As of the latest update, Google Chrome and Microsoft Edge have made a breaking change to how file uploads are handled. Once your system installs this update, you will not be able to upload new images. Please use another browser until we can get it fixed.

Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

1,654 results found
Article

Squamous odontogenic tumor

Squamous odontogenic tumor is a rare, benign epithelial odontogenic neoplasm. Epidemiology They generally occur in adults, but have a wide age range with cases reported from childhood to the 8th decade Pathology It is considered to represent a proliferation of mature squamous epithelium and ...
Article

Squamous part of temporal bone

The squamous part of the temporal bone (or squamous temporalis/squamous temporal bone) is a very thin bone and forms the anterosuperior aspect of the temporal bone. Gross anatomy The squamous temporal bone's outer convex surface provides attachment to the temporalis muscle and forms a boundary...
Article

SRU guidelines for assessment of thyroid nodules

The Society of Radiologists in Ultrasound (SRU) guidelines for the assessment of thyroid nodules were defined in a consensus conference statement published in 2005 focused on which thyroid nodules detected on ultrasonography should undergo fine needle aspiration. Recommendations The recommenda...
Article

Stab wound (overview)

Stab wounds are a form of penetrating trauma that may be self-inflicted or inflicted by another person either accidentally or intentionally. They may be caused from a variety of objects and may occur anywhere in the body. Terminology Although commonly caused by a knife as well, slash injuries ...
Article

Stafne cyst

Stafne bone cavities, also known as Stafne bone cyst, static bone cavity of the mandible, or lingual salivary gland inclusion defect, are cortical defects near the angle of the mandible below the mandibular canal. It is usually an incidental finding and represents a depression in the medial aspe...
Article

Stapediovestibular joint

The stapediovestibular joint is the fully-functional articulation between the stapes and the oval window.  It has a key role in the transmission of sound vibrations in the middle ear to the fluid in the vestibule, and thence in the cochlea 2. Gross anatomy The annular ligament of the stapes, a...
Article

Stapedius muscle

The stapedius muscle is the tiny muscle in the middle ear that attaches to the posterior aspect of the neck of the stapes, which when contracted dampens vibrations passed to the cochlea via the oval window. The muscle is anchored within the petrous temporal bone and emerges anteriorly into the m...
Article

Stapes

The stapes (plural: stapedes) is the smallest and most medial of the three middle ear ossicles. It is the smallest bone in the standard human skeleton. It has a base (foot piece/footplate) which articulates with the oval window and conducts vibrations to the cochlea. The base is attached to the...
Article

Stapes prosthesis

Stapes prosthesis (plural: stapes prostheses) are used in the stapedectomy surgery procedure which aims to improve conductive hearing loss due to oval window closure secondary to otosclerosis or post inflammatory conditions. The procedure is also performed to correct congenital abnormalities or ...
Article

Staphyloma

Staphyloma is the term given to an eye whose scleral-uveal coats are stretched with uveal protrusion. This most commonly occurs posteriorly, although anterior staphyloma also is recognized. As opposed to coloboma, staphyloma defect is located off-center from the optic disc, typically temporal to...
Article

Stellate ganglion

The stellate ganglion, or cervicothoracic ganglion, is formed by the inferior cervical and first thoracic ganglia and is located just anterior to the head of the first rib. It receives input from the paravertebral sympathetic chain and provides sympathetic efferents to the upper limbs, head, nec...
Article

Stellate ganglion block

A stellate ganglion block can be used to treat a number of conditions by reducing stimulation of the stellate ganglion, which is part of the sympathetic network. The infiltration of local anesthetic/neurolytic around the 1 cm ganglion has been used to treat a variety of disorders. Indications ...
Article

Stenvers view

Stenvers view is a oblique radiographic projection used to demonstrate the petrous temporal bone, IAM and bony labyrinth. Fine slice multi-detector CT of the petrous bone has replaced the Stenver view due to far superior anatomic detail. It was also used to assess electrode placement following t...
Article

Sternocleidomastoid muscle

The sternocleidomastoid muscle (also known as sternomastoid) is found in the neck. It has two heads that meld to form one insertion. Sternocleidomastoid muscle, along with the trapezius muscle, is invested by the superficial layer of the deep cervical fascia, which splits around it. Sternocleido...
Article

Sternohyoid muscle

The sternohyoid muscle is an infrahyoid muscle of the neck that is innervated by the ansa cervicalis of the cervical plexus receiving fibers from the ventral rami of C1-C3 spinal nerves. The sternohyoid is a paired, flat strap of muscle that serves to fix the hyoid bone as well as depressing the...
Article

Sternothyroid muscle

The sternothyroid muscle is an infrahyoid muscle of the neck that is innervated by the ansa cervicalis of the cervical plexus receiving fibers from the ventral rami of C1-C3 spinal nerves. The sternothyroid is a paired, flat strap of muscle that serves to fix the hyoid bone as well as depressing...
Article

Steroid responsive encephalopathy associated with autoimmune thyroiditis

Steroid-responsive encephalopathy associated with autoimmune thyroiditis (SREAT), also known as Hashimoto encephalopathy, is a rare and well-recognized neurological complication of autoimmune thyroid disease and occurs independently of the thyroid status. Patients exhibit neurological symptoms i...
Article

Stridor

Stridor is a term to describe an abnormal, high-pitched breath sound produced by abnormal, turbulent air flow with respiration 1. It usually represents narrowing of the large, extrathoracic airways 2. Pathology Etiology Stridor can be caused by numerous conditions, but its presence may indica...
Article

Stuck temporomandibular joint disc

A stuck disc refers to a temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disc which does not translate anteriorly out of the mandibular fossa onto the articular eminence, but rather remains (thus "stuck") in the fossa. It is a form of TMJ dysfunction and is typically associated with restricted range of motion. T...
Article

Styloglossus muscle

The styloglossus muscle is one of the extrinsic tongue muscles.  Summary origin: the apex of the styloid process adjacent to the origin of the stylomandibular ligament, and deep fibers of the ligament itself insertion: merges with the hyoglossus and inferior longitudinal muscle of the tongue ...
Article

Stylohyoid ligament

The stylohyoid ligament forms part of the styloid apparatus. The origin is at the styloid process of the temporal bone and it inserts into lesser horn of the hyoid bone. The stylohyoid ligament provides part of the origin for the middle pharyngeal constrictor muscle and styloglossus muscle. It ...
Article

Stylohyoid muscle

The stylohyoid muscle is one of the suprahyoid muscles of the neck. Its lower end divides allowing passage of the digastric tendon. Stylohyoid draws the hyoid bone backwards during swallowing.  Summary  origin: styloid process of temporal bone insertion: hyoid bone action: retracts and eleva...
Article

Styloid apparatus

The styloid apparatus, found within the parapharyngeal space, refers to the structures derived from the second branchial arch (see branchial apparatus) along with associated ligaments and muscles: styloid process of the temporal bone lesser horn of the hyoid bone stylohyoid ligament styloman...
Article

Styloid process

The styloid process (or styloid part of the squamous temporal bone) is a slender pointed part of the temporal bone. It projects anteroinferiorly from the inferior surface of the petrous part of the temporal bone. It serves as an anchor point for several muscles associated with the tongue and la...
Article

Stylomandibular ligament

The stylomandibular ligament is a cord-like condensation of the deep cervical fascia that extends from the apex of the styloid process of the temporal bone to the angle of the mandible. It is one of the 2 extrinsic ligaments of the mandible. The ligament separates the masseter and parotid gland ...
Article

Stylomandibular tunnel

The stylomandibular tunnel is a space between the mandibular ramus and the styloid process / stylohyoid ligament. It separates the (prestyloid) parapharyngeal space from the parotid space. In some definitions, the portion of the parotid gland that extends into the stylomandibular tunnel is consi...
Article

Stylomastoid foramen

The stylomastoid foramen is a rounded opening on the inferior surface of the petrous temporal bone, between the base of styloid and the mastoid process of the temporal bone. It transmits the facial nerve.
Article

Stylopharyngeus muscle

The stylopharyngeus muscle is in the head and neck region, and one of the inner longitudinal muscles of the pharynx. Summary origin: styloid process of the temporal bone insertion: thyroid cartilage innervation: glossopharyngeal nerve (CN IX) action: elevates the larynx and pharynx; swallow...
Article

Subacute lymphocytic thyroiditis

Subacute lymphocytic thyroiditis or silent thyroiditis is a thyroid inflammatory condition, and a form of subacute thyroiditis. Clinical presentation  Usually characterized by the recent onset of symptoms and there is usually an absence of thyroidal pain or tenderness. On examination there can...
Article

Subacute thyroiditis

Subacute thyroiditis (plural is thyroiditides) is used for several different causes of thyroiditis. granulomatous (de Quervain) thyroiditis silent thyroiditis postpartum thyroiditis
Article

Subarachnoid cisterns

The subarachnoid cisterns, or basal cisterns, are compartments within the subarachnoid space where the pia mater and arachnoid membrane are not in close approximation and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) forms pools or cisterns (Latin: "box"). As they are interconnected, their patency is essential for ...
Article

Subclavius posticus muscle

Subclavius posticus muscle is an accessory muscle in the root of the neck, lying between the subclavius muscle and the inferior belly of omohyoid. It has an incidence of ~ 7.5% 2,4. Summary origin: first costal cartilage insertion: superior margin of scapula nerve supply: nerve to subclavius...
Article

Subconjunctival fat prolapse

Subconjunctival fat prolapse is an acquired herniation of intraconal fat due to the weakening of the Tenon capsule by normal aging, surgery, or trauma. It presents clinically with a fat-containing epibulbar mass in the lateral canthal area. Epidemiology  Subconjunctival fat prolapse occurs mai...
Article

Subgaleal hematoma

Subgaleal hematoma describes scalp bleeding in the potential space between the periosteum and the galea aponeurosis. It is a rare but possibly lethal emergency. Epidemiology Moderate to severe presentations occur in 1.5 of 10,000 live births. It most commonly occurs after vacuum-assisted and f...
Article

Subgaleal lipoma

Subgaleal lipomas are benign adipose-containing tumors that occur between the periosteum and the galea aponeurosis of the scalp. Epidemiology They comprise 2% of all lipomas. They are more common in middle-aged patients and have a male predilection Clinical presentation Subgaleal lipomas pre...
Article

Subglottic stenosis

Subglottic stenosis is a condition describing stenosis (narrowing) of the subglottic airway (region below the vocal cords). It can be congenital or acquired 1. Epidemiology Subglottic stenosis is the third most common congenital airway abnormal. The incidence of subglottic stenosis has decreas...
Article

Subglottis

The subglottis is an anatomical subregion of the larynx, located inferior to the glottis. Gross anatomy Boundaries and relations superiorly: 1 cm below the lateral margin of the ventricle where the superior surface of the true vocal cord ends 1, although other definitions exist, such as 5 mm ...
Article

Sublingual gland

The sublingual glands are salivary glands that lie in the floor of the mouth anterior to the submandibular glands. They secrete predominantly mucous saliva that is drained by a collection of 8-20 excretory ducts collectively termed the duct of Rivinus. The largest of these ducts, the major subli...
Article

Sublingual space

The sublingual spaces are paired suprahyoid deep spaces of the head and neck located below the tongue. Gross anatomy The sublingual space is a part of the floor of mouth 1. As the sublingual space is not bounded by fascia posteriorly, some authors consider the sublingual space a component of ...
Article

Submandibular duct

The submandibular duct (also known as Wharton's duct) allows the passage of saliva from the submandibular gland to the sublingual papilla located anteriorly. The duct extends anteriorly from the submandibular gland superior to the lingual nerve and submandibular ganglion curving over the poster...
Article

Submandibular ganglion

The submandibular ganglion is one of four parasympathetic ganglia of the head and neck. It receives parasympathetic fibers from the facial nerve. Gross anatomy small ganglion suspended from the undersurface of the lingual nerve inferior to submandibular duct sitting on the hyoglossus muscle ...
Article

Submandibular gland

The submandibular glands (historically also known as the submaxillary glands) are paired salivary glands located behind and below the ramus of the mandible in the submandibular triangle. They secrete mixed serous and mucous saliva that is excreted into the oral cavity via the submandibular duct ...
Article

Submandibular space

The submandibular space is a suprahyoid deep compartment of the head and neck. Terminology Within this compartment, all authors include the space within the submandibular triangle around the submandibular gland. Some also subsume the submental space and others further include the sublingual sp...
Article

Submental space

The submental space is a deep compartment of the head and neck that lies in the midline submental triangle below the chin, medially to the submandibular spaces with which it freely communicates. Some authors include the submental space as a component of the submandibular or submaxillary space 1,...
Article

Submental triangle

The submental triangle is the single midline triangle, part of the anterior triangle of the neck. The triangles of the neck are surgically focused, first described from early dissection-based anatomical studies which predated cross-sectional anatomical description based on imaging (see deep spac...
Article

Suboccipital muscle group

The suboccipital muscle group contains four paired muscles, three of which pairs belong to the suboccipital triangle. These muscles all lie below the occipital bone and are responsible for postural support of the head, as well as extension, lateral flexion and rotation. As these muscles are smal...
Article

Subperiosteal abscess of the mastoid

Subperiosteal abscess of the mastoid is one of the more frequent complications of acute otomastoiditis and results in coalescent mastoiditis extending through the external cortex of the mastoid sinus. This can occur in any direction: postauricular: common as the bone is particularly thin ("Mace...
Article

Subperiosteal abscess of the orbit

Subperiosteal abscess of the orbit occurs as a complication of acute sinusitis. Clinical presentation Patients can present with pain, visual disturbance, proptosis and/or chemosis. Pathology Bacteria can extend via neurovascular foramina or bony dehiscences. More commonly occurs from ethmoid...
Article

Substernal goiter

Substernal goiter (or retrosternal goiter) is an enlarged thyroid gland with intrathoracic extension. Terminology It remains unclear which goitres are to be termed substernal, but a recently proposed definition is a goiter that requires mediastinal exploration and dissection for complete remov...
Article

Sulcal artery syndrome

Sulcal artery syndrome is a rare cause of spinal cord infarction involving the territory of one of the sulcal arteries, which are penetrating branches of the anterior spinal artery, each vessel supplying either left or right side of the cord, but not both. The result is an incomplete Brown-Séqua...
Article

Superficial cervical fascia

The superficial cervical fascia is the subcutaneous connective tissue of the neck between the dermis and the deep cervical fascia.  Terminology As some anatomists have abandoned the term "superficial fascia", calling this layer simply "subcutaneous tissue" is a recommended alternative 1. Becau...
Article

Superficial layer of the deep cervical fascia

The superficial layer of the deep cervical fascia, also known as the investing layer, is the one of three layers of the deep cervical fascia that surrounds all of the neck that is deep to the platysma. The layer includes the masticator fascia, submandibular fascia, and sternocleidomastoid-trapez...
Article

Superficial temporal artery

The superficial temporal artery is one of two terminal branches of the external carotid artery. Gross anatomy It arises in the parotid gland and runs between the deep and superficial lobes and then over the zygomatic arch. There are several named branches, together supplying part of the face ...
Article

Superficial temporal vein

The superficial temporal vein arises in a plexus on the side and vertex of the skull and, in the substance of the parotid gland, joins with the maxillary vein to form the retromandibular vein. Gross anatomy The superficial temporal vein originates from a venous plexus on the side and vertex of...
Article

Superior labial artery

Superior labial artery (old name: superior coronary artery) is one of the facial branches of the facial artery. It is bigger and more serpiginous than the inferior labial artery. It supplies the upper lip, including its labial glands, mucous membranes and muscles. Summary origin: facial branch...
Article

Superior laryngeal artery

The superior laryngeal artery accompanies the internal laryngeal branch of the superior laryngeal nerve, beneath the thyrohyoid muscle. It pierces the thyrohyoid membrane, and supplies the muscles, mucous membrane, and glands of the larynx, anastomosing with the branch from the opposite side. ...
Article

Superior laryngeal nerve

The superior laryngeal nerve is a branch of the vagus nerve (CN X) which supplies the larynx. Summary origin: arises from the inferior ganglion of the vagus nerve (CN X) course descends within the carotid sheath posterior and then medial to the internal carotid artery  pierces the medial wa...
Article

Superior longitudinal muscle of the tongue

The superior longitudinal muscle of the tongue is one of the four intrinsic muscles of the tongue which alter the shape of the tongue mass, being entirely confined to the tongue without any extraglossal attachment (cf. extrinsic muscles of the tongue). Gross anatomy The muscles fibers attach p...
Article

Superior meatus

The superior meatus is an air passage of the lateral nasal cavity located between the superior nasal concha and lateral nasal wall. The posterior ethmoid air cells and sphenoid sinuses drain into the superior meatus.​ See also nasal meatus
Article

Superior nasal concha

The superior nasal concha or turbinate is one of the conchae in the nose and is part of the labyrinth of the ethmoid bone, arising as a bony projection from its posterior surface. The air passage between the superior nasal concha and the lateral nasal wall is known as the superior meatus.
Article

Superior oblique muscle

The superior oblique muscle is one of the 6 extraocular muscles that control eye movements. It abducts, depresses and internally rotates the eye. Summary innervation: trochlear nerve (CN IV) origin: lesser wing of sphenoid bone and is outside of the annulus of Zinn located superomedially. co...
Article

Superior ophthalmic vein

The superior ophthalmic vein is a prominent vein of the orbit that is seen on CT and may be enlarged or tortuous in various disease entities. Gross anatomy Origin Formed in the anterior part of the orbit by the union of the angular, supraorbital and supratrochlear veins. Course courses late...
Article

Superior ophthalmic vein thrombosis

Superior ophthalmic vein thrombosis is rare but can potentially lead to visual loss in the affected eye(s). Epidemiology Superior ophthalmic vein thrombosis is very rare, with an incidence of 3-4 cases/million/year 1. It can be either unilateral or bilateral. Clinical presentation Superior o...
Article

Superior orbital fissure

The superior orbital fissure is the communication between the cavernous sinus and the apex of the orbit. It is straddled by the tendinous ring which is the common origin of the four rectus muscles (extraocular muscles). Gross anatomy Boundaries medial: body of sphenoid superior: lesser wing ...
Article

Superior orbital fissure syndrome

Superior orbital fissure syndrome (SOFS) (also known as Rochon–Duvigneaud syndrome) is a rare complication of craniofacial trauma with an orbital fracture that extends to the superior orbital fissure that results in injury to the cranial nerves III, IV, V (ophthalmic branch of the trigeminal ner...
Article

Superior pharyngeal constrictor muscle

The superior pharyngeal constrictor muscle is one of the pharyngeal constrictor muscles. Its primary action is constriction of the pharynx (in coordination with the middle pharyngeal constrictor and the inferior pharyngeal constrictor muscles) to deliver a bolus of food into the esophagus. Summ...
Article

Superior rectus muscle

Superior rectus muscle is one of the six extraocular muscles that control eye movements. Summary innervation: superior branch of the oculomotor nerve (CN III) origin: annulus of Zinn (tendinous ring) insertion: globe (anterior, superior surface) primary function: one of two ocular elevators...
Article

Superior semicircular canal dehiscence syndrome

Superior semicircular canal dehiscence syndrome (SCDS) is an inner ear abnormality, where a clinical disequilibrium phenomenon is associated with the absence of the bony covering of the superior semicircular canal (SSCC). Notably, this CT finding has also been described in ~10% of individuals w...
Article

Superior tarsal muscle

The superior tarsal muscle (Müller muscle or cremaster tarsus) is a small muscle of the superior orbit arising from the undersurface of the levator palpebrae superioris muscle that elevates and retracts the upper eyelid. It is not part of the extraocular muscles; it does not insert on the globe ...
Article

Superior thoracic aperture

The superior thoracic aperture, also known as the thoracic inlet or outlet, connects the root of the neck with the thorax.  Gross anatomy The superior thoracic aperture is kidney-shaped and lies in an oblique transverse plane, tilted anteroinferiorly to posterosuperiorly. It is roughly 10 cm i...
Article

Superior thyroid artery

The superior thyroid artery is a branch of the external carotid artery and supplies the larynx and thyroid gland. Summary origin: branch of the external carotid artery at the level of the hyoid bone branches hyoid artery sterncocleidomastoid branches superior laryngeal artery cricothyroid...
Article

Superior thyroid cornu syndrome

Superior thyroid cornu syndrome refers to to a situation when there is precipitation of dysphagia and /or other symptoms as a hypertrophy +/- ossification of one of both the both of the superior horns (cornu) of the thyroid cartilage. This can also result from extreme medial deviation. Treatmen...
Article

Superior thyroid vein

The superior thyroid vein, along with the middle and inferior thyroid veins, drains a venous plexus on the anterior surface of the thyroid gland 1. Gross anatomy The paired vein shares a course with the superior thyroid artery 2. The superior thyroid veins also receive tributaries from the sup...
Article

Supernumerary teeth

Supernumerary teeth (hyperdontia) are extra tooth to the standard series of either primary or permanent teeth. Terminology The term supplemental tooth may be used when the supernumerary tooth resembles its associated normal tooth and the term peridens may be used for an ectopically erupted (e....
Article

Suprabullar cells

The suprabullar cells are a subset of variably present frontal recess cells located above the ethmoid bulla. Terminology They are nearly identical to frontal bullar cells. The distinguishing features with the latter are that the suprabullar cells are located entirely below the frontal ostium a...
Article

Suprabullar recess

The suprabullar recess is a potential opening (cleft) between the bulla lamella and skull base located along the posterior margin of the frontal recess with which it may communicate directly. It is present when the bulla lamella is incomplete superiorly. Terminology The term ​sinus lateralis i...
Article

Supraclavicular lymph nodes

The supraclavicular lymph nodes (often shortened to the supraclavicular nodes) are a paired group of lymph nodes located on each side in the hollow superior to the clavicle, close to the sternoclavicular joint. It is the final common pathway of the lymphatic system as it joins the central venous...
Article

Supraclavicular nerves

The supraclavicular nerves are three cutaneous nerves that emerge as a common trunk from the cervical plexus before branching to innervate the skin over the upper chest and shoulders.  Gross anatomy Origin The supraclavicular nerves arise from the ventral rami of C3 and C4 spinal nerves, alth...
Article

Supraclavicular triangle

The supraclavicular triangle is one of the paired triangles in the posterior triangle of the neck. The triangles of the neck are surgically focused, first described from early dissection-based anatomical studies which predated cross-sectional anatomical description based on imaging (see deep spa...
Article

Supraglottis

The supraglottis is an anatomic subsite of the larynx, located superior to the glottis. Gross anatomy The supraglottic larynx includes, from superior to inferior, the epiglottis (including both lingual and laryngeal surfaces), the laryngeal aspect of the aryepiglottic folds, false vocal cords,...
Article

Suprahyoid muscles

The suprahyoid muscles are a group of muscles in the neck, named because of their position to the hyoid bone: anterior suprahyoid muscles anterior bellies of digastric muscle mylohyoid muscle geniohyoid muscle posterior suprahyoid muscles posterior bellies of digastric muscle stylohyoid m...
Article

Supraorbital air cells

Supraorbital air cells are an anatomical variant of the paranasal sinuses. They consist of cells originating from the anterior ethmoid air cells extending posteriorly and superiorly over the orbit from the frontal recess. They may mimic septated frontal sinuses as their posterior wall is the sku...
Article

Supraorbital artery

The supraorbital artery is a branch of the ophthalmic artery supplying part of the orbit and face.  Gross anatomy Origin The supraorbital artery originates from the ophthalmic artery, upon branching it lies medial to the optic nerve. Course The supraorbital artery courses superiorly and med...
Article

Supraorbital foramen

The supraorbital foramen or notch is the small opening at the central edge of the superior orbital margin in the frontal bone just below the superciliary arches that transmits the supra-orbital nerve, artery and vein. It is lateral to the supratrochlear foramen, where the supratrochlear nerve, ...
Article

Supraorbital nerve

The supraorbital nerve is the lateral and larger of the two branches of the frontal nerve, a branch of ophthalmic division of the trigeminal nerve. As it courses through the superior aspect of the extraconal space of the orbit it exits the orbit through the supraorbital notch to supply the conju...
Article

Supraorbital ridge

The supraorbital ridge, also known as the supraorbital margin or superciliary arch is the superior margin of the bony orbit. Part of the frontal bone, the supraorbital ridge contains the supraorbital foramen (or notch). The corrugator supercilii muscles arise from the medial end of the supraorbi...
Article

Supraorbital vein

The supraorbital vein drains the anterior part of the scalp and forehead 1. The supraorbital vein drains into the superior ophthalmic vein and the angular vein at the root of the nose 2. Gross anatomy The supraorbital vein drains the forehead venous plexus and descends along with the supraorbi...
Article

Suprascapular artery

The suprascapular artery is 1 of the 4 branches of the thyrocervical trunk (off the first part of the subclavian artery). It traverses inferiorly and laterally in the lower anterior neck superficial to the anterior scalene muscle and phrenic nerve before crossing the third part of the subclavia...
Article

Suprascapular vein

The suprascapular vein drains the posterior structures of the scapula including the supraspinatus and infraspinatus muscles. Gross anatomy Course Running adjacent to the suprascapular nerve and artery it passes through the suprascapular notch in a number of configurations: above the transver...
Article

Suprasternal space

The suprasternal space (of Burns) is a space of the inferior neck. Gross anatomy Inferior to the hyoid bone, the superficial or investing layer of the deep cervical fascia divides into anterior and posterior leafs to attach to the respective borders of the suprasternal (jugular) notch, forming...
Article

Supratrochlear artery

The supratrochlear artery, also known as the frontal artery, originates from the ophthalmic artery as one of its terminal branches. Gross anatomy After arising from the ophthalmic artery, it pierces the orbital septum and courses in the superior and medial aspect of the orbit, medial to the su...
Article

Supratrochlear foramen (head)

The supratrochlear foramen is the small opening at the medial edge of the superior orbital margin in the frontal bone that transmitts the supratrochlear nerve, artery and vein. When incomplete, it forms a notch. It is variably present, and when absent the neurovascular bundle will simple exit th...
Article

Supratrochlear nerve

The supratrochlear nerve is the medial and smaller of the two branches of the frontal nerve, a branch of ophthalmic division of the trigeminal nerve. As it courses through the superomedial aspect of the extraconal space of the orbit, it passes over the trochlear and exits the orbit under the sup...

Updating… Please wait.

 Unable to process the form. Check for errors and try again.

 Thank you for updating your details.