Eagle syndrome refers to symptomatic elongation of the styloid process or calcified stylohyoid ligament 1-2. It is often bilateral. In most cases the cause is not known however the condition is sometimes associated with disorders causing heterotopic calcification such as abnormal Calcium-Phospho...
Ectodermal dysplasia (ED) refers to a heterogeneous group of genetic disorders that cause abnormal ectoderm development. The effect is a non-progressive defect in the development of two or more tissues derived from embryonic ectoderm.
ED is rare with an estimated prevalence of 1:...
Ectopia lentis refers to subluxation or dislocation of the lens secondary to dysfunction or disruption of zonular fibres.
systemic and syndromic disorders
typically upwards and out
most common spontaneous cause 2
homocystinuria - typically dow...
An ectopic thyroid gland is one which is located in a location other than the normal position anterior to the laryngeal cartilages.
The during embryological development, the thyroid gland migrates down from the foramen caecum at the posterior aspect of the tongue, to its permanent location. Thi...
Endolymphatic sac tumours (ELST) are very rare, locally invasive tumors of endolymphatic sac. Early detection of ELST is very important, because early surgical intervention may prevent further hearing loss. ELSTs do not metastasise, but are highly locally aggressive.
Mean age at ...
There is a short list of causes for enlarged extra-ocular muscles:
thyroid associated orbitopathy
amyloidosis (very rare) 2
Enophthalmos refers to the posterior displacement of the globe in the orbit. It implies that the globe itself is normal and is caused by either one or a combination of 1:
structural alterations in the bony orbit
orbital fat atrophy
Specific causes include 2:
orbital blowout fract...
The epiglottis is a leaf-shaped fibrocartilaginous structure that forms part of the supraglottic larynx and defines the division of the hypopharynx from the larynx.
The epiglottis projects posterosuperiorly from its stem-like base, which is attached to the thyroid cartilage. It ...
Epiglottitis is a life-threatening condition caused by inflammation of the epiglottis and aryepiglottic folds 1, which can lead to acute airway obstruction. Hence, treatment should be urgent and performed by appropriately trained individuals, e.g. instrumentation of the trachea should be perfor...
Epignathus is a term given to a very rare form of teratoid tumour that arises from the oropharyngeal region.
There may be a slight female predilection ref. The estimated incidence is ~ 1 in 35,000 to 200,000 births.
The tumour classically presents in utero ...
Epistaxis (nosebleed) is very common and has a broad differential diagnosis in clinical practice. In clinical practice, anterior epistaxis are mainly located in Kiesselbach's plexus and posterior epistaxis (5% of all epistaxis) in Woodruff's plexus.
Epistaxis is very common, with ...
Ethmocephaly refers to a rare type of midline cranio-facial anomaly that is characterised by the presence of extreme hypotelorism, arrhinia and a midline proboscis.
holoprosencephaly 1-2: particularly alobar holoprosencephaly
The ethmoid bone is a single midline facial bone that separates the nasal cavity from the brain and is located at the roof of the nose and between the two orbits. It is a cubical shape and is relatively lightweight because of its spongy construction. It contributes to the anterior cranial fossa....
The ethmoidal sinuses (or ethmoidal air cells) are one of the four paranasal sinuses. They are located within the ethmoid bone. They are present at birth and they develop rapidly from 0-to-4 year-old; they further mature from 8-to-12 year-old during puberty.
Some of the ethmoidal air cells have...
The Eustachian tube is the channel through which the tympanic cavity communicates with the nasopharynx. It is approximately 36 mm in length and is directed downward, forward, and medially, forming an angle of about 45 degrees with the sagittal plane and one of 30 to 40 degrees with the horizonta...
Eustachian tube dysfunction (ETD) is considered by many to be the underlying cause of chronic otomastoiditis, although both the exact pathogenesis and role of ETD in chronic middle ear infections is unclear.
ETD is estimated to be present in ~1% of the adult population.
The external auditory canal (EAC) extends from from the tympanic membrane medially to the external auditory meatus (EAM) laterally. It is typically 2.5 cm in overall length. The lateral 1.5 cm are bounded by a fibrocartilaginous tube continuous with the auricle. The medial 1 cm is formed by the ...
External auditory canal atresia (EACA) is characterised by complete or incomplete bony atresia of the external auditory canal (EAC) and, especially when seen in the setting of an associated syndrome, a dysplastic auricle and abnormal middle ear cavity.
The incidence is 1 in 10,000...
External auditory canal cholesteatomas are an uncommon locations for cholesteatomas, which are usually in the middle ear or petrous apex. When they occur lateral to the tympanic membrane, they are referred to as external auditory canal cholesteatomas.
The external acoustic can...
Exostosis of the external auditory canal (also known as Surfer's ear), is an abnormal bone growth within the ear canal. It is brought about by exposure to cold wind and water combined, producing a super-cooling of the ear canal.
broad based or more focal circumferential b...
External auditory canal osteoma is a rare focal pedunculated bony overgrowth of the osseous external auditory canal.
solitary pedunculated bony overgrowth of the external auditory canal usually at the bony cartilaginous junction
large lesions may be associate...
The external carotid artery (ECA) is one of the two terminal branches of the common carotid artery. The other terminal branch is the internal carotid (ICA), which is somewhat larger than the ECA.
origin: bifurcation of the common carotid artery
course: under the submandibular gland an...
Mnemonics for the external carotid artery branches abound. They include some colourful examples such as:
Some American Ladies Found Our Pyramids Most Satisfactory
Some Anatomists Like Freaking Out Poor Medical Students
Some Anatomists Like F-ing, Others Prefer S&M
Some Angry Ladies Fight...
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The external jugular vein (EJV) drains the head, face and part of the pectoral region.
Origin and course
The posterior division of the retromandibular vein and posterior auricular vein unite to form the EJV at the angle of the mandible. It courses inferiorly in the subcutaneous ...
The extraocular muscles are the six muscles that control eye movements:
superior rectus: elevation
superior oblique: intorsion
medial rectus: adduction
lateral rectus: abduction
inferior oblique: extorsion
inferior rectus: depression
Extraconal orbital lesions include lesions which arise within the extraconal orbital structures and those extending from adjacent structures into the orbits.
dermoid cyst: most common lesion in paediatrics
lacrimial gland lesions
Extracranial meningiomas, also known as primary extradural meningiomas or ectopic meningioma, are a rare location-specific type of meningioma that arise outside the dural covering of the brain and spinal cord. They are essentially extracranial tumours, most often occurring in the head and neck, ...
Extradural haemorrhages (EDHs) represent collections of blood in the extradural (epidural) space. The haemorrhage sits between the skull superficially and the dura which overlies the brain parenchyma.
Patients with extradural haemorrhages are usually young and have a hist...
Extramedullary plasmacytoma (EMP) is an uncommon plasma cell tumour that is composed of monoclonal plasma cells arranged in clusters or sheets. The rate of progression to multiple myeloma (MM) varies from 10% to 30%.
EMP occurs most commonly during the fourth through to seventh d...
An extramural air cell is one that is not contained within its named parent bone. So, the infraorbital ethmoidal air cells that lie within the maxilla and not the ethmoidal bone are examples of extramural air cells.
A mnemonic to remember the order in which extraocular muscles are involved in thyroid associated orbitopathy (TAO) is:
I: inferior rectus
M: medial rectus
S: superior rectus
L: lateral rectus
There is some debate about this however. Some claim superior rect...
The extrinsic muscles of the tongue can be remembered with the following mnemonic:
Paris St Germain's Hour
Paris St. Germain's Hour
Exudative retinitis (also known as retinal telangiectasis or Coats disease) is a rare congenital disease affecting the eyes and is a cause of leukocoria.
The exact aetiology is unknown and the disease is a non hereditary disorder. It occurs predominantly in young males, with the ...
Eye movements are a complex set of movements that are performed by the extra-ocular muscles that are grouped by the muscles that perform particular movements:
ocular internal rotators
ocular external rotators