This classification was initially proposed by Bailey in 1929 2 and remains the most widely used classification system at time of writing (July 2016).
Bailey classification of second branchial cleft cysts provides a structure for classing second branchial cleft cysts into four types. It is no lo...
The ballet sign refers to the paralysis of voluntary movements of the eyeball with preservation of the automatic movements. Sometimes this sign is present with exophthalmic goitre and hysteria.
Barrow caroticocavernous fistula classification divides caroticocavernous fistulas into direct (type A) or indirect (types B-D). This classification was proposed by Barrow et al. in 1985 1 and at the time of writing (mid 2016) remains the most widely used system for describing caroticocavernous ...
Basilar fractures of the skull, also known as base of skull fractures, are a common form of skull fracture, particularly in the setting of severe traumatic head injury, and involve the base of the skull. They may occur in isolation or often in continuity with skull vault fractures or facial frac...
The base of the skull (or skull base) forms the floor of the cranial cavity and separates the brain from the structures of the neck and face.
The base of the skull is a bony diaphragm composed of a number of bones including (from anterior to posterior):
The basion is the median (midline) point of the anterior margin of the foramen magnum. The apical ligament attaches to it.
It is one of the skull landmarks, craniometric points for radiological or anthropological skull measurement.
Various lines and measurements using the ...
The basion-axial interval (BAI), as the name suggests, is the horizontal distance between the basion and the posterior cortex of the axis, used in the diagnosis of atlanto-occipital dissociation injuries.
It is the distance (in mm) between the basion and the superior extension of the posterior ...
The basion-dens interval (BDI), as the name suggests, is the distance between the basion and the tip of the dens, used in the diagnosis of atlanto-occipital dissociation injuries.
It is the distance from the most inferior portion of the basion to the closest point of the superior aspect of the ...
Battle sign in an eponymous name given to mastoid ecchymosis (bruising of the scalp overlying the mastoid process) and is suggestive of a base of skull fracture, most commonly a petrous temporal bone fracture.
History and etymology
Mr William Henry Battle (1855-1936) was an English surgeon, w...
A mnemonic used to remember the behavioural changes of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is:
P: poor school performance
L: lack of concentration
Behçet disease is a multi-systemic and chronic inflammatory vasculitis of unknown aetiology.
The mean age at which Behçet disease occurs is 20-30 years. The disease is most prevalent in the Mediterranean region, Middle East and East Asia. The highest incidence has been reported in...
Benign lymphoepithelial lesions (BLL or BLEL), also misleadingly known as AIDS-related parotid cysts (ARPC), are mixed solid and cystic lesions that enlarge the parotid glands, and are usually associated with cervical lymph node enlargement, and nasopharyngeal lymphofollicular hyperplasia.
There are a number of benign metastasising tumours:
benign metastasising meningioma 1,2
benign metastasising leiomyoma 3
primary adenoma of thyroid 4
giant cell tumour of bone 5
Benign minor salivary gland pathology is a broad term that encompasses a number of relatively uncommon pathologies that affect the minor salivary glands of the head and neck:
salivary retention cysts
A Bezold abscess is a complication of acute otomastoiditis where the infection erodes through the cortex medial to the attachment of sternocleidomastoid, at the attachment site of the posterior belly of the digastric muscle, and extends into the infratemporal fossa. Due to it being deep to the i...
The Biffl scale or grade illustrates the spectrum of blunt cerebrovascular injury (BCVI) seen on angiography (both CTA and DSA). Some authors refer to the grading scale as the Denver scale, which is not to be confused with the Denver criteria, a set of clinical and risk factors for BCVI.
Bilateral thinning of the parietal bones, also known as biparietal osteodystrophy, is an uncommon, slowly progressive acquired disease of middle-aged people with slight female predilection. It is typically an incidental finding.
The aetiology is unknown but is thought to be an age-r...
Bill bar is a landmark that divides the superior compartment of the internal acoustic meatus into an anterior and posterior compartment. Anterior to Bill's bar, in the anterior superior quadrant, are the facial nerve (CN VII) and nervus intermedius, and posterior to it in the posterior superior ...
The bimastoid line has been described and used to evaluate basilar invagination on frontal skull plain film and coronal reconstructed CT image.
The bimastoid line is drawn between the inferior tips of the of mastoid processes bilaterally. The tip of the odontoid process of C2 normally projects ...
The binocular distance (BOD) is a measurement between the two lateral (outer) canthi of each eye. It is sometimes used as a accessory fetal biometric parameter where it is often documented on both 2nd trimester anatomy scans on axial brain scans. The largest diameter of the orbit should be used ...
Black eyebrow sign is the description given on plain facial radiographs to intra-orbital air 1.
Air rises into the most superior aspect of the orbit, almost always in the context of a facial fracture, in a linear fashion, giving the appearance of a eyebrow. The fracture is usually an orbital bl...
The black turbinate sign refers to an area of non-enhancing mucosa on MRI in a patient with angioinvasive fungal sinus infection / rhinocerebral mucormycosis.
Mucormycosis is caused by fungi that include Mucor, Rhizopus, and Absidia species. It is seen in diabetic and immunocompromised patient...
Blunt traumatic neck injury is uncommon because it is usually protected by the head, shoulders, and chest. This term is generally used to refer to injuries of the neck besides to cervical spine injuries, which are common.
Blunt injury to the neck is most commonly from motor vehicle ...
The body of the sphenoid bone is the midline cubical portion of the sphenoid bone, hollowed by the sphenoid air sinuses.
The body has superior, inferior, anterior, posterior, and lateral surfaces.
The superior surface features:
ethmoidal spine: prominent spine that articulates...
Bogorad syndrome also known as the syndrome of crocodile tears, is characterized by residual facial paralysis with profuse lacrimation during eating. It is caused by a misdirection of the regenerating autonomic fibers to the lacrimal gland instead of to the salivary gland.
The Bolger classification of maxillary sinus hypoplasia proposed by Bolger et al in 1990 1 takes into account associated anomalies of the uncinate process, which are of utmost importance for planning functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS).
Maxillary sinus hypoplasia in itself is asymptomati...
The bony orbit refers to the bones that constitute the margins of the orbits, that is the roof, medial and lateral walls and floor. The orbital margin or rim refers to the anterior circular margin of the orbit. The orbital apex refers to the posterior confluence of the orbit, where the optic can...
Boogard's angle is measured by drawing a line from basion to opisthion and another line along the plane of the clivus to the basion intersecting the first line - the angle between these two lines is measured .
The normal angle is 126° +/- 6°. If the angle measures more than 136° it is indicativ...
Bouthillier et al described (in 1996) 1 a seven segment internal carotid artery (ICA) classification system. It remains the most widely used system for describing ICA segments at the time of writing (mid-2016).
There are a few other classifications systems including those proposed by Fisher (19...
Brachycephaly refers to a calvarial shape where the bi-parietal diameter to fronto-occipital diameter approaches the 95th percentile. It can result from a craniosynostosis involving the bicoronal and/or bilambdoid sutures.
Brachycephaly can be associated with numerous ...
A mnemonic for remembering the branches of the maxillary artery is:
DAM I AM Piss Drunk But Stupid Drunk I Prefer, Must Phone Alcoholics Anonymous
D: deep auricular artery
A: anterior tympanic artery
M: middle meningeal artery
I: inferior alveolar artery
A: accessory meningeal ar...
Mnemonics for the branches of the external carotid artery abound. A few colourful examples include:
Some American Ladies Found Our Pyramids Most Satisfactory
Some Anatomists Like Freaking Out Poor Medical Students
She Always Likes Friends Over Papa, Sister, and Mama
There are many many many...
Useful mnemonics to remember the four branches of the thoracoacromial artery are:
CAlifornia Police Department
Cadavers Are Dead People
B: breast (pectoral)
CAlifornia Police Department
Branchial cleft anomalies comprise of a spectrum of congenital defects that occur in the head and neck.
The anomalies result from branchial apparatus (six arches; five clefts), which are the embryologic precursors of the ear and the muscles, blood vessels, bones, cartilage, and mucos...
Branchio-oto-renal (BOR) dysplasia is a rare syndromic disorder characterised by:
can involve the outer, middle, and inner ear associated with conductive, sensorineural, or mixed hearing impairment
branchial fistulae and branchial cleft cysts
The bregma is the midline bony landmark where the coronal and sagittal sutures meet, between the frontal and two parietal bones.
It is the anterior fontanelle in the neonate and closes in the second 2 (typically around 18 months after birth).
It is one of the skull landmarks, craniometric poin...
The buccal nerve is the only purely sensory branch of the anterior division of the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve. It is not to be confused with the buccal branch of the facial nerve.
The buccal nerve divides off the anterior division and passes with the paired nerve...
The buccal space (or buccinator space) is one of the seven suprahyoid deep compartments of the head and neck.
The buccal spaces are paired fat contained spaces on each side of the face forming cheeks. Each space is enveloped by the superficial (investing) layer of the deep cervi...
The buccinator artery is a small branch from the second part of the maxillary artery. It runs obliquely forward, between the medial pterygoid and the insertion of the temporalis, to the outer surface of the buccinator, to which it is distributed, anastomosing with branches of the facial artery a...
Buphthalmos is a descriptive term which simply means an enlarged eyeball or ocular globe due to increased intraocular pressure (glaucoma), without deformation or and intrinsic mass lesion.
It typically manifests in infants and young children.
It usually indicates the p...