Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

15 results found
Article

Van der Woude syndrome

van der Woude syndrome (VWS) is characterized by the association of congenital lower lip fistulae / pits with cleft lip and / or  palate. It is the one of the most common clefting syndromes in humans 1.  VWS individuals have a high prevalence of hypodontia. Pathology Genetics It carries anau...
Article

Vernet syndrome

Vernet syndrome (also known as the jugular foramen syndrome) is a constellation of cranial nerve palsies due to compression from a jugular foramen lesion such as a glomus jugulare tumour or schwannoma. It consists of motor paralysis of: glossopharyngeal nerve (CN IX) vagus nerve (CN X) access...
Article

Vertebral artery

The vertebral artery (VA) arises from the subclavian artery, ascends in the neck to supply the posterior fossa and occipital lobes as well as provides segmental vertebral and spinal column blood supply. Summary origin: branch of the 1st part of the subclavian artery course: ascends posterior ...
Article

Vertebral artery dissection

Vertebral artery dissection, like arterial dissection elsewhere, is a result of blood entering the media through a tear in the intima. It is potentially lethal and can be difficult to diagnose clinically and radiologically. Epidemiology Vertebral artery dissections have an incidence of 1-5 per...
Article

Vertebral artery ectasia

Vertebral artery ectasia refers to an abnormal dilatation of the vertebral artery. It is also known as a Dolicoarterial loop (of Danziger). Pathology Vertebral arterial wall thinning and elongation (usually age-related); majority are unilateral. Occlusion of the carotid arteries (bilaterally)...
Article

Vertex

The vertex is the midline bony landmark at the most superior part of the calvarium when standing erect and look straight ahead, near the midpoint of the sagittal suture (ie between the bregma and lambda). It is one of the skull landmarks, craniometric points for radiological or anthropological ...
Article

Vestibular aqueduct

The vestibular aqueduct is a structure of the inner ear being part of the osseous labyrinth. It contains the endolymphatic duct and sac. It normally has a diameter of ~1.5 mm (similar to the posterior semicircular canal) and runs from the vestibule in a transverse direction to the long axis of t...
Article

Vestibular line of Lapayowker

The vestibular line of Lapayowker refers to a vertical line passing down the most lateral aspect of vestibular apparatus. The petrous part of internal carotic artery lies medial to this line but lies lateral to it in case of aberrant internal carotic artery which is the characteristic angiograph...
Article

Vidian artery

There are two arteries passing through Vidian canal from the pterygopalatine fossa to the petrous portion of the ICA. One is a branch of the internal maxillary artery (itself a branch of the ECA) and the other is from the C2 segment of the ICA. It therefore forms one of the ICA to ECA anastamoses.
Article

Vidian nerve

Vidian nerve, also known as the nerve of the pterygoid canal or nerve of the Vidian canal, is so named because of the canal in which is travels: the Vidian canal. It is formed by the confluence of two nerves: greater superfical petrosal nerve (from the geniculate ganglion of the facial nerve) ...
Article

Visceral space

The visceral space is one of the infrahyoid deep spaces of the head and neck.  Gross anatomy The visceral space extends from the hyoid bone to the superior mediastinum (level of aortic arch / T4), and is surrounded by the middle layers of the deep cervical fascia.  Contents thyroid gland pa...
Article

Vocal cord paralysis

Vocal cord paralysis/palsy (VCP) can cause laryngeal dysfunction ranging from slight hoarseness to life-threatening airway obstruction. Pathology Left VCP paralysis is twice as common than right VCP paralysis, and unilateral VCP is much less common than bilateral VCP 7. Damage the nerve supply...
Article

Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada syndrome

Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada (VKH) disease is a multisystem disorder characterised by granulomatous panuveitis with exudative retinal detachments that is often associated with neurologic and cutaneous manifestations. Epidemiology It usually affected those of Asian, Middle Eastern, Asian Indian, Native...
Article

Vomer

The vomer is one of the facial bones and forms the postero-inferior part of the bony nasal septum. Variant anatomy Occasionally the sphenoid sinus may pneumatise the vomer 2.
Article

Von Hippel-Lindau disease

Von Hippel-Lindau (vHL) disease is characterised by the development of numerous benign and malignant tumours in different organs (at least 40 types 1) due to mutation in VHL tumour suppressor gene on chromosome 3. Epidemiology The disease is rare with an estimated prevalence of 1:35,000-50,000...

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