Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

187 results found
Article

Marginal zone lymphoma

Marginal zone lymphomas are a group of low grade Non Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) that arise from the marginal zone of B cell germinal follicles in lymph nodes. There are three types of marginal zone lymphomas depending on the site of origin. These include: Mucosa-accosiated lymphoid tissue (MALT) s...
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Mediastinal lymph node enlargement

Mediastinal lymph node enlargement can occur from a wide range of pathologies. It may occur on its own or in association with other lung pathology. Terminology Although mediastinal lymphadenopathy is used interchangeably - by some - with "mediastinal lymph node enlargement", they are not synon...
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Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance

Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) is the most common plasma cell disorder and refers to the presence of an abnormal monoclonal antibody in the blood but the absence of the overt bone marrow and clinical signs of multiple myeloma. Epidemiology MGUS is the most common pla...
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MR liver iron quantification

MR liver iron quantification is a non-invasive means of measuring liver iron concentration, a key indicator in the management of patients with haemochromatosis (primary or secondary). Advantages Apart from being non-invasive, sampling occurs in a large cross-section of the liver, as opposed to...
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Multiple myeloma

Multiple myeloma is the most common primary malignant bone neoplasm in adults. It arises from red marrow due to monoclonal proliferation of plasma cells and manifests in a wide range of radiographic abnormalities. Multiple myeloma remains incurable. Terminology Four main patterns are recognise...
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Multiple myeloma (extraosseous manifestations)

Extraosseous myeloma refers to any manifestation of multiple myeloma where there is plasma cell proliferation outside the skeletal system. This can potentially affect any organ system and the reported disease spectrum includes: reticuloendothelial system lymph nodes (considered to be most comm...
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Muscle lymphoma

Muscle lymphoma is a rare manifestation of lymphoma. Epidemiology Muscle lymphoma is rare, representing <2% of all lymphomas. The average age of presentation is 70 years 1. Clinical presentation Focal swelling and/or pain along with B-type symptoms 2. Any muscle can be involved but most comm...
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Myelodysplastic syndrome

Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are a heterogeneous group of clonal haematological stem cell disorders. It has sometimes been referred to as a preleukaemia or a preleukaemic condition. Epidemiology Its overall incidence is thought to be around 3.3 per 100,000. The incidence in patients older t...
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Myelofibrosis

Myelofibrosis is a haematological disorder where there is the replacement of bone marrow with collagenous connective tissue and progressive fibrosis. It is also classified as a myeloproliferative disorder. It is characterised by: extramedullary hematopoiesis progressive splenomegaly anaemia ...
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Myeloproliferative disorder

Myeloproliferative disorders (MPDs) are a diverse group of conditions that are characterised by the overproduction of red cells, white cells and/or platelets in bone marrow. There are numerous conditions considered in this group but the most common are:  myelofibrosis polycythaemia vera essen...
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Neurolymphomatosis

Neurolymphomatosis is a rare condition characterised by the direct invasion of the cranial and peripheral nerves and roots by lymphoma, in the great majority B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma. It should be differentiated from non-tumour conditions associated with lymphoma that also affect the periphe...
Article

Nodular lymphoid hyperplasia

Nodular lymphoid hyperplasia (NLH) is a type of rare, benign, lymphoproliferative disease. It is most commonly reported affecting the gastrointestinal and respiratory systems. The presence of gut/mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (GALT/MALT) can be seen in children and young adults as a normal ...
Article

Non-Hodgkin lymphoma

Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is a catch-all term for lymphomas that are not of the Hodgkin subtype. It is a heterogeneous group of malignancies in terms of histology, clinical presentation, and prognosis.  See 2008 WHO classification for further information on subtypes. 
Article

Non lymphomatous pulmonary lymphoid disorders

There are several non lymphomatous lymphoid disorders that can affect the lung. This implies that they consist of lymphoid tissue but may not have progressed as far as an overt lymphoma. They include: Castleman disease plasma-cell granuloma lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia angioimmunoblast...
Article

Normal gastrointestinal tract imaging examples

This article lists examples of normal imaging of the gastrointestinal tract and surrounding structures, divided by modality. Plain radiograph example 1: abdominal film example 2: erect and supine example 3, example 4: paediatric example 5: young adult male Barium studies example 1, exampl...
Article

Normal hepatobiliary imaging examples

This article lists examples of normal imaging of the liver and biliary tree and surrounding structures, divided by region and modality. Liver Plain radiographs liver silhouette: example Ultrasound liver ultrasound example 1 with shear wave elastography liver Doppler ultrasound: example ne...
Article

Pancreatic lymphoma

Pancreatic lymphoma is most commonly a B-cell sub-type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Epidemiology Pancreatic lymphoma is typically seen in middle-aged patients with a mean age of around 55 years old and is more common in immunocompromised patients. Clinical presentation Symptoms are often non-spe...
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Paraneoplastic syndromes

Paraneoplastic syndromes occur secondary to the indirect effects of a malignancy and occur remotely to the primary malignancy. Symptoms are mediated by cytokines, hormones or immune cross-reactivity. These syndromes can cause a diverse range of symptoms and can affect multiple systems. Epidemio...
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Periprocedural anticoagulation

When planning an interventional procedure a patient’s coagulation status must be assessed and optimised to best balance the risk of bleeding and thrombosis. The following must be considered; bleeding risks associated with the procedure medications the patient is taking that alter coagulation o...
Article

Perisplenitis

Perisplenitis is acute inflammation of the splenic capsule and its peritoneal covering. Epidemiology It is seen uncommonly but there is no data on its actual incidence. Clinical Presentation It is seen usually in young and middle-aged patients, with acute left hypochondrial or lower chest pa...
Article

PET-CT indications

PET-CT is a combination of cross-sectional anatomic information provided by CT and the metabolic information provided by positron emission tomography (PET). PET is most commonly performed with 2-[F-18]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG). Fluorine-18 (F-18) is an unstable radioisotope and has a half-...
Article

Pituitary lymphoma

Pituitary lymphoma is very rare, although lymphomatous (or leukaemic) infiltration of the perisellar dura is not infrequently encountered as part of more widespread CNS disease. This article concerns itself with involvement of the pituitary itself rather than the region more broadly. For a gener...
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Plasmacytoma

Plasmacytomas are a discrete, solitary mass of neoplastic monoclonal plasma cells in either bone or soft tissue (extramedullary). It is a rare tumour that is associated with latent systemic disease in the majority of affected patients. It can be considered as a singular counterpart of multiple m...
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Pleural lymphoma

Pleural involvement with lymphoma can occur in two situations: primary pleural lymphoma primary effusion lymphoma secondary involvement of the pleura with lymphoma
Article

Pneumocystis pneumonia

Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP), also referred to as Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PJP), is an atypical pulmonary infection and the most common opportunistic infection in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Terminology Classically, PCP was the acronym for Pneumocystis car...
Article

POEMS syndrome

POEMS syndrome is an acronym for a rare multisystem disorder comprising of a minimum of three of the following features in the setting of a plasma cell dyscrasia: P: polyneuropathy O: organomegaly E: endocrinopathy M: monoclonal gammopathy S: skin changes (including hyperpigmentation and sk...
Article

Polycythaemia vera

Polycythaemia vera (older term: polycythaemia rubra vera) is a myeloproliferative disorder that results in an excess of red blood cells in the bloodstream. Epidemiology The estimated prevalence is around 2-3 per 10,000 people. It typically presents in older individuals. There may be a slightly...
Article

Polyglandular autoimmune syndromes

Polyglandular autoimmune syndromes (PAS) are a rare set of diseases characterised by the presence of ≥2 autoimmune endocrine disease. Pathology Three types of PAS have been described.  PAS type I a.k.a. APECED (autoimmune polyendocrinopathy, candidiasis and ectodermal dystrophy) or MEDAC (mu...
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Primary bone lymphoma

Primary bone (skeletal/osseous) lymphoma (PBL) is a less common manifestation of lymphoma than secondary involvement from disseminated lymphoma. It is rare, accounting for <5% of bone tumours and <1% of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Terminology PBL is defined as the presence of lymphoma isolated to on...
Article

Primary effusion lymphoma

Primary effusion lymphoma is a rare form of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (diffuse large cell B cell lymphoma) characterised by malignant fluid accumulation in the absence of lymphadenopathy. Typical sites of accumulation include pleural space pericardium peritoneal space Associations immunodeficie...
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Primary hepatic lymphoma

Primary hepatic lymphoma (PHL) is rare accounting for roughly 100 described cases. If it is being considered as a diagnosis, distal lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, bone marrow disease, and leukaemia should not be present for at least 6 months after the liver tumour is detected (see: secondary hep...
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Primary immunodeficiency states

Primary immunodeficiency states are heterogenous group of disorders that occur when there is an impairment of humoral or cell-mediated immunity in the absence of any recognised precipitating cause such as drug therapy or infective agent such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Epidemiology ...
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Primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma

Primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma is a distinct entity, recognised in the WHO classification of lymphoma. Epidemiology Primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma accounts approximately 5% of large B-cell lymphoma, which is usually disseminated or found in the abdomen. There appears to b...
Article

Primary ovarian lymphoma

Primary ovarian lymphoma (POL) refers to involvement of the ovary with lymphoma but without the involvement of any other site. It is an extremely rare yet well-recognised condition. Epidemiology POL accounts for ~1.5% of ovarian tumours 5. Pathology The rarity of this condition is probably c...
Article

Primary pleural lymphoma

Primary pleural lymphoma is extremely rare, especially in immunocompetent patients. Epidemiology Primary pleural lymphoma accounts for <0.5% of all non-Hodgkin lymphoma 2 and ~2.5% of primary chest wall tumours 4.  Pathology Primary pleural lymphoma may be Hodgkin or non-Hodgkin lymphoma wit...
Article

Primary pulmonary lymphoma

Primary pulmonary lymphomas refer to clonal lymphoid proliferation affecting the lungs without any detectable extrapulmonary involvement. It is much rarer than secondary pulmonary lymphoma and is most frequently represented by lymphoma of B-cell lineage - often marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of m...
Article

Protein C deficiency

Protein C deficiency is a hypercoagulable state due to reduced activity or an absolute deficiency of protein C, an anticoagulant protein. Protein C deficiency increases the risk of venous thrombosis. Epidemiology The prevalence of protein C deficiency in the general population is around 1 per ...
Article

Protein S deficiency

Protein S deficiency is a hyperocoagulable state associated with increased risk of venous thrombosis (up to 5% of patients with deep venous thrombosis may carry this deficiency). Epidemiology Protein S deficiency may be expected in ≈1 of every 500 people 3. Pathology Protein S, a vitamin K-d...
Article

Pulmonary artery stump thrombosis

Pulmonary artery stump thrombosis describes thrombus formation occurring at the site of the pulmonary arterial stump, a complication following lobectomy or pneumonectomy. It is usually discovered as an incidental finding on routine follow-up chest CT scans. Epidemiology The prevalence of pulmo...
Article

Pulmonary leukostasis

Pulmonary leukostasis is a medical emergency that is most commonly seen as a complication of chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) in blast crisis, and acute myeloid leukemia when white blood cell (WBC) counts are over 100 x 109/L (100,000/microL). It needs to be considered in any patient with myeloge...
Article

Pulmonary lymphoma

Pulmonary lymphoma refers to lung parenchymal involvement with lymphoma. Pathology It can be broadly divided as primary or secondary: primary pulmonary lymphoma: (rare) usually non-Hodgkin lymphoma which is limited to the lung with or without mediastinal lymph node involvement and with no evi...
Article

Rai staging system for chronic lymphoid leukaemia

The Rai staging system is one of the two staging systems currently adopted in assessment of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL). It comprises of stages 0 to IV and classifies chronic lymphocytic leukemia into low, intermediate and high-risk categories, which correspond with stages 0, I & II, an...
Article

Reactive vs malignant lymph nodes (ultrasound features)

A number of sonographic features are helpful in distinguishing reactive versus malignant lymph nodes. Grey scale features Features that favour reactive/infective nodes over malignancy include: nodal matting surrounding soft tissue oedema Doppler features Doppler examination is particularly...
Article

Reed-Sternberg cells

Reed-Sternberg cells are a classical finding diagnostic of Hodgkin lymphoma. They are giant, multinucleated cells with abundant pale cytoplasm. Reed-Sternberg cells are rare, making up <1% of lymphoid tissue, with the background consisting of lymphocytes, plasma cells, eosinophils and macrophages.
Article

Renal lymphoma

Renal lymphoma is usually seen as a part of spectrum of multi-systemic lymphoma, however, rarely may be seen as a primary disease. Epidemiology While renal lymphoma has autopsy incidence of 30-60% in lymphoma patients, actual CT diagnosis incidence is ~ 5%1. The kidneys are the most common ab...
Article

Reticuloendothelial system

The reticuloendothelial system (RES) comprises a number of tissues: spleen bone marrow liver Kupffer cells
Article

Retrorenal spleen

Retrorenal spleen refers to variant position of the spleen, when its inferior portion lies posterior to the upper pole of the left kidney. This normal variant occurs in ~20% of patients, with the finding more common in patients who lie supine 1. Recognition of this variant is important to avoi...
Article

Richter transformation

Richter transformation is defined as development of high-grade non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) or small lymphocytic lymphoma. It has been expanded to include other lymphoid malignancies that develop in CLL patients, including Hodgkin disease, prol...
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Rosai-Dorfman disease

Rosai-Dorfman disease, also known as sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy, is a rare benign idiopathic proliferative disease that involves phagocytic histiocytes. Epidemiology The disease predominantly occurs in young adults with a mean age at presentation of 21 years. There may be...
Article

Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome

Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome (RTS) is a very rare genetic multi-system disorder primarily characterised by mental retardation, broad and often angulated thumbs and halluces, and distinctive facial features. Epidemiology The estimated incidence is 1 in 100,000-125,000 live births 5. Clinical pres...
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Sclerosing angiomatoid nodular transformation of the spleen

Sclerosing angiomatoid nodular transformation (SANT) of the spleen is a recently recognised, rare, non-neoplastic vascular splenic lesion of uncertain aetiology.  Terminology The term SANT first appeared in the literature in a 2004 paper by Martel et al. which examined a series of 25 cases 3. ...
Article

Secondary hepatic involvement with lymphoma

Secondary hepatic involvement with lymphoma (secondary hepatic lymphoma) is common, much more so than primary hepatic lymphoma.  Clinical presentation Hepatomegaly with deranged liver function tests is the most common presentation. Jaundice is common. Rarely, patients may present with acute li...
Article

Secondary involvement of the bone with lymphoma

Secondary involvement of the bone with lymphoma, also referred as secondary bone lymphoma, is much more common than primary bone lymphoma, occurring in ~15% of disseminated lymphomas. Terminology Secondary bone lymphoma is defined as lymphoma involving the bone with nodal disease occurring wit...
Article

Secondary involvement of the pleura with lymphoma

Secondary involvement of the pleura with lymphoma (secondary pleural lymphoma) is very common, occurring in ~20% of lymphomas. It may be a result of an extension of lymphoma into the visceral or parietal pleura or be a complicating pleural effusion and is a poor prognostic factor.  Epidemiology...
Article

Secondary pulmonary lymphoma

Secondary pulmonary lymphomas refer to pulmonary involvement with lymphoma when the condition is not limited to the lung and has mediastinal lymph node involvement or evidence of extrathoracic dissemination for at least three months after the initial diagnosis. This is a more common form of pulm...
Article

Sezary syndrome

Sézary syndrome (SS) is a type of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. It is sometimes considered an advanced and leukaemic form of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL). Clinical presentation It is clinically characterised by an extensive erythematous rash covering most of the body as well as the presence o...
Article

Sickle cell disease

Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a hereditary (autosomal recessive) condition resulting in the formation of abnormal haemoglobin (a haemoglobinopathy), which manifests as multisystem ischaemia and infarction, as well as haemolytic anaemia.  Epidemiology There is no recognised gender predilection. ...
Article

Sickle cell disease (abdominal manifestations)

Abdominal manifestations of sickle cell disease (SCD) are wide and can involve many organs. For a general discussion, please refer to sickle cell disease. Splenic splenomegaly may occur transiently with the sequestration syndrome, where rapid pooling of blood occurs in the spleen, resulting ...
Article

Small bowel lymphoma

Small bowel lymphoma is the most common small bowel malignancy, accounting accounts for ~25% of all primary small bowel malignancies and ~40% of all primary gastrointestinal lymphomas. Epidemiology Small bowel lymphoma is most commonly secondary extranodal involvement in widespread systemic ly...
Article

Small lymphocytic lymphoma

Small lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL) is a non-Hodgkin lymphoma affecting the B-lymphocytes of the immune system. ​It is considered the same disease process as chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) although unlike CLL, the tumour cells are mostly confined to the lymph nodes rather than the blood stream...
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Smouldering multiple myeloma

Smouldering multiple myeloma (SMM) is a precursor to multiple myeloma. Clinical presentation Similar to MGUS patients, smoulder multiple myeloma patients are asymptomatic. Diagnostic criteria The criteria for smouldering multiple myeloma diagnosis according to the International Myeloma Worki...
Article

Spleen

The spleen is an organ of the haematological system and has a role in immune response, storage of red blood cells and haematopoiesis. Gross anatomy The spleen is a wedge-shaped organ lying mainly in the left upper quadrant (left hypochondrium and partly in the epigastrium) and is protected by ...
Article

Splenic cyst

Splenic epithelial cysts, also referred as splenic epidermoid cysts or primary splenic cysts, are unilocular fluid lesions with thin and smooth walls and no enhancement. They represent ~20% of cysts found in the spleen, and are usually an innocuous incidental imaging finding. Note that most (~8...
Article

Splenic embolisation

Splenic (artery) embolisation is an endovascular technique for treatment of splenic and splenic artery pathology as an alternative to splenic artery ligation or splenectomy. It often results in successfully treating the underlying pathology, while maintaining at least partial splenic function.  ...
Article

Splenic granulomatous disease

Splenic granulomatous disease refers to sequelae arising from granulomatous infection-inflammation of the spleen.  They are a result of: infective splenic tuberculosis splenic histoplasmosis splenic brucellosis non-infective splenic sarcoidosis Radiographic features General In latent s...
Article

Splenic hamartoma

Splenic hamartomas are very rare lesions commonly found incidentally on imaging. They are most often solitary but may be present as multiple nodules in patients with tuberous sclerosis or Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome. Terminology  The recently-described sclerosing angiomatoid nodular transformatio...
Article

Splenic lymphoma

Splenic lymphoma, also termed as lymphomatous involvement of the spleen, represents the most common malignancy to involve the spleen. They are commonly secondary, rarely being primary (referred as primary splenic lymphoma).   This article focuses on the location-specific primary and secondary l...
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Splenic metastases

Splenic metastases are relatively rare on imaging, although they are more commonly found on autopsy. Typically they are part of a widespread metastatic disease. Epidemiology The rate of splenic metastases varies between 1-10% of autopsy studies, depending on whether microscopic or macroscopic ...
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Splenic pseudocyst

Splenic pseudocysts, also referred as secondary splenic cysts, are acquired cystic lesions not delineated by a true epithelial wall. They represent the majority of the splenic cystic lesions, corresponding to approximately 80% of them (c.f. splenic epithelial cysts). The main causes are:  splen...
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Splenic trauma

Splenic trauma can occur after blunt or penetrating trauma or secondary to medical intervention (i.e. iatrogenic). The spleen is the most frequently injured internal organ after blunt trauma. Epidemiology In blunt trauma, the spleen can account for up to 49% of abdominal organ injuries 2. Cli...
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Splenomegaly

Splenomegaly is a term which refers to enlargement of the spleen. The normal adult splenic length upper limit is usually around 12-15 cm. It can also be helpful to know how to calculate splenic index, volume and mass by CT and MR techniques. Massive splenomegaly is a term used when the spleen we...
Article

Splenunculus

Splenunculi (also known as supernumerary, accessory spleens, or splenules) are small nodules of spleen that are separate from the rest of the organ. They are benign and asymptomatic, their importance is mainly related to the need to distinguish them from more sinister pathology.   Epidemiology ...
Article

Sweet syndrome

Sweet syndrome (acute febrile neutrophilic dermatosis) is characterised by a constellation of clinical symptoms, physical features, and pathologic findings which include: fever neutrophilia tender erythematous skin lesions (papules, nodules, and plaques) a diffuse infiltrate consisting predo...
Article

T-cell prolymphocytic leukaemia

T-cell prolymphocytic leukaemia (T-PLL) is a rare and unusual haematological malignancy. Epidemiology It represents around 2% of all mature lymphocytic leukaemias in adults over the age of 30 1. It usually affects older adults with an average age at presentation being around 65 years. There ma...
Article

Technetium agents

Technetium agents based on the technetium-99m (Tc-99m) radioisotope are frequently used agents in medical imaging. The radioactive technetium radiotracer can be chelated to a number of different compounds to create specific radiopharmaceuticals and optimise the functional imaging of various stru...
Article

Testicular leukaemia

Testicular leukaemia can be seen in patients during and after acute leukaemia. The blood-testis barrier limits chemotherapy from reaching the testicle, and therefore the testicle can act as a harbor for leukaemic cells. Clinical presentation Typically presents with painless testicular enlargem...
Article

Testicular lymphoma

Testicular lymphoma is an uncommon testicular malignancy. Lymphoma can involve the testes in three ways: primary site of extranodal disease (primary testicular lymphoma) secondary involvement of systemic disease primary manifestation of subclinical systemic disease This article is concerned ...
Article

Thalassaemia

Thalassaemia is an autosomal recessive haemoglobinopathy that originated in the Mediterranean region. The genetic defect causes a reduction in the rate of globin chain synthesis which causes the formation of abnormal haemoglobin molecules. The resultant microcytic anaemia is the characteristic p...
Article

Thrombotic thrombocytopaenic purpura

Thrombotic thrombocytopaenic purpura (TTP) is a rare but life-threatening condition characterised by thrombocytopaenia, microangiopathic haemolytic anaemia and end-organ damage. Epidemiology The prevalence of TTP is ten cases per one million people 2. Ninety-percent of cases occur in adulthood...
Article

Thymic rebound hyperplasia

In periods of bodily stress the thymus may acutely shrink to 40% of its original volume (depending on the severity and duration of the stress). During the recovery phase it can grow back to its original size or even larger (up to 50% larger). This "rebound effect" is known as thymic rebound hype...
Article

Tower vertebrae

Tower vertebrae a rare manifestation of sickle cell disease, in which short infarcted vertebrae are seen adjacent to other abnormally grown in height vertebrae.  See also codfish or h-shaped vertebrae anterior vertebral vascular notches vanishing vertebrae
Article

Trousseau syndrome

Trousseau syndrome is referred to by a number of names, such as migratory thrombophlebitis and cancer-associated thromboembolism, but is essentially the association of venous thrombosis provoked by a yet to be diagnosed malignancy.
Article

Tumours associated with increased erythropoetin

Tumours associated with increased erythropoetin are varied and numerous. Patients will be polycythaemic due to erythropoetin secretion. Tumours in this group include: renal cell carcinoma (RCC) 2 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) haemangioblastoma
Article

Twin anaemia polycythaemia sequence

Twin anaemia polycythaemia sequence (TAPS) is considered a variant of the twin to twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS). Epidemiology TAPS may occur spontaneously in up to 5% of monochorionic twins and may also develop after incomplete laser treatment in twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome cases 2. ...
Article

Typhlitis

Typhlitis, also called caecitis or neutropaenic colitis, is a necrotising inflammatory condition which typically involves the caecum and, sometimes, can extend into the ascending colon or terminal ileum. Epidemiology Typhlitis was first described in children with leukaemia and severe neutropae...
Article

Uterine lymphoma

Uterine lymphoma refers to involvement of the uterus with lymphoma. Some authors also place lymphoma of the uterine cervix under this group. Epidemiology It is rare condition with initial uterine involvement occurring in only 1% of patients with lymphoma 3. However, uterine involvement is more...
Article

Vaginal lymphoma

Vaginal lymphoma can refer to: secondary involvement of the vagina (secondary vaginal lymphoma) from widespread generalised lymphoma relatively commoner usually comprises of diffuse large cell B non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (DLBCL) 2 primary vaginal lymphoma much rarer
Article

Vanishing vertebrae

Vanishing vertebrae is a rare ischaemic manifestation of sickle cell disease, in which a completely infarcted vertebral body literally disappears or vanishes, as a result of infarction. In the few reported cases, the posterior elements remain intact. See also codfish or h-shaped vertebrae ant...
Article

Vitamin K

Vitamin K is a family of fat-soluble vitamins essential for normal blood-clotting function and comprises two vitamers that are found naturally: phytomenadione (also known as phylloquinone or K1) and menaquinone (or K2). Menaquinone is synthesised by normal flora in the intestine although the am...
Article

Von Willebrand disease

Von Willebrand disease (vWD) is the most common inherited bleeding diathesis (easy bleeding). Clinical presentation Bruising and mucosal bleeding are typical presentations, but there is a spectrum of severity. The more residual vWF a patient has, the less severe the bleeding. Pathology There...
Article

Waldenström macroglobulinaemia

Waldenström macroglobulinaemia, previously also known as lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma, is a type of B-cell lymphoma. Terminology Recent publications classify Waldenström macroglobulinaemia as a lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma with any level of an IgM paraprotein 10.  Therefore the two entities are no...
Article

Wells criteria for pulmonary embolism

The Wells criteria for pulmonary embolism is a risk stratification score and clinical decision rule to estimate the probability for acute pulmonary embolism (PE) in patients in which history and examination suggests acute PE is a diagnostic possibility. It provides a pre-test probability which, ...
Article

Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome

Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS) is a rare immunodeficiency disease with a characteristic phenotype that includes: X-linked recessive and only occurs in boys petechiae, bloody diarrhoea, epistaxis due to thrombocytopenia with small platelets eczema starts in first month of life recurrent infec...

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