Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome. Terminology  The recently-described sclerosing angiomatoid nodular transformatio...
Article

Lymphoma (staging)

There are a number of lymphoma staging systems for both Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma including the Ann Arbor classification, Cotswolds-modified Ann Arbor classification, and the most current, Lugano classification.  Evolution of lymphoma staging and treatment response evaluation cr...
Article

Fetal anaemia

Fetal anaemia can result from many causes. Pathology Aetiology haemolytic disease of the newborn fetomaternal ABO incompatibility fetomaternal rhesus (Rh) incompatibility fetal infections fetal parvovirus B19 infection haematopoetic abnomalities homozygous alpha thalassaemia 7 syndrome...
Article

Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome

Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS) is a rare immunodeficiency disease with a characteristic phenotype that includes: X-linked recessive and only occurs in boys petechiae, bloody diarrhoea, epistaxis due to thrombocytopenia with small platelets eczema starts in first month of life recurrent infec...
Article

Binet staging system for chronic lymphocytic leukaemia

The Binet staging system is one of the two staging systems currently adopted in assessment of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL). It classifies CLL according to the number of lymphoid tissues that are involved (i.e. the spleen and the lymph nodes of the neck, groin, and underarms), as well as ...
Article

Testicular leukaemia

Testicular leukaemia can be seen in patients during and after acute leukaemia. The blood-testis barrier limits chemotherapy from reaching the testicle, and therefore the testicle can act as a harbor for leukaemic cells. Clinical presentation Typically presents with painless testicular enlargem...
Article

Primary immunodeficiency states

Primary immunodeficiency states are heterogenous group of disorders that occur when there is an impairment of humoral or cell-mediated immunity in the absence of any recognised precipitating cause such as drug therapy or infective agent such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Epidemiology ...
Article

Lymphomatoid granulomatosis (pulmonary manifestations)

Pulmonary manifestations of lymphomatoid granulomatosis are important since the lung is one of the most frequent sites of involvement in lymphomatoid granulomatosis. It falls under the group of pulmonary angiitis and granulomatosis. Pathology Some consider the condition to be midway between ov...
Article

Protein S deficiency

Protein S deficiency is a hyperocoagulable state associated with increased risk of venous thrombosis (up to 5% of patients with deep venous thrombosis may carry this deficiency). Epidemiology Protein S deficiency may be expected in ≈1 of every 500 people 3. Pathology Protein S, a vitamin K-d...
Article

Extramedullary haematopoiesis in the adrenal gland

Extramedullary haematopoiesis in the adrenal gland is a rare physiologic compensatory event in many haematologic diseases. For a general discussion on this subject, please refer to the main article on extramedullary haematopoiesis. Epidemiology Extramedullary haematopoiesis in the adrenal gla...
Article

Mediastinal lymph node enlargement

Mediastinal lymph node enlargement can occur from a wide range of pathologies. It may occur on its own or in association with other lung pathology. Terminology Although mediastinal lymphadenopathy is used interchangeably - by some - with "mediastinal lymph node enlargement", they are not synon...
Article

Splenic pseudocyst

Splenic pseudocysts, also referred as secondary splenic cysts, are acquired cystic lesions not delineated by a true epithelial wall. They represent the majority of the splenic cystic lesions, corresponding to approximately 80% of them (c.f. splenic epithelial cysts). The main causes are:  splen...
Article

Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm

Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm (BPDCN) is a rare haematological malignancy. It was previously termed as blastic natural-killer lymphoma or agranular CD4+ natural killer cell leukaemia. Epidemiology It only represent a very small proportion (~0.44%) of all haematological malignanc...
Article

PET-CT indications

PET-CT is a combination of cross-sectional anatomic information provided by CT and the metabolic information provided by positron emission tomography (PET). PET is most commonly performed with 2-[F-18]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG). Fluorine-18 (F-18) is an unstable radioisotope and has a half-...
Article

Zebra spleen

Zebra spleen, also referred to as psychedelic spleen or more correctly inhomogeneous splenic enhancement refers to the transient heterogeneous parenchymal enhancement of the spleen during the arterial or early portal venous phases of contrast enhancement in CT, MRI, or ultrasound imaging. It is...
Article

AIDS-defining illness

AIDS-defining illnesses are conditions that in the setting of a HIV infection confirm the diagnosis of AIDS, and do not commonly occur in immunocompetent individuals 2. According to the CDC surveillance case definition 1, they are: Infectious bacterial infections: multiple or recurrent candid...
Article

H-shaped vertebra

H-shaped vertebrae, also known as Lincoln log vertebrae, are a characteristic finding of sharply delimited central endplate depression, classically seen in approximately 10% of patients with sickle-cell anaemia, and results from microvascular endplate infarction (figure 1) 3. It may occasionall...
Article

Technetium agents

Technetium agents based on the technetium-99m (Tc-99m) radioisotope are frequently used agents in medical imaging. The radioactive technetium radiotracer can be chelated to a number of different compounds to create specific radiopharmaceuticals and optimise the functional imaging of various stru...
Article

Normal hepatobiliary imaging examples

This article lists examples of normal imaging of the liver and biliary tree and surrounding structures, divided by region and modality. Liver Plain radiographs liver silhouette: example Ultrasound liver ultrasound example 1 with shear wave elastography liver Doppler ultrasound: example ne...

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