Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

1,878 results found
Article

Nasal dermoid cyst

Nasal dermoids (or nasal dermoid sinus cysts) are the most common congenital midline nasal lesion typically presenting in early childhood. Epidemiology Nasal dermoids are rare and account for only 4-12% of all dermoid cysts of the head and neck, far less common than angular dermoids 1,2. They ...
Article

Cri du chat syndrome

Cri du chat syndrome is a rare congenital disorder caused by the deletion of the short arm of chromosome 5. A high-pitched monotonous cry is the significant characteristic finding 1. Epidemiology Cri du chat syndrome is rare with an incidence of 1 in 15,000-50,000 births ref. Clinical present...
Article

Mandible (axiolateral oblique view)

The axiolateral oblique mandible view allows for visualisation of the mandibular body, mandibular ramus, condylar process and mentum. Indications This projection is useful in identifying structural changes and displaced fractures of the mandible in a trauma setting, and in neoplastic or inflam...
Article

CT Orbits (protocol)

Computed tomography of the orbits (CT Orbits) involves the visualisation of bony and soft tissue structures of the orbits. This examination is most commonly performed as a non-contrast scan or reconstructed from other examinations such as a CT head/face. Contrast-enhanced scans are utilised depe...
Article

CT neck, chest, abdomen-pelvis (NCAP protocol)

The CT neck chest-abdomen-pelvis protocol aims to evaluate the neck, thoracic and abdominal structures using contrast in trauma imaging. The use of contrast facilitates the assessment of pathologies globally whilst minimising dose by potentially disregarding a non-contrast scan.  Note: This art...
Article

Foramen caecum (tongue)

The foramen caecum of the tongue is the remnant of thyroglossal duct located between the anterior two-thirds and posterior third of the tongue.  Gross anatomy The foramen caecum is located in the midline on the surface of the tongue, at the apex of the terminal sulcus, the groove that marks th...
Article

Tympanosclerosis

Tympanosclerosis is a descripitve terms which refers to deposition of hyalinised collagen +/- calcium in the tympanic cavity. If it occurs in solely tympanic membrane, it is termed myringosclerosis 1. It can often be associated with chronic otomastoiditis is which instance it is termed chronic...
Article

Metopic ridge

A metopic ridge refers to a variation in skull shape, characterised by a midline forehead ridge, which may occur either due to the physiological closure of the metopic suture or as a result of craniosynostosis of this suture 1-3. It is essential to differentiate between the two conditions becaus...
Article

Thyroid atrophy

Thyroid atrophy can arise in a number of situations and most with certain chronic thyroiditides such as: Hashimoto thyroiditis atrophic thyroiditis 1 It can also occur with conditions such as: irradiation prior treatment (e.g. I-131) of hyperactive conditions such as Graves disease 3 prima...
Article

Ciliary body (eye)

The ciliary body is the continuation of the uveal layer of the eye and functions in the production of aqueous humour and the process of lens accommodation.  Summary location: between the vitreous body and posterior chamber of the globe function: aqueous humour production and accommodati...
Article

Posterior meningeal artery

The posterior meningeal artery is the largest artery supplying the dura of the posterior cranial fossa. It may arise from the ascending pharyngeal artery, or less commonly, the occipital artery. The artery may enter the cranial vault through the jugular foramen, foramen magnum or the hypoglossal...
Article

Inferior cervical ganglion

The inferior cervical ganglion (plural: ganglia) is the second largest ganglion of the cervical sympathetic trunk and provides autonomic innervation to the head and neck region. Gross anatomy The inferior cervical ganglion is formed by embryologically fused C7 and C8 sympathetic ganglia. It ha...
Article

Middle cervical ganglion

The middle cervical ganglion (plural: ganglia) is the smallest ganglion of the cervical sympathetic trunk and providing autonomic innervation to the head and neck region. Gross anatomy The middle cervical ganglion is formed by embryologically fused C5 and C6 sympathetic ganglia. It has superio...
Article

Autonomic ganglia and plexuses

The autonomic ganglia and plexuses are a collection of ganglia where autonomic preganglionic neurones arising from the CNS synapse with postganglionic neurones outside the CNS, i.e. in the peripheral nervous system. Many of the ganglia contain nerves of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervou...
Article

Normal imaging examples

This article lists examples of normal imaging divided by body region and system. brain head and neck spine chest breast gastrointestinal genitourinary hepatobiliary upper limb lower limb paediatrics
Article

Sinonasal carcinoma

Sinonasal carcinomas are a broad group of sinonasal malignant tumours that are of epithelial cell origin/lineage. Pathology Sinonasal carcinomas can be classified into various histological and aetiological subgroups: sinonasal squamous cell carcinoma: considered the most common histological s...
Article

Protrusion of the infraorbital canal into the maxillary sinus

Protrusion of the infraorbital canal into the maxillary sinus is a type of variant anatomy where the infraorbital canal traverses below the level of the orbital floor and often through the maxillary sinus to varying degrees. It can be detected on sinus CT and cone beam computed tomography and it...
Article

Superior alveolar arteries

The superior alveolar arteries is a collective term for the following arteries: posterior superior alveolar artery: branch of the maxillary artery in the pterygopalatine fossa middle superior alveolar artery: small branch of the infraorbital artery anterior superior alveolar artery: branch of...
Article

Suspensory ligaments of the middle ear ossicles

The suspensory ligaments of the middle ear ossicles are ligaments within the middle ear which attach the ossicles to the walls of the mesotympanum 1. The ligaments help the ossicles transmit sound from the tympanic membrane to the oval window. Gross anatomy Origins and insertions of the suspen...
Article

Lacrimal gland prolapse

Lacrimal gland prolapse, also known as lacrimal gland displacement or lacrimal gland dislocation, is defined as significant herniation of the lacrimal gland outside the lacrimal fossa. It is an underrecognized clinical condition that needs to be differentiated from mass lesions in the preseptal ...
Article

Pseudoproptosis

Pseudoproptosis is a situation where the eye can have a proptotic anatomic appearance but without any mass effect from a lesion displacing the globe or any underlying pathology. Instances where this can occur include buphthalmos: as a result of congenital glaucoma or severe myopia contralatera...
Article

Elfin facies

Elfin facies refers to a characteristic facial appearance seen in certain rare congenital syndromes. Terminology Elfin facies is sometimes used synonymously with Williams syndrome and the latter is occasionally called elfin facies syndrome. However elfin facies is seen with other rare genetic ...
Article

Saturday night retinopathy

Saturday night retinopathy is an acute ischaemic retinopathy, choroidopathy, and orbitopathy secondary to prolonged ocular pressure during a drug-induced stupor. Epidemiology While monocular blindness as a complication of prolonged headrest use in prone neurosurgical procedures has been widely...
Article

Bright tongue sign

The bright tongue sign is a radiological sign most commonly described in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis with bulbar involvement 1,2. However, this sign is not pathognomonic, and may be seen with other myopathies or neuropathies with tongue or bulbar involvement (e.g. Kennedy disease, Pompe diseas...
Article

Spontaneous retropharyngeal haemorrhage

Spontaneous retropharyngeal haemorrhage, also known as spontaneous retropharyngeal haematoma, describes an accumulation of blood in the retropharyngeal space. It is a rare but potentially fatal entity due to potential for acute airway obstruction and/or rapid internal bleeding. Epidemiology Sp...
Article

Scalene muscles

The scalene muscles are a group of three closely related neck muscles. anterior scalene muscles middle scalene muscles posterior scalene muscles Summary origin: transverse processes of mid to lower cervical vertebrae (C2-C7).  insertion: first or second ribs. The anterior and middle insert...
Article

Oral tori

Oral tori (singular torus) are benign bony outgrowths from the maxilla and mandible: maxillary tori a.k.a. torus palatinus mandibular tori a.k.a. torus mandibularis Oral tori are subcategorised according to their shape 1: flat spindle nodular lobular Although not usually called tori, fur...
Article

Internal auditory canal exostosis

Internal auditory canal (IAC) exostoses are bony growths that can narrow the IAC lumen, sometimes causing neurological symptoms due to nerve compression. Epidemiology Unlike their counterpart in the external auditory canal, IAC exostoses are uncommon and can be difficult to detect 1. Clinical...
Article

Complications of radiation therapy

Radiation therapy has the potential to cause complications in many organ systems, many of which, especially in the thorax, are important for radiologists to be aware of.  acute radiation syndrome complications of cranial radiation therapy radiation-induced cerebral vasculopathy radiation-ind...
Article

Salivary duct carcinoma

Salivary duct carcinomas are a subtype of primary salivary gland tumour. Salivary duct carcinomas show high rates of metastasis and recurrence.  Epidemiology Salivary duct carcinomas represent 5-10% of salivary gland malignancies and can arise de novo or out of a pleomorphic adenoma 1,2. They ...
Article

Impacted teeth

Impacted teeth are common with the third molars most common. Other impacted teeth (e.g. maxillary canines, maxillary second molar, mandibular second premolar, and mandibular second molar) are less common 1,2.  Radiographics features CBCT Cone beam CT (CBCT) allows for 1,3: impacted tooth loc...
Article

Tetanus

Tetanus is a rare vaccine-preventable disease caused by Clostridium tetani, a ubiquitous soil bacterium which contaminates open wounds. It secretes a powerful neurotoxin which degrades neuromuscular junction function, producing muscle spasms and, despite intensive intervention, is often fatal. ...
Article

Branch retinal artery occlusion

Branch retinal artery occlusion (BRAO) refers to the acute obstruction of an arteriolar branch of the central retinal artery, which can lead to retinal ischaemia and transient or permanent visual loss. The distribution affecting a branch distinguishes this disease from central retinal artery occ...
Article

Trigeminal radiofrequency ablation

Trigeminal radiofrequency ablation, also known as trigeminal radiofrequency rhizotomy, is a percutaneous interventional procedure used to treat trigeminal neuralgia. It is the most popular technique for trigeminal ablation. Indications trigeminal neuralgia resistant to traditional medical trea...
Article

Non-arteritic anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy

Non-arteritic anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy (NAION) is a form of ischaemic optic neuropathy. Epidemiology It is considered the most common acute optic neuropathy in patients over 50 years of age (especially in those with vasculopathy risk factors (e.g. diabetes mellitus, hypertension, an...
Article

Depressor labii inferioris muscle

The depressor labii inferioris muscle, also known as quadratus labii inferioris muscle, is one of the facial muscles. Summary origin: oblique line of the mandible, medial to the mental foramen insertion:  ​modiolus at the angle of the mouth ascends to medially insert into lower lip innerva...
Article

Carotid artery tortuosity

Carotid artery tortuosity is the elongation of the extracranial carotid arteries with redundancy and/or altered course, which may present on imaging as kinking, coiling, and/or looping 1,2. Clinical presentation Carotid artery tortuosity is mostly (~80%) asymptomatic. When symptomatic (~12.5%,...
Article

Superior cervical ganglion

The superior cervical ganglion (plural: ganglia) is the largest ganglion of the cervical sympathetic trunk, providing autonomic innervation to the head and neck region 1. Gross anatomy The superior cervical ganglion is formed by embryologically fused C1 to C4 sympathetic ganglia. It is elongat...
Article

Orbital apex syndrome

Orbital apex syndrome, also known as Jacod syndrome, is a constellation of clinical findings, presenting as a result of several potential pathologies that compress or otherwise affect structures passing through the orbital apex. Clinical presentation Presentation is according to the structures...
Article

Hypoglossal nerve palsy

Hypoglossal nerve palsies, or twelfth nerve palsies, result in weakness of the muscles supplied by the hypoglossal nerve, namely the intrinsic and extrinsic tongue muscles, except for palatoglossus. Clinical presentation The hypoglossal nucleus receives a major component of contralateral corti...
Article

Ciliary muscle

The ciliary muscle (TA: musculus ciliaris) is located within the ciliary body of the eye. It acts to facilitate lens accommodation for near vision, and receives parasympathetic innervation from short ciliary nerves, arising from the oculomotor nerve via the ciliary ganglion. Gross anatomy The ...
Article

Dilator pupillae muscle

The dilator pupillae muscle is a ring of contractile cells within the iris. These cells are arranged radially, such that their contraction facilitates pupillary dilation (mydriasis). The dilator pupillae muscle receives innervation from the sympathetic nervous system. Gross anatomy The dilator...
Article

Sphincter pupillae muscle

The sphincter pupillae muscle is a circular ring of smooth muscle within the iris responsible for constriction of the pupil (miosis). The structure is stimulated by the parasympathetic nervous system causing the muscle to decrease in diameter as it contracts. Gross anatomy The sphincter pupill...
Article

Pharyngeal muscles

There are multiple pharyngeal muscles that make up the structure of the pharynx. They comprise circular and longitudinal muscles whose overall function is to propel food into the oesophagus. Gross anatomy Outer/circular muscles These muscles comprise the outer layer of musculature and act to ...
Article

Clival fracture

Clival fractures are uncommon skull base fractures resulting from high-energy cranial trauma and are usually associated with other skull vault fractures and brain injuries. For a general discussion, please refer to the article on basilar fractures of the skull. Epidemiology Most fractures of ...
Article

Intracochlear schwannoma

An intracochlear schwannoma is a subtype of an intralabyrinthine schwannoma which is a schwannoma arising in relation to the 8th cranial nerve.  Clinical presentation Patients may present with unilateral sensorineural hearing loss. Pathology Schwannomas that are confined exclusively to the c...
Article

Periodontitis

Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease affecting the supporting tissues of the teeth. It is a common cause of tooth loss, particularly in the adult population. Terminology Different forms of periodontitis are recognised. The terms 'chronic periodontitis' and 'aggressive periodontitis' have b...
Article

Canal wall down mastoidectomy

A canal-wall-down mastoidectomy comprises a group of mastoidectomies which is more open and extensive than a canal-wall-up mastoidectomy. In addition to traditional forms, various modified forms are now performed (see modified canal wall down mastoidectomy). They initially comprise the similar ...
Article

Prognathism

Prognathism or mandibular prognathism refers to a type of morphological jaw positional anomaly in which the lower jaw protrudes ahead of the upper jaw. This results in an extended chin and dental malocclusion. It can be associated with certain conditions such as acromegaly syphilis - late cong...
Article

Canine space

The canine space, or infraorbital space, is a paired compartment in the soft tissues of the face, overlying the maxilla near the canine tooth root and covered by the levator labii superioris muscle. Gross anatomy The canine space contains fat and branches of the infraorbital nerve. Boundaries...
Article

Trichilemmal cyst

Trichilemmal cysts, also known as pilar cysts, are benign accumulations of keratin along the outer hair root sheath, most commonly on the scalp. They are the most common subcutaneous nodule incidentally found on head imaging and are of no clinical relevance when asymptomatic 1. Uncommonly, they ...
Article

Cacosmia

Cacosmia refers to a form of olfactory dysfunction where the patient has an inability to "recognise" smells. It can arise from a number of pathologies and can include peripheral sinonasal and central sensorineural components. In this situation, the patient knows there is a smell but cannot disti...
Article

Suboccipital cavernous sinus

The suboccipital cavernous sinuses are paired venous plexuses that surround the horizontal (distal V3) portion of the vertebral arteries at the craniocervical junction. Its name derives from its resemblance to the cavernous sinus as it is a venous cushion surrounding a large arterial loop at the...
Article

Intraparotid nodal metastases

Intraparotid nodal metastases refer to metastatic involvement of intraparotid lymph nodes from either a primary parotid tumour or an extraparotid tumour in the head and neck (e.g. nasopharyngeal carcinoma). Pathology Location There may be a predilection towards the superficial lobe or tail re...
Article

Age related macular degeneration

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is an eye disease that affects central vision. It occurs when ageing causes damage to the macula. The macula is responsible for fine detailed vision also known as central vision.
Article

Lobular capillary haemangioma of the nasal cavity

Lobular capillary haemangioma of the nasal cavity, also known as nasal pyogenic granuloma, is an uncommon benign, rapidly growing vascular neoplasm of the nasal cavity. Terminology The term “pyogenic granuloma” is a misnomer due to its lack of infectious origin according to histological and mi...
Article

Nasal septal cartilage

The nasal septal cartilage, also known as quadrangular cartilage, forms most of the anterior portion of the nasal septum, and is one of five named nasal cartilaginous components supporting the external nose. Gross anatomy Most of the anterior one-third of the nasal septum is formed by the sept...
Article

Submandibular gland enlargement

Submandibular gland enlargement refers to an increase in the volume of the submandibular gland, exceeding "normal" values of 7.4 ± 1.8 mL 1. Pathology Causes Obstruction sialolithiasis submandibular duct stenosis (e.g. tumour, granulomatous disease) Infection acute sialadenitis: following...
Article

Salt and pepper sign (Sjögren syndrome)

The salt and pepper sign has been used to describe the MRI appearance of the parotid gland in Sjögren syndrome. This pertains to a combination of punctate regions of calcification (pepper) and fatty replacement (salt) 1.
Article

Salt and pepper sign (paraganglioma)

The salt and pepper sign is used to describe a typical MRI appearance of some highly vascular tumours which contain foci of haemorrhage, typically a paraganglioma 1-3. The appearance is on T1-weighted sequences, and is made up of: punctate regions of hyperintensity = salt small flow voids = pe...
Article

Neurocranium

The neurocranium (plural: neurocrania) is the name given to the portion of the skull that encloses the brain. It comprises the skull base and the skull vault. The neurocranium and facial bones (viscerocranium) together form the skull.
Article

Hypervascular head and neck lesions

Hypervascular head and neck lesions are findings that enhance avidly after biphasic injection, on contrast-enhanced CT or MRI of the neck. Anatomical variants ectopic thyroid gland hyperdense soft tissue mass on non contrast-CT intense homogeneous enhancement after contrast injection Vascul...
Article

Nasolacrimal canal

The nasolacrimal canal is the short bony passage along which the nasolacrimal duct courses in the face.  Gross anatomy lateral wall lacrimal groove of the medial maxilla lacrimal hook of the lacrimal bone medial wall superiorly: lacrimal bone inferiorly: lacrimal process of the inferior n...
Article

Chronic otitis media

Chronic otitis media is a form of otitis media where there is a prolonged phase of inflammation in the middle ear with resultant tympanic membrane perforation. Pathology There are a few types of chronic otitis media 1-5: benign/inactive chronic otitis media: dry tympanic membrane perforation ...
Article

Oropharyngeal isthmus

The oropharyngeal isthmus, a.k.a. isthmus of fauces, is the relative constriction of the anterior oropharynx that borders the oral cavity. The isthmus is sometimes described as the passage that transitions between the oral cavity and pharynx, but strictly speaking, it is part of the oropharynx. ...
Article

Fibrosing inflammatory pseudotumour

Fibrosing inflammatory pseudotumours are an inflammatory process with histology showing a polymorphous infiltrate with plasma cells, lymphocytes and eosinophils as well as a significant reactive fibrovascular component. Pathology Location They can occur at various sites of the body including:...
Article

Modiolus (disambiguation)

The modiolus (plural: modioli) may refer to one of two different anatomical structures, both in the head and neck region: modiolus (cochlea) modiolus (mouth) History and etymology The Latin word, "modiolus" means hub of a wheel, and is well-named, as in both the cochlea and at the angle of t...
Article

Modiolus (mouth)

The modiolus (plural: modioli), also known as the modiolus anguli oris or commissural modiolus, is a small fibromuscular structure at the corner of the mouth where fibres from multiple facial muscles converge, and helps coordinate the action of these muscles. Gross anatomy The convergence of t...
Article

Gomphosis

A gomphosis (plural: gomphoses), also known as the dentoalveolar syndesmosis, is the specific name for the fibrous joint between the teeth and the alveolar bone of the maxilla/mandible 1,2.
Article

Incisivus labii inferioris muscle

The incisivus labii inferioris muscle (TA: pars labialis musculi orbicularis oris) is one of the facial muscles. It acts as a supplementary muscle to the orbicularis oris muscle. Terminology The incisivus labii inferioris muscle is often omitted from major anatomical texts or articles on the f...
Article

Osseointegrated implant

Osseointegrated implants (OI) are endosteal implants characterised by porous surfaces that allow a direct structural connection between bone and implant without interposed soft tissue and ingrowth and interdigitation of the newly formed lamellar bone. Osseointegration has been defined as direct...
Article

Commissure (disambiguation)

A commissure (TA: commissura) is a location at which two anatomical structures are united. Though the term most commonly refers to the commissures in the brain, there are a number which exist in the human body:  central nervous system corpus callosum anterior commissure posterior commissure ...
Article

Multisystemic smooth muscle dysfunction syndrome

Multisystemic smooth muscle dysfunction syndrome is a rare genetic disorder caused by mutations in the ACTA2 gene, resulting in intracranial steno-occlusive disease and aortic dissection or aneurysm, among other complications. Epidemiology Most cases are diagnosed in childhood 1. Clinical pre...
Article

Non-pulsatile tinnitus

Non-pulsatile tinnitus is a form of tinnitus where there is a continuous ringing sensation of the ears. It is thought to have a considerable subjective component in many individuals. Pathology Many factors have been postulated, inclusive of 1-4: cerumen impaction middle ear infection medica...
Article

Auriculocondylar syndrome

Auriculocondylar syndrome is a rare congenital syndrome primarily characterised by malformed ears and mandibular condyle aplasia/hypoplasia. Pathology This is an autosomal dominant genetic disease resulting from GNAI3 or PLCB4 gene defects. This affects facial development especially the 1st an...
Article

Pes anserinus (disambiguation)

The pes anserinus (rare plural: pedes anserini) is the name given to two different anatomical structures: pes anserinus (facial nerve): a.k.a. parotid plexus pes anserinus (knee) Both structures are so named due to their similarity to a goose's foot, which is what 'pes anserinus' means in Lat...
Article

Marginal mandibular nerve

The marginal mandibular nerve (TA: ramus marginalis mandibularis nervi facialis) is a branch of the extratemporal (terminal) segment of the facial nerve. It supplies the depressor anguli oris, depressor labii inferioris and mentalis muscles. It is of greater clinical importance than the other fa...
Article

Odynophagia

Odynophagia is the term given for painful swallowing.  Pathology It can arise from a number of causes which include oesophageal inflammation - oesophagitis oesophageal infection substernal dysphagia tonsillitis pharyngitis oesophageal spasm See also dysphagia: difficulty swallowing.
Article

Mentalis muscle

The mentalis muscles (TA: musculus mentalis) are paired muscles, one on each side of the mouth, important as elevators of the chin and lower lip; the muscles are one of the facial muscles.  Summary origin: incisive fossa of the mandible insertion: skin of the chin​ innervation: facial nerve ...
Article

Auricular perichondritis

Auricular perichondritis, also known as perichondritis of the ear or pinna, is an infection or inflammation of the cartilage-bearing part of the external ear. Terminology The term perichondritis, strictly speaking, refers to inflammation involving the perichondrium. However, a distinction is o...
Article

Buccolabial muscles

The buccolabial muscles form a subgroup of the facial muscles.  Elevators, retractors and evertors of the upper lip: levator labii superioris alaeque nasalis (LLSAN) muscle levator labii superioris muscle zygomaticus major muscle zygomaticus minor muscle malaris muscle levator anguli oris...
Article

Thyrolinguofacial trunk

A thyrolinguofacial trunk is a very rare pattern of branching of the anterior branches of the external carotid artery. Rather than the facial artery, lingual artery, and superior thyroid artery having their own distinct origins, all three vessels originate from a common trunk of the external car...
Article

Linguofacial trunk

A linguofacial trunk is a rare variation of the anterior branches of the external carotid artery. The lingual artery and facial artery share a common trunk rather than branching independently from the external carotid artery 1. Unlike the thyrolingual or thyrolinguofacial variations in which the...
Article

Thyrolingual trunk

A thyrolingual trunk is an anatomical variant in which the superior thyroid artery and lingual artery share a common trunk 1. This is in contrast to the typical pattern of both vessels emerging independently from the external carotid artery. Other variations of origin include a linguofacial trun...
Article

Submental artery

The submental artery is the largest branch of the facial artery. The vessel supplies the floor of the mouth and sublingual gland while also connecting the circulation of the tongue and the floor of the mouth 1,3.  Summary origin: facial artery 2 course: emerges from the facial artery at the s...
Article

Submasseteric space

The submasseteric space, also known as the masseteric space, is the inferolateral subcompartment of the masticator space located between the mandible and masseter muscle. Gross anatomy Relations and/or Boundaries The submasseteric space has the following boundaries 1: medially: mandible (ram...
Article

Pterygomandibular space

The pterygomandibular space is the inferomedial subcompartment of the masticator space located between the mandible and pterygoid muscles. Gross anatomy Contents The pterygomandibular space contains loose areolar tissue, the sphenomandibular ligament, and the following named neurovascular str...
Article

Levator anguli oris muscle

The levator anguli oris muscle, also known as caninus or triangularis labii superioris muscles, is a buccolabial muscle, a subdivision of the facial muscles. Gross anatomy Summary origin: canine fossa of the maxilla​ insertion: modiolus and merges with depressor anguli oris muscle innervati...
Article

Lesser palatine artery

The lesser palatine artery is a small branch of the descending palatine artery (branch of the 3rd part of the maxillary artery). The vessel supplies the soft palate with small branches to the palatine tonsils 1,2. The vessel emerges through the lesser palatine foramen before travelling posterior...
Article

Descending palatine artery

The descending palatine artery is a branch of the maxillary artery that supplies both the soft palate and hard palate as well as the palatine tonsils 1.  Summary origin: 3rd part of the maxillary artery course: descending through the pterygopalatine fossa before its branches enter either the ...
Article

CT paranasal sinus (protocol)

The CT paranasal sinus protocol serves as an examination for the assessment of the study of the mucosa and bone system of the sinonasal cavities. It is usually performed as a non-contrast study. NB: This article aims to frame a general concept of a CT protocol for the assessment of the paranasa...
Article

Ascending palatine artery

The ascending palatine artery is a branch of the facial artery that supplies part of the soft palate. In addition, the vessel also supplies the tensor veli palatini, uvular muscle, palatine tonsils, and palatopharyngeus 1,2. The posterior branch supplies the posterior and inferior soft palate es...
Article

Frontalis muscle

The frontalis muscle (TA: musculus frontalis) is a paired muscle extending from the supraorbital region to the level of the coronal suture. Flat and quadrilateral in shape, it is one of the facial muscles. Along with the occipitalis muscle, it forms the occipitofrontalis muscle due to a common t...

Updating… Please wait.

 Unable to process the form. Check for errors and try again.

 Thank you for updating your details.