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Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

1,616 results found
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Tentorial nerve

The tentorial nerve is the first branch of the ophthalmic division of the trigeminal nerve (CN Va) which is the dominate dural nerve supplying most of the supratentorial dura. It specifically supplies the falx, calvarial dura and superior surface of the tentorium.
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Terson syndrome

Terson syndrome refers to vitreous hemorrhage associated with subarachnoid hemorrhage, however, some authors include retinal hemorrhage as well. The syndrome is a poor prognostic marker in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage. Epidemiology Terson syndrome has been reported to occur in 13-50% ...
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Third branchial cleft cyst

Third branchial cleft cysts are a very rare type of branchial cleft cysts. Although they are extremely rare, they remain the second most common congenital lesion of the posterior cervical region after cervical lymphatic malformations or cystic hygromas 3. Pathology Location By definition, a t...
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Thumb sign (epiglottitis)

The thumb sign in epiglottitis is a manifestation of an edematous and enlarged epiglottis which is seen on lateral soft-tissue radiograph of the neck, and it suggests a diagnosis of acute infectious epiglottitis. This is the radiographic corollary of the omega sign 1-3. See also Thumb sign is ...
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Thymic cyst

Thymic cysts are cysts that occur within or arise from the thymus. Epidemiology Thymic cysts are uncommon lesions and are estimated to account for approximately 1-3% of all anterior mediastinal masses 4. They are however reported to be the second most common type of primary mediastinal cyst 7....
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Thyrocervical trunk

The thyrocervical trunk is one of the 3 branches of the first part of the subclavian artery and gives off numerous branches to supply viscera of the neck, the brachial plexus, neck muscles and the scapular anastomosis. The trunk arises lateral to the vertebral artery from the anterosuperior wal...
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Thyroglossal duct

The thyroglossal duct is an epithelium-lined connection between the foramen cecum and the thyroid that develops during the descent of the thyroid. It usually involutes in the 8th-10th week of gestation.  Gross anatomy The thyroglossal duct arises from foramen cecum located at the junction of a...
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Thyroglossal duct cyst

Thyroglossal duct cysts (TGDC) are the most common type of congenital neck cysts and pediatric neck masses. They are typically located in the midline and are the most common midline neck mass in young patients. They can be diagnosed with multiple imaging modalities including ultrasound, CT and M...
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Thyrohyoid muscle

The thyrohyoid muscle is an infrahyoid muscle of the neck that is innervated by the ventral ramus of C1. The primary function of the thyrohyoid muscle is to depress and fix the hyoid bone and larynx though it may also raise the larynx when the hyoid bone is fixed. Summary origin: oblique line ...
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Thyroid acropachy

Thyroid acropachy is an unusual presentation of autoimmune thyroid disease, (~1% of patients with Graves disease). It can occur in hyperthyroid, euthyroid, hypothyroid, or even post-treatment patients. It is almost always associated with thyroid ophthalmopathy.  Epidemiology The majority of pa...
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Thyroid-associated orbitopathy

Thyroid-associated orbitopathy (or thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy) is the most common cause of proptosis in adults and is most frequently associated with Graves disease. On imaging, it is characterized by bilateral and symmetrical enlargement of the extraocular muscle bellies. The typical dis...
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Thyroid cartilage

The thyroid cartilage is the largest of the cartilages of the larynx, with its superior pole sitting at the level of the C4 vertebra. Gross Anatomy The thyroid cartilage consists of bilateral flattened laminae that are fused anteriorly in the median plane to form the laryngeal prominence. Each...
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Thyroidea ima artery

The thyroidea ima artery is an uncommon variant of the blood supply to the inferior aspect of the thyroid gland. It is reported in ~7.5% (range 1.5-12.2%) of individuals and can arise from: brachiocephalic trunk (most common: 1.9-6.0%) right common carotid artery aortic arch internal thoraci...
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Thyroid gland

The thyroid gland is a single midline endocrine organ in the anterior neck responsible for thyroid hormone production which lies in the visceral space completely enveloped by pretracheal fascia (middle-layer of the deep cervical fascia). Gross anatomy The thyroid extends from C5 to T1 and lies...
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Thyroid imaging reporting and data system (TI-RADS)

Thyroid imaging reporting and data system (TI-RADS) refers to any of several risk stratification systems for thyroid lesions, usually based on ultrasound features, with a structure modelled off BI-RADS. The following article describes the initial iterations proposed by individual research groups...
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Thyroid inferno

Thyroid inferno refers to the color Doppler appearance of the thyroid gland in active Graves disease (inclusive of variants such as Marine Lenhart syndrome), and consists of multiple small areas of color flow seen diffusely throughout the gland representing increased vascularity and arteriovenou...
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Thyroid inflammatory conditions

A number of inflammatory conditions can affect the thyroid gland, each commonly described as a thyroiditis (plural: thyroiditides): acute thyroiditis acute suppurative thyroiditis (AST)  autoimmune thyroiditis​ subacute lymphocytic thyroiditis (a.k.a. silent thyroiditis or painless subacute ...
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Thyroid lymphoma

Thyroid lymphoma is rare, accounting for a minority of both thyroid malignancies and lymphoma in general.  The thyroid may be affected primarily or secondary to lymphoma elsewhere. This article is concerned with primary thyroid lymphoma.  Epidemiology Thyroid lymphoma accounts for <5% of thyr...
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Thyroid malignancies

Thyroid malignancies are most commonly primary thyroid cancers but can rarely be metastatic deposits. Pathology Classification Thyroid malignancies can be categorized into the following key subtypes: primary thyroid cancers ​papillary thyroid carcinoma: 60-80% of carcinomas follicular thyr...
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Thyroid mass (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for thyroidal mass differential diagnosis is: CATCH Mnemonic C: carcinoma A: adenoma  T: thyroiditis C: colloid cyst H: hyperplasia (parathyroid gland)
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Thyroid scan (I-123)

Thyroid scan (thyroid scintigraphy) is a nuclear medicine examination used to evaluate thyroid tissue.  Clinical indications functional status of a thyroid nodule thyrotoxicosis: differential diagnosis thyroid cancer whole body scan for distant metastases estimation of local residual thyro...
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Thyroid scan (Tc-99m)

Tc-99m pertechnetate thyroid scan is a functional nuclear medicine study used to assess the thyroid gland. Technique patient preparation fast for 4 hours prior to exam radiopharmaceutical Tc-99m pertechnetate dose and route of administration 111-185 MBq (3-5 mCi) IV  time of imaging 20 ...
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Thyroseq

Thyroseq® is an expanded gene classifier test designed for further evaluation of indeterminate thyroid nodules on fine needle aspiration (FNA). In particular, it is designed to further evaluate nodules that show atypia of undetermined significance/follicular lesion of undetermined significance (...
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Thyrotoxicosis

Thyrotoxicosis is a hypermetabolic clinical syndrome caused by a pathological excess of circulating free T4 (thyroxine) and/or free T3 (tri-iodothyronine). Terminology Although commonly done, thyrotoxicosis should not be confused with, nor is it synonymous with hyperthyroidism. The latter term...
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Tinnitus

Tinnitus refers to a sensation of sound in one or both ears and is usually experienced as a high-pitched ringing, buzzing or whistling noise. This sound occurs without an external stimulus. Broadly tinnitus is divided into pulsatile and non-pulsatile forms which have distinct etiologies and imag...
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Tobey-Ayer-Queckenstedt sign

Tobey-Ayer-Queckenstedt sign is used in the diagnosis of unilateral and bilateral lateral sinus thrombophlebitis. In cases where the lateral sinus is obstructed on one side, compression of the jugular vein on the intact side causes a rise in CSF pressure, whereas compression of the obstructed si...
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Tolosa-Hunt syndrome

Tolosa-Hunt syndrome (THS) is an idiopathic inflammatory condition that involves the cavernous sinus and orbital apex and is essentially a clinical diagnosis of exclusion. Clinical presentation Clinically it refers to the presence of a painful ophthalmoplegia secondary to surrounding cavernous...
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Tongue

The tongue is a complex, principally muscular, structure that extends from the oral cavity to the oropharynx. It has important roles in speech, swallowing and taste.  Gross anatomy The tongue has a tip, dorsum, inferior surface and root. The tongue is made of a midline lingual septum and hyogl...
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Tonsillitis

Tonsillitis refers to inflammation of any of the tonsils and is one of the most common head and neck infections in adolescents and young adults. Clinical presentation Patients may present with a variety of symptoms including painful throat (may be unilateral), dysphagia, fevers, tender cervica...
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Tonsillolith

Tonsilloliths, also known as tonsil (or tonsillar) stones or calculi, are clusters of calcifications that form in enlarged tonsillar crypts, within the tonsils or around them. Although they are uncommon and benign, they may be symptomatic causing pain, halitosis, foul taste, irritable cough, dys...
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Tornwaldt cyst

Tornwaldt cyst (also spelled as a Thornwaldt cyst or Thornwald cyst) is a common incidental benign midline nasopharyngeal mucosal cyst. Epidemiology The lesion is developmental and usually asymptomatic. In most cases it is found incidentally; as such, age of diagnosis typically represents age ...
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Torticollis

Torticollis (wryneck) is a clinical finding of head tilt with or without rotational spinal malalignment. It is not a diagnosis in itself and there are a wide range of underlying conditions. It is most common in the pediatric age group.  Pathology Torticollis can be acute (<1 week) or chronic (...
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Torus ethmoidalis

Torus ethmoidalis, also known as torus lateralis, is the term given when there is no air cell in the ethmoid bulla (failure of pneumatization). It is encountered in 8% of subjects.
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Torus tubarius

Torus tubarius (plural: tori tubarii) or cushion of the auditory canal is a mucosal elevation in the lateral aspect of the nasopharynx, formed by the underlying pharyngeal end of the cartilaginous portion of the Eustachian tube. The opening of the Eustachian tube is anterior to the torus tobariu...
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Trachea

The trachea, known colloquially as the windpipe, connects the upper respiratory tract to the lungs via the tracheobronchial tree, enabling gas exchange. Gross anatomy The trachea is a tube-shaped structure consisting of 15-to-20 D-shaped cartilage rings anterolaterally bridged by annular ligam...
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Transsphenoidal hypophysectomy

Transsphenoidal hypophysectomy is a commonly used surgical approach for pituitary region masses, with many significant advantages over open craniotomy.  History The transsphenoidal approach was first described in 1907 by Schloffer, modified by Halstead and subsequently popularized by Harvey Cu...
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Transverse cervical artery

The transverse cervical artery, also known as the cervicodorsal trunk, is 1 of the 4 branches of the thyrocervical trunk (off the first part of the subclavian artery). It is a short artery that bifurcates into the superficial and deep branches, both which course superficially and laterally acro...
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Transverse cervical nerve

The transverse cervical nerve, also known as the superficial cervical nerve, cutaneous cervical nerve or anterior cutaneous cervical nerve of the neck, is a cutaneous branch of the cervical plexus that innervates the skin covering the anterior cervical region. Gross anatomy Origin The transve...
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Transverse muscle of the tongue

The transverse muscle of the tongue is one of the four intrinsic muscles of the tongue which alters the shape of the tongue mass, being entirely confined to the tongue without an extraglossal attachment (cf. extrinsic muscles of the tongue). Gross anatomy The muscles fibers attach proximally t...
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Transverse temporal bone fractures

Transverse temporal bone fractures are oriented perpendicular to the long axis of the petrous temporal bone, with the line of force running roughly anterior to posterior. Although more current classifications of the extent of temporal bone fractures focus on the integrity of the otic capsule rat...
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Trapdoor fracture

A trapdoor fracture is a fracture of the orbital floor where the inferiorly displaced blowout fracture recoils back to its original position and potentially entraps contents of the orbit. It is seen in children and young adults due to the elasticity of the orbital floor. These fractures may be s...
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Trapezius muscle

The trapezius muscle is a large, broad superficial muscle of the posterior neck and back. It gains its name from its diamond shape. Along with sternocleidomastoid muscle, it is invested by the superficial layer of the deep cervical fascia, which splits around it.  Summary origin: superior nuch...
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Treacher Collins syndrome

Treacher Collins syndrome, also known as mandibulofacial dysostosis, is an autosomal dominant genetic abnormality and results from bilateral malformations of 1st and 2nd branchial arches.  Epidemiology The incidence is estimated at approximately 1 in 50,000 live births, with 60% of cases being...
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Triangles of the neck

The triangles of the neck are surgically focused divisions of the neck, first described from early dissection-based anatomical studies which predated cross-sectional anatomical description based on cross-sectional imaging (see deep spaces of the neck). The neck can be divided into anterior and ...
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Trigeminal ganglion

The trigeminal ganglion, also known as the Gasser, Gasserian or semilunar ganglion, is the large crescent-shaped sensoryganglion of the trigeminal nerve located in the trigeminal cave (Meckel cave) surrounded by cerebrospinal fluid. The ganglion contains the cell bodies of the sensory root of t...
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Trigeminal nerve

The trigeminal nerve is the fifth cranial nerve and its primary role is relaying sensory information from the face and head, although it does provide motor control to the muscles of mastication. It is both large and complicated and has multiple brainstem nuclei (sensory and motor) as well as man...
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Trigeminal nerve branches (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for remembering the names of the skull foramina that the division of the trigeminal nerve (CN V) pass through is: Standing Room Only Mnemonic standing: superior orbital fissure (ophthalmic division of trigeminal nerve) room: foramen rotundum (maxillary division of trigeminal nerve...
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Trigeminal neuralgia

Trigeminal neuralgia or tic douloureux corresponds to a clinical manifestation of sudden severe paroxysms of excruciating pain on one side of the face which usually lasts a few seconds to a few minutes, involving one or more branches of the trigeminal nerve (CN V). Vascular compression is the mo...
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Trochlear apparatus calcification

Trochlear apparatus calcification in the orbit is a common incidental finding on CT of the head, found in ~12.5% of patients. Some studies have suggested an with diabetes mellitus in younger patients 3. An association has aslo been demonstrated with autoimmune disease and elevated ALP 1,2. 
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Trousseau sign

Trousseau sign of latent tetany (not to be confused with Trousseau syndrome) is highly specific for hypocalcemia 1. It may be elicited by placing a blood pressure cuff over the upper arm and inflating to above systolic pressure for 2-3 minutes. This reduces arterial supply to the forearm. The is...
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True vocal cords

The true vocal cords are the thickened, free edge of the cricovocal membrane, the cricovocal ligament, lined by mucous membrane 1. Together they form part of the glottis, the V-shaped aperture through which air passes. Their primary role is in phonation where vibration of the adducted vocal cord...
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Trumpeted internal acoustic meatus sign

A trumpeted internal acoustic meatus (IAM) is an indirect sign of a vestibular schwannoma and is useful in helping to differentiate between one and other cerebellopontine angle entities, especially from a meningioma which typically does not extend into the meatus and is more often associated wit...
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Tuberculous cervical lymphadenitis

Tuberculous cervical lymphadenitis, also known as scrofula and king's evil, continues to be seen in endemic areas and in the industrialised world particularly among the immunocompromised. Epidemiology Tuberculous cervical lymphadenitis is the most common manifestation of extrapulmonary tubercu...
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Tuberculous otomastoiditis

Tuberculous otomastoiditis is an uncommon form of acute otomastoiditis that occurs secondary to tuberculosis infection, although its frequency is increasing as a result of greater population of immunocompromised patients. Clinical presentation Classically it is described as presenting with pa...
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Tuberculum sellae

The tuberculum sellae is the ridged process of the sphenoid bone which forms the anterior wall of the sella turcica. Gross anatomy Relations The tuberculum sellae forms the anterior wall of the sella turcica, which houses the pituitary gland. It is an elongated ridge located immediately poste...
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Tullio phenomenon

The Tullio phenomenon describes the precipitation of vertigo and nystagmus by a loud noise. Pathology Etiology The tympanic membrane and ossicular chain must be intact with a mobile footplate. It may be seen in several situations: Ménière disease superior semicircular canal dehiscence syndr...
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Tumors of the base of skull (differential diagnosis)

Tumors of the base of skull are histologically varied and are often challenging to preoperatively diagnose and treat. Exactly which tumors are considered to be tumors of the base of skull is debatable. The broadest definition would include any tumor that involves or abuts the base of skull, thu...
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Tunica (disambiguation)

Tunica is a word used in anatomy to refer to a type of covering.  tunica adventitia (also known as tunica externa) tunica albuginea tunica albuginea (clitoris) tunica albuginea (ovary) tunica albuginea (penis) tunica albuginea (testis) tunica intima tunica media tunica vaginalis tunica...
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Turbinectomy

A turbinectomy is a surgical procedure for partial or total removal of the - usually inferior - nasal concha, mainly to reduce the nasal airflow resistance. Indications A turbinectomy is usually performed to relieve chronic nasal obstruction secondary to: inferior turbinate hypertrophy aller...
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Tympanic annulus

The tympanic annulus is the thickened edge of the pars tensa of the tympanic membrane, anchoring it in the tympanic sulcus 3. Gross anatomy The tympanic annulus is formed by a fibrocartilaginous thickening of the edge of the pars tensa and has a horseshoe-shaped configuration. It is deficient ...
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Tympanic membrane

The tympanic membrane is a thin membrane that separates the external ear from the middle ear. It acts to transmit sound waves from air in the external auditory canal (EAC) to the ossicles of the middle ear. Gross anatomy The tympanic membrane is shaped like a flat cone pointing into the middle...
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Tympanic membrane retraction

Tympanic membrane retraction usually occurs when a portion of the tympanic membrane becomes weakened and is pulled inwards by the negative pressure within the middle ear.  Pathology As the tympanic membrane is pulled inwards (medially), it can become draped over the ossicles, resulting in a va...
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Tympanic part of temporal bone

The tympanic part of the temporal bone is situated inferiorly to the squamous part and anteriorly to the mastoid part. The tympanic part surrounds the external auditory meatus, forming the anterior wall, floor and some of the posterior wall of the bony external acoustic meatus. The lateral bord...
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Tympanomastoid fissure

The tympanomastoid fissure is one of the intrinsic fissures of the temporal bone, located parallel and posterior to the bony external auditory canal, dividing the tympanic part of the temporal bone and mastoid process. Its radiological significance is as a fracture mimic (pseudofracture) 1. Its ...
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Tympanosquamous fissure

The tympanosquamous fissure separates the tympanic part of the temporal bone from the squamous part. It is parallel and anterior to the bony external auditory canal and divides medially into the petrotympanic fissure and petrosquamous fissure.
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Ultrasound-guided FNA of the thyroid

Ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (FNA) of the thyroid refers to a minimally invasive procedure where in which tissue samples are collected from a thyroid nodule or other suspicious thyroid lesion. It is usually done on a outpatient basis and generally complications are very minimal. Pro...
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Uncinate process

The uncinate process of the ethmoid bone is a thin hook-like osseous structure of the wall of the lateral nasal cavity. Gross anatomy Together with the ethmoid bulla, it forms the boundaries of the hiatus semilunaris and ethmoid infundibulum. The course of the free edge of the uncinate proces...
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Unknown primary tumors of the head and neck (staging)

Unknown primary tumors of the head and neck staging refers to TNM staging of metastatic carcinomas in the head and neck region without an identifiable primary tumor. The typical scenario involves squamous cell carcinoma present in a cervical lymph node, no obvious primary source on clinical exam...
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Utricle (disambiguation)

The utricle may refer to: utricle of the inner ear utricle of the prostatic urethra
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Utricle (ear)

The utricle is a small membranous sac (part of the membranous labyrinth) and paired with the saccule lies within the vestibule of the inner ear. It has an important role in orientation and static balance, particularly in horizontal tilt. Gross anatomy The vestibule is located within the bony l...
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Uvea

The uvea (plural: uveas), also called the uveal layer or vascular tunic, is the middle of the three layers that make up the eye. It is the pigmented layer and its main function is of nutrition and gas exchange. It sits between the retina (innermost layer) and sclera.  It is traditionally split ...
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Vagal nerve stimulator

Vagal nerve stimulators are an implantable device used to treat a number of conditions although the mechanism of action has not been completely elucidated.  Indications Vagal nerve stimulators are indicated in patients with 1: intractable epilepsy Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (off-label) treatme...
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Vallecula

The epiglottic valleculae are paired depressions in the oropharynx located anterior to the epiglottis and posterior to the base of tongue.  They are located between the lateral glossoepiglottic folds and the median glossoepiglottic fold. Etymology Vallecula is Latin for "small valley", a combi...
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Valsalva maneuver

The Valsalva maneuver is the forced expiration of air against a closed airway, resulting in increased intra-abdominal, intrathoracic and pharyngeal pressure. It can be performed against a closed glottis or by one closing the mouth and pinching the nose while forcibly exhaling. It is commonly us...
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Van der Woude syndrome

van der Woude syndrome (VWS) is characterized by the association of congenital lower lip fistulae/pits with cleft lip and/or palate. It is one of the most common clefting syndromes in humans 1 and affected individuals have a high prevalence of hypodontia. Pathology Genetics It carries an aut...
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Ventral cord syndrome

Ventral cord syndrome (also known as anterior cord syndrome) is one of the incomplete cord syndromes and affects the anterior parts of the cord resulting in a pattern of neurological dysfunction dominated by motor paralysis and loss of pain, temperature and autonomic function. Anterior spinal ar...
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Vernet syndrome

Vernet syndrome, also known as jugular foramen syndrome, is a constellation of cranial nerve palsies due to compression from a jugular foramen lesion, such as a glomus jugulare tumor, schwannoma, or metastasis 2. Clinical presentation It consists of motor paralysis of: glossopharyngeal nerve ...
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Vertebral artery

The vertebral arteries (VA) are paired arteries, each arising from the respective subclavian artery and ascending in the neck to supply the posterior fossa and occipital lobes, as well as provide segmental vertebral and spinal column blood supply. Summary origin: branches off the 1st part of t...
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Vertebral artery dissection

Vertebral artery dissection, like arterial dissection elsewhere, is a result of blood entering the media through a tear in the intima. It is potentially lethal and can be difficult to diagnose clinically and radiologically. Epidemiology Vertebral artery dissections have an incidence of 1-5 per...
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Vertebral artery ectasia

Vertebral artery ectasia refers to an abnormal dilatation of the vertebral artery. It is also known as a dolichoarterial loop (of Danziger). Clinical presentation Symptoms occur due to radicular compression or pathologic fracture (rare) from extensive bone erosion. Generally, patients present ...
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Vertebral artery hypoplasia

Vertebral artery hypoplasia is a congenital anatomical variation characterized by underdevelopment of the vertebral artery. Epidemiology The prevalence of hypoplastic vertebral arteries is reported to be 2-6% from autopsy and angiograms 1. Clinical presentation These are an asymptomatic anat...
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Vertebrobasilar insufficiency

Vertebrobasilar insufficiency is a clinical syndrome caused by transient ischemia of the vertebrobasilar circulation, formed by the vertebral and basilar arteries, which forms the posterior circulation of the brain 1.  Epidemiology Vertebrobasilar insufficiency is largely caused by atheroscler...
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Vertex

The vertex is the midline bony landmark at the most superior part of the calvaria in the standard anatomical position, near the midpoint of the sagittal suture (i.e. between the bregma and lambda). It is one of the skull landmarks, craniometric points for radiological or anthropological skull m...
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Vertical muscle of the tongue

The vertical muscle of the tongue is one of the four intrinsic muscles of the tongue which alters the shape of the tongue mass, being entirely confined to the tongue without an extraglossal attachment (cf. extrinsic muscles of the tongue). Gross anatomy The muscles fibers attach proximally to ...
Article

Vestibular aqueduct

The vestibular aqueduct is a structure of the inner ear being part of the osseous labyrinth. It contains the endolymphatic duct and sac. It normally has a diameter of approximately 1.5 mm (similar to the posterior semicircular canal) and runs from the vestibule in a transverse direction to the l...
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Vestibular line of Lapayowker

The vestibular line of Lapayowker refers to a vertical line passing down the most lateral aspect of vestibular apparatus. The petrous part of internal carotid artery lies medial to this line but lies lateral to it in the case of an aberrant internal carotid artery which is the characteristic ang...
Article

Vestibular schwannoma

Vestibular schwannomas, also known as acoustic neuromas, are relatively common tumors that arise from the vestibulocochlear nerve (CN VIII) and represent ~80% of cerebellopontine angle (CPA) masses. Bilateral vestibular schwannomas are strongly suggestive of neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2). On i...
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Vestibule (disambiguation)

A vestibule is an anatomical term and refers to a small cavity at the proximal end of a tube. It may refer to: vestibule (aorta) vestibule (ear) vestibule (larynx) vestibule (mouth) vestibule (nose) vestibule (esophagus) vestibule (vulva) History and etymology Vestibule derives ultimate...
Article

Vestibule (ear)

The vestibule is an approximately 4 mm central chamber of the bony labyrinth. It is dominated by depressions housing parts of the membranous labyrinth: utricle (elliptical recess) saccule (spherical recess) basal end of the cochlear duct (cochlear recess) It is located medial to the tympanic...
Article

Vestibulocochlear nerve

The vestibulocochlear nerve is the eighth cranial nerve and has two roles: innervation to the cochlea for hearing innervation to the vestibule for acceleration and balance senses Gross anatomy It emerges between the pons and the medulla, lateral to the facial nerve and nervus intermedius, pa...
Article

Videofluoroscopic swallow study

Videofluoroscopic swallow studies (also often called modified barium swallow studies) are a variation on traditional barium swallow studies. Although typical barium swallow studies / esophagrams evaluate the pharynx, the goal in these studies is to even more closely evaluate the oral cavity, pha...
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Vidian artery

There are two arteries passing through Vidian canal from the pterygopalatine fossa to the petrous portion of the ICA. One is a branch of the internal maxillary artery (itself a branch of the ECA) and the other is from the C2 segment of the ICA. It therefore forms one of the ICA to ECA anastamoses.
Article

Vidian nerve

Vidian nerve, also known as the nerve of the pterygoid canal or nerve of the Vidian canal, is so named because of the canal in which is travels: the Vidian canal. It is formed by the confluence of two nerves: greater superfical petrosal nerve (from the geniculate ganglion of the facial nerve) ...

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