Facial angiofibroma, also known as fibrous papule, is a fairly common skin lesion seen in males and females after puberty.
They represents a focal vascular and collagen growth.
This lesion is usually solitary and located on the nose skin, measuring 1-5 mm.
There is no hereditary p...
The facial artery is one of the branches of the external carotid artery and supplies blood to the structures of the face.
origin: branch of the external carotid artery a little above the level of the lingual artery
course: ascends anteriorly through the cheek with a tortuous route tow...
The facial bones comprise a set of bones that make up the face:
inferior nasal concha
zygoma (zygomatic bone)
Where these bones join each other, sutures occur.
Facial clefts comprise of a wide spectrum of pathologies which result from failure of fusion in the facial region during the embryonic - early fetal period. This results is gap in the fetal face. These clefts can affect the lip, philtrum, alveolus and hard and soft palate to varying degrees.
Facial fractures are commonly caused by blunt or penetrating trauma sustained during motor vehicle accidents, assaults, and falls. The facial bones are thin and light making them susceptible to injury.
Males are affected more commonly than females and facial fractures are most com...
The facial muscles enable facial expression and serve as sphincters and dilators of the orifices of the face. These muscles differ from those of other regions in the body as there is no fascia deep to the skin of the face; many of the facial muscles insert directly into the skin 1.
The facial nerve is one of the key cranial nerves with a complex and broad range of functions.
Although at first glance it is the motor nerve of facial expression which begins as a trunk and emerges from the parotid gland as five branches (see facial nerve branches mnemonic), it has taste and p...
There are many mnemonics to recall the branches of the facial nerve (superior to inferior) as they exit the anterior border of the parotid gland. Examples include:
Tall Zulus Bear Many Children
Two Zulus Bit My Cat
Two Zebras Bit My Coccyx
Ten Zebras Buggered My Car
To Zanzibar By Motor Car...
Facial palsy refers to the neurological syndrome of facial paralysis. It can result from a broad range of physiological insults to the facial nerve or its central nervous system origins. The most common causes of this is Bell palsy.
While facial palsy refers to the clinical presen...
The facial vein (previously known as the anterior facial vein) is the continuation of the angular vein and joins the anterior branch of the retromandibular vein to form the common facial vein 1-3.
At the level of the lower margin of the orbit, the angular vein becomes the facial ...
The facial-cavernous anastomoses are the communications of the facial and deep facial veins with the cavernous sinus.
At the medial canthus of the eye there is a communication with the ophthalmic veins, which drain into the cavernous sinus. Blood from the frontal scalp normally f...
Factitious hyperthyroidism or thyrotoxicosis factitia refers to precipitation of thyrotoxicosis due to exogenous ingestion of thyroid hormone (e.g. levothyroxine). It has been rarely associated with myocardial ischaemia 2.
The hypervascularity which is seen wi...
The falciform crescent (or crista falciformis) is a horizontal ridge that divides the internal acoustic meatus into superior and inferior portions.
The facial nerve and superior vestibular nerve (SVN) travel in the superior portion of the IAM with the facial nerve anterior to the SVN ...
The Fallopian (facial) canal refers to a bony canal through which the facial nerve traverses the petrous temporal bone, from the internal acoustic meatus to the stylomastoid foramen.
It is, for those of you fond of trivia, the longest bony canal through which a nerve passes. It is also responsi...
The false vocal cords (vestibular folds, ventricular folds) are paired shelf-like structures located within the supraglottic larynx that divide the vestibule above from the ventricle below.
The vestibular ligaments are the ligamentous component of the false vocal cords and const...
Fatty nodal metaplasia in the neck occurs as a result of chronic inflammation or radiotherapy 3. The normal fatty nodal hilum enlarges, such that the lymph node appears cystic. However, its center is of fatty density. There is no surrounding stranding, and the node otherwise looks normal.
Faulty fetal packing, also known as congenital vault depression, is a congenital concave depression of the skull in a newborn.
Occurs in 1 in 10,000 births 1.
This appearance is due to external compression on the skull from 1,2:
fetal limb or twin
Febrile infection-related epilepsy syndrome (FIRES) is a severe postinfectious neurological disorder that presents with status epilepticus in a previously normal child (or less commonly adult) after a febrile illness.
FIRES has received several names in the literature:
A fetal goitre is an enlargement of the thyroid gland in utero. It can occur with either hyper or hypothyroidism (and in isolated cases of euthyroidism 8).
The mechanism is different depending on whether the underlying cause is hyper or hypothyroidism.
First branchial cleft cysts are a type of branchial cleft anomaly. They are uncommon and represent only ~7% of all branchial cleft cysts.
They are usually diagnosed in middle-aged women 3-4.
Their presentation can in the form of 3
asymptomatic - incidenta...
The fissula ante fenestram (FAF), also known as the cochlear cleft, is a small connective tissue-filled cleft located where the tendon of the tensor tympani muscle turns laterally toward the malleus. It is situated immediately anterior to the oval window, and posterior to the cochleariform proce...
The fistula test is used when examining patient with recurrent
A finger is abruptly applied to the external meatus which causes a pulse of air-transmitted pressure. If
nystagmus is induced in association with vertigo, it indicates bony
destruction within the inner ear e.g. choleste...
Floating teeth is the description given to the appearances on imaging of teeth 'hanging in the wind' as a result of alveolar bone destruction around the root of the teeth.
They are uncommonly encountered, with a wide differential diagnosis - albeit that the underlying c...
The floor of mouth is an oral cavity subsite and is a common location of oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma.
The floor of mouth is a U-shaped space extends (and includes) from the oral cavity mucosa superiorly, and the mylohyoid muscle sling 2,3.
superiorly: oral ...
Focal calvarial thinning can result from a number of causes. They include:
bilateral thinning of the parietal bones (normal variant) most common
mega cisterna magna
peripherally located tumors (e.g. oligodendroglioma)
Follicular thyroid adenoma is a commonly found benign neoplasm of the thyroid consisting of differentiated follicular cells. It can not be differentiated from follicular carcinoma on cytologic, sonographic or clinical features alone 1.
Follicular thyroid adenoma is more commonly f...
Follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) is the second most frequent malignancy of the thyroid gland after papillary cancer and accounts for ≈10-20% of all thyroid neoplasms.
It typically occurs in women and in an older age group than papillary (i.e. 40-60 years of age).
The foramen caecum is located in the anterior cranial fossa, anterior to the cribriform plate of the ethmoid bone and posterior to the frontal bone, within the frontoethmoidal suture. It lies at a variable distance from the crista galli.
The foramen caecum is frequently found in infants, uncomm...
Foramen caecum can refer to a number of different anatomical structures:
foramen caecum (tongue)
foramen caecum (anterior cranial fossa)
Foramen ovale is an oval shaped opening in the middle cranial fossa located at the posterior base of the greater wing of the sphenoid bone, lateral to the lingula. It transmits the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve (CN Vc), accessory meningeal artery, emissary veins between the caverno...
A mnemonic to remember foramen ovale contents is:
O: otic ganglion (inferior)
V: V3 cranial nerve (mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve)
A: accessory meningeal artery
L: lesser petrosal nerve
E: emissary veins
The foramen rotundum is located in the middle cranial fossa, inferomedial to the superior orbital fissure at the base of greater wing of sphenoid. Its medial border is formed by lateral wall of sphenoid sinus. It runs downwards and laterally in an oblique path and joins the middle cranial fossa ...
The foramen tympanicum (also known as foramen of Huschke) is an anatomical variation in the external acoustic canal (EAC), where a bony defect connects the EAC to the temporomandibular joint (TMJ).
Various studies have reported on the occurrence of a foramen tympanicum in the asym...
Fourth branchial cleft cysts are very rare, and parallel the course of the recurrent laryngeal nerve. They are most commonly on the left side (80%) and usually form a sinus which extends from the apex of the piriform sinus, as do third branchial cleft sinuses, but passes inferiorly rather than s...
The fovea ethmoidalis is a portion of the ethmoid bone and represents its superior portion (part of the ethmoid roof) which is seen as a continuation of the superior orbital roof to the cribriform plate.
A foveola pharyngica recess is one of the variants of the inferior median clival canal, thought to represent a remnant of the notocord. It represents a blind ending recess in the anteroinferior surface (nasopharyngeal) surface of the clivus 1,2.
The frontal bone is a skull bone that contributes to the cranial vault. It contributes to form part of the anterior cranial fossa.
The frontal bone has two portions:
vertical portion (squama): has external/internal surfaces
horizontal portion (orbital): has superior/inferior su...
Frontal bossing is a calvarial radiographic feature where the front of the skull appears protruding anteriorly. It is best appreciated on a sagittal or lateral image.
This feature can be seen in many conditions (in alphabetical order):
The frontal nerve is a largest and main branch of the ophthalmic division of the trigeminal nerve. It divides off the ophthalmic division just before entering the orbit through the superior orbital fissure outside and superolateral to the tendinous ring, where it lies between the lacrimal nerve ...
The frontal sinus develops from anterosuperior pneumatisation of the frontal recess into the frontal bone. Development begins late in intrauterine life or may start after birth (from one to twenty years and starts in the vertical segment). Pneumatisation develops from one to twelve years-old.
The frontoethmoidal suture is a short cranial suture located in the anterior cranial fossa, between the orbital process of frontal and orbital plate of ethmoid bones. It forms part of the medial wall of the orbit.
The anterior and posterior ethmoidal foramina are seen just superior to it, throu...
The frontolacimal suture is the cranial suture between the frontal and lacrimal bones.
The frontomaxillary suture is the site where the nasal process of frontal bone meets the frontal process of the maxilla.
Frontonasal dysplasia is a rare disorder involving the face and often the central nervous system:
median cleft lip
absence of the nasal tip
central nervous system
cranium bifidum occultum
agenesis of the corpus callosum
The frontonasal suture is the cranial suture between the frontal bone and the two nasal bones. This suture meets the internasal suture at the nasion.
The frontozygomatic suture (or zygomaticofrontal suture) is between the frontal process of the zygomatic bone and the zygomatic process of the frontal bone.
Functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) is performed intranasally using a rigid endoscope. Its primary objective is to restore physiological ventilation and mucociliary transport 1.
Sinus imaging is crucial in preoperative planning and is increasingly being used intraoperatively.
Fungal sinusitis is a collective term referring to a number of entities, which can be divided into two groups, depending on the presence of fungal hyphae within or beyond the mucosa 1:
non-invasive: hyphae do not invade mucosa
allergic fungal sinusitis
sinus fungal mycetoma
invasive: hyphae ...