Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

54 results found
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Labyrinth of ethmoid

The labyrinth or lateral mass of the ethmoid bone consists of a number of thin-walled cellular cavities, the ethmoidal cells, arranged in three groups, anterior, middle, and posterior, and interposed between two vertical plates of bone; the lateral plate forms part of the orbit, the medial, part...
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Labyrinthine artery

The labyrinthine artery, also known as the auditory artery or internal auditory artery, is a long and slender artery that is the main arterial supply to the vestibular apparatus and cochlea. It usually originates from the AICA (~85%), although it can also branch from the basilar artery (~15%), ...
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Labyrinthitis

Labyrinthitis is inflammation of the membranous labyrinth. Pathology Labyrinthitis can be divided according to aetiology. Tympanogenic Labyrinthitis is a potential complication of acute otomastoiditis with spread of infection or of toxins from the middle ear to the inner ear via either the r...
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Labyrinthitis ossificans

Labyrinthitis ossificans, also known as labyrinthine ossification (LO), represents pathological ossification of the membranous labyrinth as a response to an insult to the inner ear. It most commonly results from an inflammatory process of the inner ear, but it can be associated with temporal bo...
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Lacrimal apparatus

The lacrimal apparatus consists of the lacrimal gland and the nasolacrimal drainage apparatus. 
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Lacrimal artery

The lacrimal artery is a branch of ophthalmic artery. This artery passes the upper edge of lateral rectus muscle to both lacrimal gland and lateral angle of eye. A small branch of this artery passes through superior orbital fissure to dura mater of middle cranial fossa.
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Lacrimal bone

The lacrimal bones are paired craniofacial bones forming anterior aspect of the medial orbital walls.  Gross anatomy The lacrimal bones have two surfaces and four borders. The lateral orbital surface is divided by a vertical posterior lacrimal crest with an anterior fossa for lacrimal sac and ...
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Lacrimal canaliculi

The lacrimal canaliculi form the first part of the nasolacrimal drainage apparatus that drains tears produced by the lacrimal gland.  Gross anatomy There are two lacrimal canaliculi - superior and inferior on each side. They commence at the superior and inferior lacrimal puncta, which drain te...
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Lacrimal gland

The lacrimal gland lies in the superolateral aspect of the orbit and is responsible for tear production.  Gross anatomy The lacrimal gland is roughly almond sized, lies in the extraconal part of the orbit, and extends deep into the orbital septum. Its structure is similar to the salivary gland...
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Lacrimal gland masses

Lacrimal gland masses​ can be classified into two broad groups - inflammatory (~50%) and neoplastic, either lymphoma (25%) or salivary gland type tumours (~25%).  Pathology Inflammatory sarcoidosis affects ~25% of patients with systemic disease orbital inflammatory pseudotumour lacrimal gl...
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Lacrimal sac

The lacrimal (or nasolacrimal) sac forms part of the nasolacrimal drainage apparatus. It is located in the preseptal part of the orbit.  Gross anatomy The lacrimal sac lies in the lacrimal fossa on the inferomedial aspect of the orbit between the posterior and anterior lacrimal crests. The lac...
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Lacrimal sac fossa

The lacrimal sac fossa is an excavated fossa in inferior aspect of anteromedial orbital wall which contains lacrimal sac. It is bounded by anterior and posterior lacrimal crests of maxilla and lacrimal bones, respectively. In adults, it measures approximately 8-9mm anteroposteriorly and 10-17mm ...
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Lacrimomaxillary suture

The lacrimomaxillary suture is a syndesmotic suture between frontal process of the maxilla and lacrimal bone in inferior aspect of anteromedial wall of the orbit approximately half way between the anterior and posterior lacrimal crests. It corresponds, internally, to the maxillary line in later...
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Lambda

The lambda is the midline bony landmark where the lambdoid sutures and sagittal suture meet, between the occipital and two parietal bones. It may be a depression and therefore palpable. Accessory occiptal bones are common near the lambda, usually associated with the lambdoid sutures. It is the ...
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Lambdoid suture

The lamdboid suture delineates the junction between the posterior borders of the right and left parietal bones and the superior border of the occipital bone, and it descends laterally across the cranial vault.
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Large vestibular aqueduct syndrome

Large vestibular aqueduct syndrome (LVAS) refers to the presence of congenital sensorineural hearing loss with an enlarged vestibular aqueduct. It is thought to be one of the most common congenital causes of sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL).  Clinical presentation SNHL starts in childhood and...
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Laryngeal cartilages

The laryngeal cartilages form the "skeleton" of the larynx, of which there are a number: thyroid cartilage cricoid cartilage arytenoid cartilage (paired) accessory cartilages cuneiform cartilage (paired) corniculate cartilage (paired)
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Laryngeal cyst

Laryngeal cysts can occur in any part of larynx, but are more frequent on supraglottic locations, such as epiglottis and vallecula. The prevalence of each location varies on different studies.  Epidemiology The laryngeal cysts represent a rare group, about 5%, of benign laryngeal lesions 1. Th...
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Laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma staging

Laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma staging uses the TNM staging system and actual staging is subsite (see laryngeal subsites) specific for T1-3. A rough approximation for all subsites is T1: limited to one subsite and normal cord mobility T2: more than one subsite and impaired cord mobility (bu...
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Laryngeal trauma

Laryngeal trauma is uncommon in the setting of external blunt or penetrating trauma. The larynx may also be injured internally, for example during endotracheal intubation. Clinical presentation Symptoms include hoarseness, larygneal pain, dyspnoea, and/or dysphagia. Also stridor, haemoptysis, ...
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Laryngocoele

Laryngocoeles refer to dilatations of the laryngeal ventricular saccule located in paraglottic space of supraglottis. On imaging, these lesions are generally characterised as well-defined, thin-walled, fluid or air-filled cystic lesions in the paraglottic space. The communication with the laryn...
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Larynx

The larynx is a continuation of the oropharynx, and extends from the epiglottis (namely the glossoepiglottic and pharyngoepiglottic folds) to the inferior aspect of the cricoid cartilage. Inferiorly, it continues as the cervical trachea.  Gross anatomy The larynx consists of a cartilage "...
Article

Lateral posterior superior nasal nerves

The lateral posterior superior nasal nerves, also known as the short sphenopalatine nerves, are branches of the pterygopalatine ganglion.  Gross anatomy Course exits the pterygopalatine ganglion in the pterygopalatine fossa passes through the sphenopalatine foramen to enter the back of the n...
Article

Lateral pterygoid muscle

The lateral pterygoid muscle, also known as pterygoideus externus or external pterygoid muscle, is one of the muscles of mastication.  Gross anatomy The lateral pterygoid is a short, thick muscle, somewhat conical in form, which extends almost horizontally, posteriorly and laterally between th...
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Lateral rectus muscle

The lateral rectus muscle is one of the 6 extraocular muscles that control eye movements. It is responsible for abduction and is the only muscle that is innervated by the abducens nerve (CN VI). It should normally measure 2.9 ± 0.6mm. Summary innervation: abducens nerve (CN VI)
 
 &#...
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Lateralised internal carotid artery

The lateralised internal carotid artery is an anatomic variation of the course of the horizontal internal carotid artery (ICA). It can be visualised on CT by its more posterolateral entrance to the skull base and protrusion into the anterior mesotympanum. It may result in pulsatile tinnitus. Ra...
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Layers of the scalp (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for the layers of the scalp is: SCALP This is particularly helpful when considering the location of a scalp haematoma. Mnemonic S: skin C: connective tissue A: (galea) aponeurosis L: loose connective tissue P: periosteum
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Le Fort fracture classification

Le Fort fractures are fractures of the midface, which collectively involve separation of all or a portion of the midface from the skull base. In order to be separated from the skull base the pterygoid plates of the sphenoid bone need to be involved as these connect the midface to the sphenoid bo...
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Leiomyosarcoma

Leiomyosarcomas (LMS) are extremely rare malignant neoplasms that originate from smooth muscle cells and may be considered the malignant counterpart of a leiomyoma. They are classified as a soft tissue tumour and account for ~8% of malignant soft tissue tumours 10. Pathology Location  Leiomyo...
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Lemierre syndrome

Lemierre syndrome refers to thrombophlebitis of the jugular veins with distant metastatic sepsis in the setting of initial oropharyngeal infection such as pharyngitis/tonsillitis with or without peritonsillar or retropharyngeal abscess.   Clinical presentation Patients typically present unwell...
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Lentiform nodule

The lentiform nodule (also known as the lenticular process) is the inferior most part of the incus which articulates with the head of the stapes.
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Leontiasis ossea

Leontiasis ossea is largely a historical term used to describe a number of conditions that result in the affected patient's face resembling that of a lion. Although it is most frequently associated with craniofacial fibrous dysplasia, it has a broader meaning encompassing other lesions that have...
Article

Leptomeningeal cyst

Leptomeningeal cysts, also known as growing skull fractures, are an enlarging skull fracture that occurs near post-traumatic encephalomalacia. The term cyst is actually a misnomer, as it is not a cyst, but an extension of the encephalomalacia. Hence, it is usually seen a few months post-trauma. ...
Article

Lesser occipital nerve

The lesser occipital nerve, also known as the small occipital nerve, is a cutaneous branch of the cervical plexus that innervates the skin of the neck and scalp posterior and superior to the auricle. Gross anatomy Origin The lesser occipital nerve arises from the ventral ramus of C2, although...
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Lesser palatine foramina

The lesser palatine foramina are small foramina located in the palatine bone, posteromedial to the third molar tooth, on the base of the pyramidal process. They transmit the lesser palatine vessels and nerves from the lesser palatine canal onto the posterior surface of the hard palate.
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Lesser palatine nerves

The lesser palatine nerve is a branch of the pterygopalatine ganglion.  Course two lesser palatine nerves exits the pterygopalatine ganglion in the pterygopalatine fossa pass behind the greater palatine nerve in the greater palatine canal pass through the lesser palatine foramina behind the ...
Article

Lesser petrosal nerve

The lesser petrosal nerve carries parasympathetic (secretory) fibers from both the tympanic plexus and the nervus intermedius, to the parotid gland. The tympanic plexus arises from glossopharyngeal nerve (CN IX) via Jacobson's nerve. The lesser petrosal nerve originates at the geniculate gangli...
Article

Leukocoria

Leukocoria (also spelled as leucocoria or leukokoria) refers to an abnormal white reflection from the retina. Despite its colour, the reflection is related to the familiar red-eye effect. Usually, when a light is shone through the iris, the retina appears red to the observer. In leukocoria, the ...
Article

Lillie-Crowe sign

The Lillie-Crowe sign is used in the diagnosis of unilateral sinus thrombophlebitis. Digital compression of the opposite internal jugular vein causes dilatation of the retinal veins.
Article

Linear scleroderma

Linear scleroderma (LS) is a very focal form of scleroderma. It is also known as en coup de sabre, alluding the appearance of a fronto-parietal scar as if one had been struck by a sabre (french), It almost never progresses to systemic scleroderma. Immediately subjacent to the 'scar', the skull...
Article

Lingual artery

The lingual artery is one of the branches of the external carotid artery and supplies the oral floor and tongue. Summary origin: branch of the external carotid artery at the level of the C3 course: towards hyoid bone, then loops down towards the tongue supply: oral floor and tongue terminat...
Article

Lingual thyroid

A lingual thyroid is a specific type of ectopic thyroid, and results from lack of normal caudal migration of the thyroid gland. Epidemiology The condition is congenital and there is a female predilection 1-3. Clinical presentation Many patients are asymptomatic and the diagnosis is made inci...
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Lingula (disambiguation)

Lingula can refer to a number of different anatomical structures: lingula (mandible) lingula (lung)
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Lingula (mandible)

The lingula is a triangular bony projection on the medial surface of the mandible, just in front of the mandibular foramen. It provides attachment for the sphenomandibular ligament.
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Localisation of parotid lesions

The parotid gland consists of a superficial and deep lobe. Determining the location and extent of the lesions affecting the gland is an essential aspect of imaging and vital information which needs to be conveyed to the surgeon. Method of evaluation The following lines are proposed for differe...
Article

Locked in syndrome

Locked in syndrome (LIS) is a condition that can occur as a result of a stroke involving the brainstem; the stroke damages the ventral brainstem, corresponding to the pyramidal bundles. Clinical presentation The infarct is pontine; the midbrain is preserved. The oculomotor nerve III is intact ...
Article

Longitudinal temporal bone fractures

Longitudinal temporal bone fractures normally occurs parallel to the long axis of the petrous bone. A more current classification of the extent of temporal bone fractures describes the integrity of the otic capsule rather than the fracture orientation (see temporal bone fractures.) Epidemiology...
Article

Longus capitis muscle

The longus capitis muscle is a prevertebral muscle of the neck that is innervated by muscular branches of the cervical plexus. In isolation longus capitis acts to laterally flex and rotate the head. Summary origin: anterior tubercles of C3-C6 transverse processes insertion: inferior surface o...
Article

Longus colli

The longus colli muscle is a prevertebral muscle of the neck that is innervated by the anterior rami of C2–C6 from the cervical plexus. Longus colli is a weak flexor the cervical spine and when contracting unilaterally it tilts and rotates the cervical spine to the ipsilateral side. Longus colli...
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Low attenuation lymphadenopathy

Low attenuation lymphadenopathy suggests underlying necrosis and can be seen in: metastatic carcinoma (or lymphoma) infections (tuberculous or fungal) Whipple disease coeliac sprue See also lymphadenopathy low attenuation lymphadenopathy high attenuating lymphadenoapthy
Article

Ludwig angina

Ludwig angina refers to rapidly progressive inflammation (cellulitis) of the floor of the mouth which is potentially life threatening due to the risk of rapid airway compromise.  Epidemiology Largely due to the advent of antibiotics the condition is uncommon in present day modern societies. Im...
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Lymph node enlargement

Lymph node enlargement is often used synonymously with lymphadenopathy, which is not strictly correct. Terminology Lymphadenopathy is, if anything, a broader term, referring to any pathology of lymph nodes, not necessarily resulting in increased size; this includes abnormal number of nodes, or...
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Lymph node levels of the neck

Lymph nodes in the neck have been divided into seven levels, generally for the purpose of squamous cell carcinoma staging. This system is not inclusive of several important groups, however, such as the supraclavicular, parotid and retropharyngeal space nodes.  Level I   below mylohyoid muscle ...
Article

Lyre sign

The lyre sign refers to the splaying of the internal and external carotid by a carotid body tumour. Classically described on angiography it is also visible on CT angiography.

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