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18 results found

Van der Woude syndrome

van der Woude syndrome (VWS) is characterized by the association of congenital lower lip fistulae / pits with cleft lip and / or  palate. It is the one of the most common clefting syndromes in humans 1.  VWS individuals have a high prevalence of hypodontia. Pathology Genetics It carries anau...

Vernet syndrome

Vernet syndrome (also known as the jugular foramen syndrome) is a constellation of cranial nerve palsies due to compression from a jugular foramen lesion such as a glomus jugulare tumour or schwannoma. It consists of motor paralysis of: glossopharyngeal nerve (CN IX) vagus nerve (CN X) access...

Vertebral artery

The vertebral arteries (VA) are paired arteries, each arising from the respective subclavian artery and ascending in the neck to supply the posterior fossa and occipital lobes, as well as provide segmental vertebral and spinal column blood supply. Summary origin: branches off the 1st part of t...

Vertebral artery dissection

Vertebral artery dissection, like arterial dissection elsewhere, is a result of blood entering the media through a tear in the intima. It is potentially lethal and can be difficult to diagnose clinically and radiologically. Epidemiology Vertebral artery dissections have an incidence of 1-5 per...

Vertebral artery ectasia

Vertebral artery ectasia refers to an abnormal dilatation of the vertebral artery. It is also known as a dolichoarterial loop (of Danziger). Clinical presentation Symptoms occur due to radicular compression or pathologic fracture (rare) from extensive bone erosion. Generally, patients present ...


The vertex is the midline bony landmark at the most superior part of the calvaria in the standard anatomical position, near the midpoint of the sagittal suture (i.e. between the bregma and lambda). It is one of the skull landmarks, craniometric points for radiological or anthropological skull m...

Vertical muscle of the tongue

The vertical muscle of the tongue is one of the 4 intrinsic muscles of the tongue which alters the shape of the tongue mass, being entirely confined to the tongue without an attachment outside the tongue (like the extrinsic muscles of the tongue). Gross anatomy The muscles fibres attach proxim...

Vestibular aqueduct

The vestibular aqueduct is a structure of the inner ear being part of the osseous labyrinth. It contains the endolymphatic duct and sac. It normally has a diameter of ~1.5 mm (similar to the posterior semicircular canal) and runs from the vestibule in a transverse direction to the long axis of t...

Vestibular line of Lapayowker

The vestibular line of Lapayowker refers to a vertical line passing down the most lateral aspect of vestibular apparatus. The petrous part of internal carotid artery lies medial to this line but lies lateral to it in the case of an aberrant internal carotid artery which is the characteristic ang...


The vestibule is an approximately 4 mm central chamber of the bony labyrinth. It is dominated by depressions housing the: utricle (elliptical recess) saccule (spherical recess) basal end of the cochlear duct (cochlear recess) The cribrose areas have perforations through which the nerve bundl...

Vidian artery

There are two arteries passing through Vidian canal from the pterygopalatine fossa to the petrous portion of the ICA. One is a branch of the internal maxillary artery (itself a branch of the ECA) and the other is from the C2 segment of the ICA. It therefore forms one of the ICA to ECA anastamoses.

Vidian nerve

Vidian nerve, also known as the nerve of the pterygoid canal or nerve of the Vidian canal, is so named because of the canal in which is travels: the Vidian canal. It is formed by the confluence of two nerves: greater superfical petrosal nerve (from the geniculate ganglion of the facial nerve) ...

Visceral space

The visceral space is one of the infrahyoid deep spaces of the head and neck.  Gross anatomy The visceral space extends from the hyoid bone to the superior mediastinum (level of aortic arch / T4), and is surrounded by the middle layers of the deep cervical fascia.  Contents thyroid gland pa...

Vitreous haemorrhage

Vitreous haemorrhage refers to bleeding into the vitreous chamber. Epidemiology Vitreous haemorrhage has an incidence of approximately 7 in 100000 1,2.   Clinical features The most common clinical presentation is with sudden, painless visual loss to varying degrees of severity 2. There may b...

Vocal cord paralysis

Vocal cord paralysis/palsy (VCP) can cause laryngeal dysfunction ranging from slight hoarseness to life-threatening airway obstruction. Pathology Left vocal cord paralysis is twice as common than right vocal cord paralysis, and unilateral vocal cord paralysis much less common than bilateral vo...

Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada syndrome

Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada syndrome is a multisystem disorder characterised by granulomatous panuveitis with exudative retinal detachments that is often associated with neurologic and cutaneous manifestations. Epidemiology Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada usually affected those of Asian, Middle Eastern, Asian I...


The vomer is one of the facial bones and forms the postero-inferior part of the bony nasal septum. Variant anatomy Occasionally the sphenoid sinus may pneumatise the vomer 2.

Von Hippel-Lindau disease

Von Hippel-Lindau (vHL) disease is characterised by the development of numerous benign and malignant tumours in different organs (at least 40 types 1) due to mutations in the VHL tumour suppressor gene on chromosome 3. Epidemiology The disease is rare with an estimated prevalence of 1:35,000-5...

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