Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

1,823 results found
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Cacosmia

Cacosmia refers to a form of olfactory dysfunction where the patient has an inability to "recognize" smells. It can arise from a number of pathologies and can include peripheral sinonasal and central sensorineural components. In this situation, the patient knows there is a smell but cannot disti...
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Suboccipital cavernous sinus

The suboccipital cavernous sinuses are paired venous plexuses that surround the horizontal (distal V3) portion of the vertebral arteries at the craniocervical junction. Its name derives from its resemblance with the cavernous sinus as it is a venous cushion surrounding a large arterial loop at t...
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Intraparotid nodal metastases

Intraparotid nodal metastases refer to metastatic involvement of intraparotid lymph nodes from either a primary parotid tumor or an extraparotid tumor in the head and neck (e.g. nasopharyngeal carcinoma) Pathology Location There may be a predilection towards the superficial lobe or tail regio...
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Age related macular degeneration

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is an eye disease that affects central vision. It occurs when aging causes damage to the macula. The macula is responsible for fine detailed vision also known as central vision.
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Lobular capillary hemangioma of the nasal cavity

Lobular capillary hemangioma of the nasal cavity, also known as nasal pyogenic granuloma, is an uncommon benign, rapidly growing vascular neoplasm of the nasal cavity. Terminology The term “pyogenic granuloma” is a misnomer due to lack of infectious origin according to histological and microbi...
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Nasal septal cartilage

The nasal septal cartilage, also known as quadrangular cartilage, forms most of the anterior portion of the nasal septum, and is one of five named nasal cartilaginous components supporting the external nose. Gross anatomy Most of the anterior one-third of the nasal septum is formed by the sept...
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Submandibular gland enlargement

Submandibular gland enlargement refers to an increase in the volume of the submandibular gland, exceeding normal values of 7.4 ± 1.8 cc 1. Pathology Causes Obstruction sialolithiasis submandibular duct stenosis (e.g. tumor, granulomatous disease) Infection acute sialadenitis: following si...
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Salt and pepper sign (Sjögren syndrome)

The salt and pepper sign has been used to describe the MRI appearance of the parotid gland in Sjögren syndrome. This pertains to a combination of punctate regions of calcification (pepper) and fatty replacement (salt) 1.
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Salt and pepper sign (paraganglioma)

The salt and pepper sign is used to describe a typical MRI appearance of some highly vascular tumors which contain foci of hemorrhage, typically a paraganglioma 1-3. The appearance is on T1-weighted sequences, and is made up of: punctate regions of hyperintensity = salt small flow voids = pepp...
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Neurocranium

The neurocranium (plural: neurocrania) is the name given to the portion of the skull that encloses the brain. It comprises the skull base and the skull vault. The neurocranium and facial bones (viscerocranium) together form the skull.
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Hypervascular head and neck lesions

Hypervascular head and neck lesions are findings that enhance avidly after biphasic injection, on contrast-enhanced CT or MRI of the neck. Anatomical variants ectopic thyroid gland hyperdense soft tissue mass on non contrast-CT intense homogeneous enhancement after contrast injection Vascul...
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Nasolacrimal canal

The nasolacrimal canal is the short bony passage along which the nasolacrimal duct courses in the face.  Gross anatomy lateral wall lacrimal groove of the medial maxilla lacrimal hook of the lacrimal bone medial wall superiorly: lacrimal bone inferiorly: lacrimal process of the inferior n...
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Chronic otitis media

Chronic otitis media is a form of otitis media where there is a prolonged phase of inflammation in the middle with resultant tympanic membrane perforation. Pathology There are a few types of chronic otitis media 1-5: benign/inactive chronic otitis media: dry tympanic membrane perforation chr...
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Oropharyngeal isthmus

The oropharyngeal isthmus, a.k.a. isthmus of fauces, is the relative constriction of the anterior oropharynx that borders the oral cavity. The isthmus is sometimes described as the passage that transitions between the oral cavity and pharynx, but strictly speaking, it is part of the oropharynx. ...
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Fibrosing inflammatory pseudotumor

Fibrosing inflammatory pseudotumors are an inflammatory process with histology showing a polymorphous infiltrate with plasma cells, lymphocytes and eosinophils as well as a significant reactive fibrovascular component. Locations They can occur at various sites of the body which include  skull...
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Modiolus (disambiguation)

The modiolus (plural: modioli) may refer to one of two different anatomical structures, both in the head and neck region: modiolus (cochlea) modiolus (mouth) History and etymology The Latin word, "modiolus" means hub of a wheel, and is well-named, as in both the cochlea and at the angle of t...
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Modiolus (mouth)

The modiolus (plural: modioli), also known as the modiolus anguli oris or commissural modiolus, is a small fibromuscular structure at the corner of the mouth where fibers from multiple facial muscles converge, and helps coordinate the action of these muscles. Gross anatomy The convergence of t...
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Gomphosis

A gomphosis (plural: gomphoses), also known as the dentoalveolar syndesmosis, is the specific name for the fibrous joint between the teeth and the alveolar bone of the maxilla/mandible 1,2.
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Incisivus labii inferioris muscle

The incisivus labii inferioris muscle (TA: pars labialis musculi orbicularis oris) is one of the facial muscles. It acts as a supplementary muscle to the orbicularis oris muscle. Terminology The incisivus labii inferioris muscle is often omitted from major anatomical texts or articles on the f...
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Osseointegrated implant

Osseointegrated implants (OI) are endosteal implants characterized by porous surfaces that allow a direct structural connection between bone and implant without interposed soft tissue and ingrowth and interdigitation of the newly formed lamellar bone. Osseointegration has been defined as direct...
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Commissure (disambiguation)

A commissure is a location at which two anatomical structures are united. Though the term most commonly refers to the commissures in the brain, there are a number which exist in the human body:  central nervous system corpus callosum anterior commissure posterior commissure hippocampal comm...
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Non-pulsatile tinnitus

Non-pulsatile tinnitus is a form of tinnitus where there is a continuous ringing sensation of the ears. It is thought to have a considerable subjective component in many individuals. Pathology Many factors have been postulated, inclusive of 1-4: cerumen impaction middle ear infection medica...
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Auriculocondylar syndrome

Auriculocondylar syndrome is a rare congenital syndrome primarily characterized by malformed ears and mandibular condyle aplasia/hypoplasia. Pathology This is an autosomal dominant genetic disease resulting from GNAI3 or PLCB4 gene defects. This affects facial development especially the 1st an...
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Pes anserinus (disambiguation)

The pes anserinus (rare plural: pedes anserini) is the name given to two different anatomical structures: pes anserinus (facial nerve): a.k.a. parotid plexus pes anserinus (knee) Both structures are so named due to their similarity to a goose's foot, which is what 'pes anserinus' means in Lat...
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Marginal mandibular nerve

The marginal mandibular nerve (TA: ramus marginalis mandibularis nervi facialis) is a branch of the extratemporal (terminal) segment of the facial nerve. It supplies the depressor anguli oris, depressor labii inferioris and mentalis muscles. It is of greater clinical importance than the other fa...
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Odynophagia

Odynophagia is the term given for painful swallowing.  Pathology It can arise from a number of causes which include esophageal inflammation - esophagitis esophageal infection substernal dysphagia tonsillitis pharyngitis esophageal spasm See also dysphagia: difficultly swallowing.
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Mentalis muscle

The mentalis muscles (TA: musculus mentalis) are paired muscles, one on each side of the mouth, important as elevators of the chin and lower lip; the muscles are one of the facial muscles.  Summary origin: incisive fossa of the mandible insertion: skin of the chin​ innervation: facial nerve ...
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Auricular perichondritis

Auricular perichondritis, also known as perichondritis of the ear or pinna, is an infection or inflammation of the cartilage-bearing part of the external ear. Terminology The term perichondritis, strictly speaking, refers to inflammation involving the perichondrium. However, a distinction is o...
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Buccolabial muscles

The buccolabial muscles form a subgroup of the facial muscles. The prefix, "bucco-" refers to the cheek, whilst "labial" refers to the lips of the mouth. Elevators, retractors and evertors of the upper lip: levator labii superioris alaeque nasalis (LLSAN) muscle levator labii superioris muscl...
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Thyrolinguofacial trunk

A thyrolinguofacial trunk is a very rare pattern of branching of the anterior branches of the external carotid artery. Rather than the facial artery, lingual artery, and superior thyroid artery having their own distinct origins, all three vessels originate from a common trunk of the external car...
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Linguofacial trunk

A linguofacial trunk is a rare variation of the anterior branches of the external carotid artery. The lingual artery and facial artery share a common trunk rather than branching independently from the external carotid artery 1. Unlike the thyrolingual or thyrolinguofacial variations in which the...
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Thyrolingual trunk

A thyrolingual trunk is an anatomical variant in which the superior thyroid artery and lingual artery share a common trunk 1. This is in contrast to the typical pattern of both vessels emerging independently from the external carotid artery. Other variations of origin include a linguofacial trun...
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Submental artery

The submental artery is the largest branch of the facial artery. The vessel supplies the floor of the mouth and sublingual gland while also connecting the circulation of the tongue and the floor of the mouth 1,3.  Summary origin: facial artery 2 course: emerges from the facial artery at the s...
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Submasseteric space

The submasseteric space, also known as the masseteric space, is the inferolateral subcompartment of the masticator space located between the mandible and masseter muscle. Gross anatomy Relations and/or Boundaries The submasseteric space has the following boundaries 1: medially: mandible (ram...
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Pterygomandibular space

The pterygomandibular space is the inferomedial subcompartment of the masticator space located between the mandible and pterygoid muscles. Gross anatomy Contents The pterygomandibular space contains loose areolar tissue, the sphenomandibular ligament, and the following named neurovascular str...
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Levator anguli oris muscle

The levator anguli oris muscle, also known as caninus or triangularis labii superioris muscles, is a buccolabial muscle, a subdivision of the facial muscles. Gross anatomy Summary origin: canine fossa of the maxilla​ insertion: modiolus and merges with depressor anguli oris muscle innervati...
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Lesser palatine artery

The lesser palatine artery is a small branch of the descending palatine artery (branch of the 3rd part of the maxillary artery). The vessel supplies the soft palate with small branches to the palatine tonsils 1,2. The vessel emerges through the lesser palatine foramen before traveling posterior ...
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Descending palatine artery

The descending palatine artery is a branch of the maxillary artery that supplies both the soft palate and hard palate as well as the palatine tonsils 1.  Summary origin: 3rd part of the maxillary artery course: descending through the pterygopalatine fossa before its branches enter either the ...
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CT paranasal sinus protocol

The CT paranasal sinus protocol serves as an examination for the assessment of the study of the mucosa and bone system of the sinonasal cavities. It is usually performed as a non-contrast study. In certain situations, it might be combined or simultaneously acquired with a Note: This article aim...
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Ascending palatine artery

The ascending palatine artery is a branch of the facial artery that supplies part of the soft palate. In addition, the vessel also supplies the tensor veli palatini, uvular muscle, palatine tonsils, and palatopharyngeus 1,2. The posterior branch supplies the posterior and inferior soft palate es...
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Frontalis muscle

The frontalis muscle (TA: musculus frontalis) is a paired muscle extending from the supraorbital region to the level of the coronal suture. Flat and quadrilateral in shape, it is one of the facial muscles. Along with the occipitalis muscle, it forms the occipitofrontalis muscle due to a common t...
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Solitary fibrous tumor of the orbit

The solitary fibrous tumor of the orbit is a rare spindle-cell neoplasm originating from mesenchymal fibroblast-like cells histologically identical to solitary fibrous tumors found elsewhere Epidemiology Solitary fibrous tumors occur in a wide age range reported from 9 to 76 years without a co...
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Risorius muscle

The risorius muscle (TA: musculus risorius) is one of the muscles of the mouth, a subset of the facial muscles. It is often absent and has been described as an accessory muscle. Summary origin: fascia overlying the parotid, masseter and/or platysma muscles​ insertion: modiolus at the angle of...
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Mastoid bowl

A mastoid bowl or mastoid cavity refers to a post surgical cavity that is created from the resection of mastoid air cells and intervening septae, usually during complex mastoidectomies such as canal wall up or canal wall down mastoidectomies, or other surgeries such as cochlear implantations. Th...
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Levator labii superioris muscle

The levator labii superioris (LLS) muscle (TA synonym: musculus levator labii superioris) is one of the elevators of the upper lip, a subset of the facial muscles. It is not to be confused with the levator labii superioris alaeque nasalis muscle, which has a very similar name, at least partiall...
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Barrett's index

Barrett's index (BI) is used to assess for dysthyroid optic neuropathy, a severe complication of thyroid-associated orbitopathy that can lead to permanent blindness 1. Measurement Measurement is calculated on coronal CT or MRI imaging of the orbits at a point halfway between the posterior glob...
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Exophytic sinonasal papilloma

Exophytic sinonasal papillomas (ESP) or fungiform sinonasal papillomas are a form of Schneiderian papillomas and benign sinonasal tumors arising from the Schneiderian epithelium of the nasal septum. Epidemiology Exophytic sinonasal papillomas are the second most common form of sinonasal papill...
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Oncocytic sinonasal papilloma

Oncocytic sinonasal papillomas (OSP) or cylindrical cell papillomas are a rare form of Schneiderian papillomas and benign epithelial sinonasal tumors arising from the Schneiderian epithelium of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses. Epidemiology Oncocytic sinonasal papillomas are the least fr...
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Primary intraosseous carcinoma

Primary intraosseous carcinomas NOS (PIOC) are malignant epithelial odontogenic neoplasms of the jawbones with no clear benign analog. Epidemiology Primary intraosseous carcinomas are rare tumors 1-4. They occur in a wide age range with the mean in the sixth decade of life. Men are more freque...
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Scalp nerve supply (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember the nerve supply to the scalp is: GLASS Mnemonic G: greater occipital nerve / greater auricular nerve L: lesser occipital nerve A: auriculotemporal nerve S: supratrochlear nerve S: supraorbital nerve Please note that other nerves also contribute, see anatomy articl...
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Tinnitus causes (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember the commonest causes of tinnitus is: HAMMER ​Mnemonic H: hypertension A: anemia / acoustic neuroma M: migraine / Menière's disease M: medication (quinine, NSAIDs, streptomycin)  E: ear pathology (wax, foreign body, otitis media)  R: rare (temporomandibular joint ...
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Glandular odontogenic cyst

Glandular odontogenic cysts (GOC) are developmental odontogenic cysts with glandular differentiation of the epithelium. Epidemiology Glandular odontogenic cysts are rare 1,2 and account for about 0.5% of odontogenic cysts 3. They are slightly more frequent in men and show a peak in the fifth a...
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Gingival cyst

Gingival cysts or dental lamina cysts are developmental oral mucosal cysts growing from the remnants of the dental lamina in the gingival or alveolar tissue. In newborns, they are transient appearances. Epidemiology Gingival cysts are very common and transient in newborns and are seen within t...
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Orthokeratinized odontogenic cyst

Orthokeratinized odontogenic cysts (OOC) are developmental odontogenic cysts arising from the remnants of the dental lamina and form a separate new entity in the WHO classification of odontogenic and maxillofacial bone tumors since 2017. Epidemiology Orthokeratinized odontogenic cysts are rare...
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Rosenbach sign (disambiguation)

Rosenbach sign may refer to several different clinical signs: Rosenbach sign (AV regurgitation) Rosenbach sign (eye) Rosenbach sign (hemiplegia) History and etymology Ottomar Ernst Felix Rosenbach (1851-1907), a German physician born in Prussian County in Silesia, graduated from medicine in...
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Lateral periodontal and botryoid odontogenic cysts

Lateral periodontal odontogenic cysts are developmental cysts arising adjacent or lateral to the roots of vital teeth and botryoid odontogenic cysts are multilocular variants of lateral periodontal odontogenic cysts. Epidemiology Lateral periodontal and botryoid odontogenic cysts are rare, wit...
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Ameloblastic carcinoma

Ameloblastic carcinomas or malignant ameloblastoma are malignant epithelial odontogenic neoplasms with histologic features ameloblastoma. Epidemiology Ameloblastic carcinomas are rare tumors approximately accounting for 1% of jaw tumors 1,2. They have been found in a wide age range and are mor...
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Tobacco abuse

Tobacco abuse, most commonly by smoking cigarettes, is a legal drug habit of many throughout the world. It is a significant risk factor for many malignancies, respiratory and cardiovascular diseases and is a major cause of premature mortality throughout the world. Epidemiology It has been esti...
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Non-recurrent laryngeal nerve

A non-recurrent laryngeal nerve is an uncommon anatomical variant in which the recurrent laryngeal nerve takes a course that is deviant to its usual descent into the thorax. The non-recurrent laryngeal nerve rather enters the larynx directly from the cervical Vagus nerve instead of coursing infe...
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Dentinogenic ghost cell tumor

Dentinogenic ghost cell tumors (DGCT) are benign mixed epithelial and mesenchymal odontogenic tumors with locally aggressive behavior. Terminology It is also known as the 'solid' or 'neoplastic form of calcifying odontogenic cyst’, since the 4th WHO classification of head and neck tumors in 20...
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Odontogenic fibroma

Odontogenic fibromas are benign mesenchymal odontogenic tumors with varying amounts of fibrous connective tissue. Epidemiology Odontogenic fibromas are rare tumors and are more common in women. Central odontogenic fibromas occur in a wide age range and peripheral odontomas have a peak between ...
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Rosenbach sign (eye)

The Rosenbach sign of the eyes is a clinical sign of Graves disease. It consists of fine tremors of the eyelids when gently closed 1,2. History and etymology Ottomar Ernst Felix Rosenbach (1851-1907), a German physician born in Prussian County in Silesia, graduated from medicine in Breslau in ...
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White knight nodule (thyroid)

The "white knight" nodule is regarded as a benign lesion of the thyroid gland 1. Pathology Follicular cells, Hurthle cells, numerous small and large lymphocytes and colloid are seen on fine needle aspiration cytology of white knight nodules, which is consistent with Hashimoto thyroiditis 2,3. ...
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Secondary osteosarcoma

Secondary osteosarcomas are osteosarcomas growing on abnormal bone in the setting of various underlying osseous disorders. Terminology Other acceptable terms include Paget sarcoma, osteosarcoma in Paget disease of bone or radiation-associated osteosarcoma, if applicable. The terms postirradiat...
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Godtfredsen syndrome

Godtfredsen syndrome is a rare syndrome of abducens and hypoglossal nerve palsies that localizes to a clival mass. Clinical presentation The classic clinical presentation includes 1-3: abducens nerve palsy: diplopia worse when horizontal gaze is directed towards the affected side hypoglossal...
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Neck protocol (CT)

The CT neck protocol serves as a radiological examination of the head and neck. This protocol is usually performed as a contrast study and might be acquired separately or combined with a CT chest or CT chest-abdomen-pelvis. On rare occasions, it will be performed as a non-contrast study. Dependi...
Article

Cartilage

Cartilage or cartilaginous tissue is a resilient and type of connective tissue of mesodermal origin that forms an integral part within the musculoskeletal system and as a structural component in other organs.   Cartilage can be generally classified into the following main types: hyaline cartil...
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Periodontal ligament widening

Periodontal ligament widening can be a finding which can present on OPG and facial bone CT imaging and can occur in several situations.  The normal width range is usually between 0.15-0.21 mm (may decrease with age). Conditions associated with widening are varied and can include: trauma  occ...
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Periodontal ligament

Periodontal ligaments are structures holding teeth in their sockets. They are seen as a thin radiolucent space between the surface of the tooth root and the lamina dura, the lining of the tooth socket. The lamina dura serves as a periodontal ligament attachment site.  They comprise soft connect...
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Dentomaxillofacial Radiology

Dentomaxillofacial Radiology (DMFR) is the official journal of the International Association of Dentomaxillofacial Radiology (IADMFR) and is published by the British Institute of Radiology (BIR); it was first published in 1972. Its primary focus is head and neck imaging and oral radiology. Its ...
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Macrodontia

Macrodontia, also known as megadontia or megalodontia, is a rare congenital abnormal enlargement of the teeth that may affect all the dentition or more rarely, only a single tooth.  Epidemiology Macrodontia is very rare. In a review of the panoramic dental radiographs of 1200 patients in Turke...
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Inspissated secretions

Inspissated secretions refers to thickened secretions with increased viscosity within ducts or body cavities (usually nasal, paranasal sinus, oral or ductal) that usually become thickened by dehydration (typically a chronic process). The secretions can then cause obstruction to respective airway...
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P sign

The alphabet P sign, or just P sign, is a sonographic finding in acute epiglottitis. Using point of care ultrasound (POCUS), on a longitudinal view at the level of the thyrohyoid membrane, a P-shaped hypoechogenicity is apparent. The curved portion of the P is formed from the edematous epiglotti...
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Guitar pick sign (orbits)

Guitar pick sign refers to conical deformation (tenting) of the posterior ocular globe indicating severely increased intraorbital pressure (orbital compartment syndrome) Presence of a guitar pick sign on imaging is associated with acute and permanent visual damage.
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Petrous apex mucocele

Petrous apex mucoceles are a rare complication that can occur in patients who have a pneumatized petrous apex. The pathology is similar to mucocele formation elsewhere in other sinuses in that these air cells become obstructed causing mucous secretions to accumulate. The trapped secretions cause...
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Optic nerve calcification

Optic nerve calcification is a rare radiological finding, with only a short differential diagnosis, many of which have only been described in isolated case reports 1-4. Differential diagnosis optic nerve meningioma optic nerve head drusen idiopathic dural optic nerve sheath calcification ca...
Article

Nasal saddle deformity

A nasal saddle deformity refers to a deformed shape of the nose where there is a loss of projection of the cartilaginous and/or bony structure of the dorsum of the nose. While they are typically associated with prior trauma, they have also been described in other settings such as: infections e...
Article

Parathyromatosis

Parathyromatosis (plural: parathyromatoses) is the very rare phenomenon in which there is hyperplasia of residual foci of parathyroidal soft tissue after surgical parathyroidectomy resulting in recurrent hyperparathyroidism. Epidemiology Parathyromatosis is very rare, a study from 2012 stated ...
Article

Parathyroid proliferative disease

Parathyroid proliferative disease is the collective term for a spectrum of parathyroid disorders 1: parathyroid adenoma parathyroid carcinoma parathyroid atypical adenoma: controversial entity parathyroid hyperplasia primary chief cell hyperplasia primary water-clear cell hyperplasia (rare...
Article

MEN1 triad (mnemonic)

Mnemonics to remember the classic triad of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) are: PPP PiParPanc ParaPanPit Mnemonics PPP P: pituitary adenoma: prolactinoma is commonest P: pancreatic endocrine tumors P: parathyroid proliferative disease parathyroid hyperplasia (most common) pa...
Article

Trigeminal autonomic cephalgia

Trigeminal autonomic cephalgia is a relatively rare group of conditions consisting of cluster headaches, paroxysmal hemicrania, hemicrania continua, and short-lasting unilateral neuralgiform headache attacks with conjunctival injection and tearing (short lasting unilateral neuralgiform headache ...
Article

Anderson and Montesano classification of occipital condyle fractures

The Anderson and Montesano classification is a widely used system for describing occipital condyle fractures. It divides injuries into three types based on morphology and mechanism of injury 1-5. Classification type I: impacted type occipital condyle fracture morphology: comminution of the co...
Article

Thyroid nodules in pediatric patients

Thyroid nodules in pediatric patients are much less common than in adults but raise greater concern due to higher rates of malignancy.  Epidemiology Thyroid nodules are much less common in children, with an estimated prevalence of around 1-2% 4, compared with adults but have higher rates of ma...
Article

Middle ear atelectasis

Middle ear atelectasis refers to reduction in volume of the middle ear cavity  and is sometimes considered a stage of tympanic membrane retraction (stage III).
Article

Respiratory tract

The respiratory tract refers to the portion of the respiratory system that conducts air into and out of the body. It is conventionally divided into upper and lower tracts. The upper respiratory tract (URT), also known as the upper airways, is the collective term for the components of the respir...
Article

Canal wall up mastoidectomy

A canal wall up mastoidectomy is one of the types of mastoidectomies that can be performed. This involves exenteration of the mastoid air cells with preservation of the posterior wall of the external auditory canal, creating a mastoid bowl or cavity.   This procedure includes removal of Koerner...
Article

Retrosigmoid craniotomy

Retrosigmoid craniotomy also known as a suboccipital lateral craniotomy refers to the neurosurgical procedure in which lateral section of the occipital bone is removed to gain surgical access to the wide range of neoplastic and vascular pathologies in the cerebellopontine angle.
Article

Traynelis classification of atlanto-occipital dislocations

The Traynelis classification of atlanto-occipital dislocations describes injuries of the atlanto-occipital joint according to the displacement of the occipital condyles relative to the atlas: type I: anterior displacement type II: longitudinal distraction (superior-inferior displacement) type...
Article

Leave alone lesions - maxillodental

Maxillodental leave alone lesions are usually incidental findings that do not require treatment nor follow-up if the patient is asymptomatic. This article includes findings from orthopantomogram, cone-beam CT, and sinus CT studies. Do not touch: benign lesions tooth ankylosis hypercementosi...
Article

Leave alone lesions - skull base

Leave alone lesions of the skull base refers to incidental findings that do not require treatment nor follow-up. This article includes findings from brain CT, HRCT of the temporal bone, and MRI studies. Do not touch: arrested pneumatization of the skull base - sphenoid benign fatty lesion 1 ...
Article

Leave alone lesions - paranasal sinuses

Leave alone lesions are findings that are usually discovered incidentally and do not require any specific treatment or follow-up if the patient is asymptomatic. This article includes findings from paranasal sinus CT and MRI studies. physiological process nasal cycle anatomical variants conc...
Article

Barosinusitis

Barosinusitis, also known as sinus barotrauma or aerosinusitis, refers to inflammatory changes that affect the paranasal sinuses due to alterations in atmosphere pressure, with uncompensated pressure changes within the sinonasal cavities. Epidemiology Barosinusitis is most common in aviation t...
Article

Catel-Manzke syndrome

Catel-Manzke syndrome is a digitopalatal syndrome initially described in 1961. Inheritance pattern is unknown. Radiographic findings include micronagthia and accessory ossicles at the bases of the metacarpals.

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