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23 results found

Geniohyoid muscle

The geniohyoid muscle is a suprahyoid muscle of the neck that is innervated by the ventral ramus of C1. Geniohyoid draws the hyoid bone up and forward during mastication and assists the opening of the mandible. Summary origin: inferior mental spine of the mandible also known as the genial tube...

Geographic skull

A geographic skull is a radiographic appearance which is seen at eosinophilic granuloma (EG) and characterized by destructive lytic bone lesion, edges of which may be bevelled, scalloped or confluent.


The glabella is the smooth midline bony prominence between the supraciliary arches of the frontal bone, representing the most anterior part of the forehead when standing erect and look straight ahead. The metopic suture traverses the glabella, between the two frontal bones. Just below it is the ...

Globe rupture

Globe ruptures are an ophthalmologic emergency. A ruptured globe or an open-globe injury must be assessed in any patient who has suffered orbital trauma because open-globe injuries are a major cause of blindness. In a blunt trauma, ruptures are most common at the insertions of the intraocular m...

Globus pharyngeus

Globus pharyngeus is the subjective feeling of a lump in the throat which can have a variety of causes. In modern practice globus is often evaluated by flexible nasoendoscopy in the first instance since many patients present to otolaryngology services. If no cause is identified or if nasoendosco...

Glomus jugulare paraganglioma

Glomus jugulare paraganglioma is a paraganglioma of the head and neck that is confined to the jugular fossa. While it is a rare tumour, it is the most common of the jugular fossa tumours. Epidemiology The relative prevalence of glomus jugulare with respect to other head and neck paraganglioma ...

Glomus tympanicum paraganglioma

Glomus tympanicum paragangliomas (chemodectomas) are the most common middle ear tumour.  Epidemiology There is a female predominance (M:F = 1:3); presentation is most common when patients are more than 40 years old 1,2.  Clinical presentation May be incidental but symptomatic masses produce ...

Glomus vagale tumour

Glomus vagale tumours are glomus tumours that occur along the path of the vagus nerve (CN X). They are a subset of extra-adrenal neuroendocrine tumours that are derived from the nonchromaffin paraganglion cells.  Clinical presentation Typically presents as a painless mass behind the carotid ar...

Glossopharyngeal nerve

The glossopharyngeal nerve is the ninth (IX) of the twelve pairs of cranial nerves. It exits the brainstem out from the sides of the upper medulla, just rostral to the vagus nerve and has sensory, motor, and autonomic components. Gross anatomy Origin The sensory ganglion cells lie in the supe...

Glossopharyngeal neuralgia

Glossopharyngeal neuralgia is due to irritation of the glossopharyngeal nerve and presents with repeated episodes of severe pain in the tongue, throat, ear, and tonsils, which can last from a few seconds to a few minutes. It is far less common than trigeminal neuralgia. Epidemiology Glossophar...


Goitre refers to enlargement of the thyroid gland. It can occur from multiple conditions. The definition of a goitre depends on age and sex; below are the upper limits of normal for thyroid gland volume 1: adult males: 25 mL adult females: 18 mL 13-14 years: 8-10 mL 3-4 years: 3 mL neonate...

Goldenhar syndrome

Goldenhar syndrome (also known as oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum (OAVS), Goldenhar-Gorlin syndrome or facio-auriculo-vertebral dysplasia) is a complex congenital anomaly characterised by abnormalities of the ears, eyes and vertebrae. Epidemiology The estimated incidence is at  1 in 3000-500...

Gorlin-Goltz syndrome

Gorlin-Goltz syndrome, also known as the basal cell naevus syndrome, is a rare phakomatosis characterised by multiple odontogenic keratocysts, multiple basal cell carcinomas, and other abnormalities. Epidemiology The condition is thought to occur in ~1 in 60,000 live births while 0.4% of patie...

Gradenigo syndrome

Gradenigo syndrome consists of the triad of: petrous apicitis abducens nerve palsy, secondary to involvement of the nerve as it passes through Dorello canal retro-orbital pain, or pain in the cutaneous distribution of the frontal and maxillary divisions of the trigeminal nerve, due to extensi...

Granulocytic sarcoma

Granulocytic sarcoma (also called myeloid sarcoma and chloroma) is a rare neoplasm comprised of myeloid precursor cells. It can occur in association with: acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) other myeloproliferative disorders such as myelofibrosis with myeloid meta...

Granulomatosis with polyangiitis: upper respiratory tract manifestations

The upper respiratory tract manifestations of granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA), which was formerly known as Wegener granulomatosis, are common and affect most patients. Epidemiology The majority of patients of GPA have upper respiratory tract involvement, most commonly presenting with rh...

Granulomatous invasive fungal sinusitis

Granulomatous invasive fungal sinusitis, sometimes termed granulomatous invasive fungal sinusitis, is a form of invasive fungal sinusitis. Reports describing the imaging findings have been uncommon 1. Epidemiology It is rare and been mainly reported in Sudan, India, Pakistan and sometimes in t...

Graves disease

Graves disease is an autoimmune thyroid disease and is the most common cause of thyrotoxicosis (up to 85%). Epidemiology There a strong female predilection with the F:M ratio of at least 5:1. Typically presents in middle age. Clinical presentation Patients are thyrotoxic. Extra-thyroid manif...

Greater auricular nerve

The greater auricular nerve is a cutaneous branch of the cervical plexus that innervates the skin of the auriculae as well as skin over the parotid gland and mastoid process. The greater auricular nerve also supplies branches that innervate the deep layer of the parotid fascia.   Gross anatomy ...

Greater palatine nerve

The greater palatine nerve is a branch of the pterygopalatine ganglion.  Gross anatomy Course exits the pterygopalatine ganglion in the pterygopalatine fossa passes through the greater palatine canal  emerges on the hard palate and runs on its inferior surface Branches branches to the med...

Griesinger sign

Griesinger sign, named after Wilhelm Griesinger, a German psychiatrist and neurologist (1817-1868) refers to oedema of the postauricular soft tissues overlying the mastoid process as a result of thrombosis of the mastoid emissary vein. It is a complication of acute otomastoiditis and may be asso...

Guardsman fracture

A guardsman fracture, also referred to as parade ground fracture, is one of the common forms of mandibular fracture which is caused by a fall on the midpoint of the chin resulting in fracture of the symphysis as well as both condyles. It is usually seen in epileptics, elderly patients and occas...

Guttman sign

Guttman sign is a clinical sign relating to the function of the larynx. In normal subjects, frontal pressure on the thyroid cartilage lowers the tone of voice produced and lateral pressure produces a higher tone of voice. The opposite is true with paralysis of the cricothyroid muscle.

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