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Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

1,701 results found
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Thyroid malignancies

Thyroid malignancies are most commonly primary thyroid cancers but can rarely be metastatic deposits. Pathology Classification Thyroid malignancies can be categorized into the following key subtypes: primary thyroid cancers ​papillary thyroid carcinoma: 60-80% of carcinomas follicular thyr...
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Thyroid mass (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for thyroidal mass differential diagnosis is: CATCH Mnemonic C: carcinoma A: adenoma T: thyroiditis C: colloid cyst H: hyperplasia (parathyroid gland)
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Thyroid nodule

Thyroid nodules are any discrete lesion that can be delineated on imaging studies from the adjacent thyroid parenchyma. They can represent a range of benign or malignant conditions. Epidemiology They are more common in females (4:1 F: M) and have an increasing prevalence with increasing age an...
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Thyroid scan (I-123)

Thyroid scan (thyroid scintigraphy) is a nuclear medicine examination used to evaluate thyroid tissue.  Clinical indications functional status of a thyroid nodule thyrotoxicosis: differential diagnosis thyroid cancer whole body scan for distant metastases estimation of local residual thyro...
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Thyroid scan (Tc-99m)

Tc-99m pertechnetate thyroid scan is a functional nuclear medicine study used to assess the thyroid gland. The uptake of the pertechnetate anion - similar in chemical-physical characteristics to the iodide ion - in the thyroid parenchyma is mediated by the NIS (Sodium-Iodide Symporter). However,...
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Thyroseq

Thyroseq® is an expanded gene classifier test designed for further evaluation of indeterminate thyroid nodules on fine needle aspiration (FNA). In particular, it is designed to further evaluate nodules that show atypia of undetermined significance/follicular lesion of undetermined significance (...
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Thyrotoxicosis

Thyrotoxicosis is a hypermetabolic clinical syndrome caused by a pathological excess of circulating free T4 (thyroxine) and/or free T3 (tri-iodothyronine). Terminology Although commonly done, thyrotoxicosis should not be confused with, nor is it synonymous with hyperthyroidism. The latter term...
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Tinnitus

Tinnitus refers to a sensation of sound in one or both ears and is usually experienced as a high-pitched ringing, buzzing or whistling noise. This sound occurs without an external stimulus. Broadly tinnitus is divided into pulsatile and non-pulsatile forms which have distinct etiologies and imag...
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Tobey-Ayer-Queckenstedt sign

Tobey-Ayer-Queckenstedt sign is used in the diagnosis of unilateral and bilateral lateral sinus thrombophlebitis. In cases where the lateral sinus is obstructed on one side, compression of the jugular vein on the intact side causes a rise in CSF pressure, whereas compression of the obstructed si...
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Tolosa-Hunt syndrome

Tolosa-Hunt syndrome (THS) is an idiopathic inflammatory condition that involves the cavernous sinus and orbital apex and is essentially a clinical diagnosis of exclusion. Epidemiology The estimated incidence of Tolosa-Hunt syndrome is 1 per 1,000,000 person years with an average age of onset ...
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Tongue

The tongue is a complex, principally muscular, structure that extends from the oral cavity to the oropharynx. It has important roles in speech, swallowing and taste.  Gross anatomy The tongue has a tip, dorsum, inferior surface and root. The tongue is made of a midline lingual septum and hyogl...
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Tonsillitis

Tonsillitis refers to inflammation of any of the tonsils and is one of the most common head and neck infections in adolescents and young adults. Clinical presentation Patients may present with a variety of symptoms including painful throat (may be unilateral), dysphagia, fevers, tender cervica...
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Tonsillolith

Tonsilloliths, also known as tonsil (or tonsillar) stones or calculi, are clusters of calcifications that form in enlarged tonsillar crypts, within the tonsils or around them. Although they are uncommon and benign, they may be symptomatic causing pain, halitosis, foul taste, irritable cough, dys...
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Tornwaldt cyst

Tornwaldt cyst (also spelled as a Thornwaldt cyst or Thornwald cyst) is a common incidental benign midline nasopharyngeal mucosal cyst. Epidemiology The lesion is developmental and usually asymptomatic. In most cases it is found incidentally; as such, age of diagnosis typically represents age ...
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Torticollis

Torticollis (wryneck) is a clinical finding of head tilt with or without rotational spinal malalignment. It is not a diagnosis in itself and there are a wide range of underlying conditions. It is most common in the pediatric age group.  Pathology Torticollis can be acute (<1 week) or chronic (...
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Torus ethmoidalis

Torus ethmoidalis, also known as torus lateralis, is the term given when there is no air cell in the ethmoid bulla (failure of pneumatization). It is encountered in 8% of subjects.
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Torus tubarius

Torus tubarius (plural: tori tubarii) or cushion of the auditory canal is a mucosal elevation in the lateral aspect of the nasopharynx, formed by the underlying pharyngeal end of the cartilaginous portion of the Eustachian tube. The opening of the Eustachian tube is anterior to the torus tobariu...
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Trachea

The trachea, known colloquially as the windpipe, connects the upper respiratory tract to the lungs via the tracheobronchial tree, enabling gas exchange. Gross anatomy The trachea is a tube-shaped structure consisting of 15-to-20 D-shaped cartilage rings anterolaterally bridged by annular ligam...
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Transsphenoidal hypophysectomy

Transsphenoidal hypophysectomy is a commonly used surgical approach for pituitary region masses, with many significant advantages over open craniotomy.  History The transsphenoidal approach was first described in 1907 by Schloffer, modified by Halstead and subsequently popularized by Harvey Cu...
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Transverse cervical artery

The transverse cervical artery, also known as the cervicodorsal trunk, is 1 of the 4 branches of the thyrocervical trunk (off the first part of the subclavian artery). It is a short artery that bifurcates into the superficial and deep branches, both which course superficially and laterally acro...
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Transverse cervical nerve

The transverse cervical nerve, also known as the superficial cervical nerve, cutaneous cervical nerve or anterior cutaneous cervical nerve of the neck, is a cutaneous branch of the cervical plexus that innervates the skin covering the anterior cervical region. Gross anatomy Origin The transve...
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Transverse muscle of the tongue

The transverse muscle of the tongue is one of the four intrinsic muscles of the tongue which alters the shape of the tongue mass, being entirely confined to the tongue without an extraglossal attachment (cf. extrinsic muscles of the tongue). Gross anatomy The muscles fibers attach proximally t...
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Transverse temporal bone fractures

Transverse temporal bone fractures are oriented perpendicular to the long axis of the petrous temporal bone, with the line of force running roughly anterior to posterior. Although more current classifications of the extent of temporal bone fractures focus on the integrity of the otic capsule rat...
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Trapdoor fracture

A trapdoor fracture is a fracture of the orbital floor where the inferiorly displaced blowout fracture recoils back to its original position and potentially entraps contents of the orbit. It is seen in children and young adults due to the elasticity of the orbital floor. These fractures may be s...
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Trapezius muscle

The trapezius muscle is a large, broad superficial muscle of the posterior neck and back. It gains its name from its diamond shape. Along with sternocleidomastoid muscle, it is invested by the superficial layer of the deep cervical fascia, which splits around it.  Summary origin: superior nuch...
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Treacher Collins syndrome

Treacher Collins syndrome, also known as mandibulofacial dysostosis, is an autosomal dominant genetic abnormality and results from bilateral malformations of first and second branchial arches (see branchial apparatus). Epidemiology The incidence is estimated at approximately 1 in 50,000 live b...
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Triangles of the neck

The triangles of the neck are surgically focused divisions of the neck, first described from early dissection-based anatomical studies which predated cross-sectional anatomical description based on cross-sectional imaging (see deep spaces of the neck). The neck can be divided into anterior and ...
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Trigeminal ganglion

The trigeminal ganglion, also known as the Gasser, Gasserian or semilunar ganglion, is the large crescent-shaped sensory ganglion of the trigeminal nerve located in the trigeminal cave (Meckel cave) surrounded by cerebrospinal fluid. The ganglion contains the cell bodies of the sensory root of ...
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Trigeminal nerve

The trigeminal nerve is the fifth cranial nerve and its primary role is relaying sensory information from the face and head, although it does provide motor control to the muscles of mastication. It is both large and complicated and has multiple brainstem nuclei (sensory and motor) as well as man...
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Trigeminal nerve branches (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for remembering the names of the skull foramina that the division of the trigeminal nerve (CN V) pass through is: Standing Room Only Mnemonic S: superior orbital fissure (ophthalmic division of trigeminal nerve) R: foramen rotundum (maxillary division of trigeminal nerve) O: fora...
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Trigeminal neuralgia

Trigeminal neuralgia or tic douloureux corresponds to a clinical manifestation of sudden severe paroxysms of excruciating pain on one side of the face which usually lasts a few seconds to a few minutes, involving one or more branches of the trigeminal nerve (CN V). Vascular compression is the mo...
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Trochlear apparatus calcification

Trochlear apparatus calcification in the orbit is a common incidental finding on CT of the head, found in ~12.5% of patients. Some studies have suggested an with diabetes mellitus in younger patients 3. An association has also been demonstrated with autoimmune disease and elevated ALP 1,2. 
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Trousseau sign

Trousseau sign of latent tetany (not to be confused with Trousseau syndrome) is highly specific for hypocalcemia 1. It may be elicited by placing a blood pressure cuff over the upper arm and inflating to above systolic pressure for 2-3 minutes. This reduces arterial supply to the forearm. The is...
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True vocal cords

The true vocal cords are the thickened, free edge of the cricovocal membrane, the cricovocal ligament, lined by mucous membrane 1. Together they form part of the glottis, the V-shaped aperture through which air passes. Their primary role is in phonation where vibration of the adducted vocal cord...
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Trumpeted internal acoustic meatus sign

A trumpeted internal acoustic meatus (IAM) is an indirect sign of a vestibular schwannoma and is useful in helping to differentiate between one and other cerebellopontine angle entities, especially from a meningioma which typically does not extend into the meatus and is more often associated wit...
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Tuberculous cervical lymphadenitis

Tuberculous cervical lymphadenitis, also known as scrofula and king's evil, continues to be seen in endemic areas and in the industrialised world particularly among the immunocompromised. Epidemiology Tuberculous cervical lymphadenitis is the most common manifestation of extrapulmonary tubercu...
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Tuberculous otomastoiditis

Tuberculous otomastoiditis is an uncommon form of acute otomastoiditis that occurs secondary to tuberculosis infection, although its frequency is increasing as a result of greater population of immunocompromised patients. Clinical presentation Classically it is described as presenting with pa...
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Tuberculum sellae

The tuberculum sellae is the ridged process of the sphenoid bone which forms the anterior wall of the sella turcica. Gross anatomy Relations The tuberculum sellae forms the anterior wall of the sella turcica, which houses the pituitary gland. It is an elongated ridge located immediately poste...
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Tullio phenomenon

The Tullio phenomenon describes the precipitation of vertigo and nystagmus by a loud noise. Pathology Etiology The tympanic membrane and ossicular chain must be intact with a mobile footplate. It may be seen in several situations: Ménière disease superior semicircular canal dehiscence syndr...
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Tumors of the base of skull (differential diagnosis)

Tumors of the base of skull are histologically varied and are often challenging to preoperatively diagnose and treat. Exactly which tumors are considered to be tumors of the base of skull is debatable. The broadest definition would include any tumor that involves or abuts the base of skull, thu...
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Tunica (disambiguation)

Tunica is a word used in anatomy to refer to a type of covering.  tunica adventitia (also known as tunica externa) tunica albuginea tunica albuginea (clitoris) tunica albuginea (ovary) tunica albuginea (penis) tunica albuginea (testis) tunica intima tunica media tunica vaginalis tunica...
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Turbinectomy

A turbinectomy is a surgical procedure for partial or total removal of the - usually inferior - nasal concha, mainly to reduce the nasal airflow resistance. Indications A turbinectomy is usually performed to relieve chronic nasal obstruction secondary to: inferior turbinate hypertrophy aller...
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Tympanic annulus

The tympanic annulus is the thickened edge of the pars tensa of the tympanic membrane, anchoring it in the tympanic sulcus 3. Gross anatomy The tympanic annulus is formed by a fibrocartilaginous thickening of the edge of the pars tensa and has a horseshoe-shaped configuration. It is deficient ...
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Tympanic membrane

The tympanic membrane is a thin membrane that separates the external ear from the middle ear. It acts to transmit sound waves from air in the external auditory canal (EAC) to the ossicles of the middle ear. Gross anatomy The tympanic membrane is shaped like a flat cone pointing into the middle...
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Tympanic membrane retraction

Tympanic membrane retraction usually occurs when a portion of the tympanic membrane becomes weakened and is pulled inwards by the negative pressure within the middle ear.  Pathology As the tympanic membrane is pulled inwards (medially), it can become draped over the ossicles, resulting in a va...
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Tympanic part of temporal bone

The tympanic part of the temporal bone is situated inferiorly to the squamous part and anteriorly to the mastoid part. The tympanic part surrounds the external auditory meatus, forming the anterior wall, floor and some of the posterior wall of the bony external acoustic meatus. The lateral bord...
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Tympanomastoid fissure

The tympanomastoid fissure is one of the intrinsic fissures of the temporal bone, located parallel and posterior to the bony external auditory canal, dividing the tympanic part of the temporal bone and mastoid process. Its radiological significance is as a fracture mimic (pseudofracture) 1. Its ...
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Tympanosquamous fissure

The tympanosquamous fissure separates the tympanic part of the temporal bone from the squamous part. It is parallel and anterior to the bony external auditory canal and divides medially into the petrotympanic fissure and petrosquamous fissure.
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Ultrasound-guided FNA of the thyroid

Ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (FNA) of the thyroid refers to a minimally invasive procedure where in which tissue samples are collected from a thyroid nodule or other suspicious thyroid lesion. It is usually done on a outpatient basis and generally complications are very minimal. Pro...
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Uncinate process

The uncinate process of the ethmoid bone is a thin hook-like osseous structure of the wall of the lateral nasal cavity. Gross anatomy Together with the ethmoid bulla, it forms the boundaries of the hiatus semilunaris and ethmoid infundibulum. The course of the free edge of the uncinate proces...
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Undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma of the head and neck

Undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma, formerly known as malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH), is commonly recognized as an aggressive sarcoma with poor outcomes 1.  Epidemiology Most patients are between 50 and 70 years of age, and men are affected 2–3 times as commonly as women 1-3. Clinical...
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Unknown primary tumors of the head and neck (staging)

Unknown primary tumors of the head and neck staging refers to TNM staging of metastatic carcinomas in the head and neck region without an identifiable primary tumor. The typical scenario involves squamous cell carcinoma present in a cervical lymph node, no obvious primary source on clinical exam...
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Utricle (disambiguation)

The utricle may refer to: utricle of the inner ear utricle of the prostatic urethra
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Utricle (ear)

The utricle is a small membranous sac (part of the membranous labyrinth) and paired with the saccule lies within the vestibule of the inner ear. It has an important role in orientation and static balance, particularly in horizontal tilt. Gross anatomy The vestibule is located within the bony l...
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Uvea

The uvea (plural: uveas), also called the uveal layer or vascular tunic, is the middle of the three layers that make up the eye. It is the pigmented layer and its main function is of nutrition and gas exchange. It sits between the retina (innermost layer) and sclera.  It is traditionally split ...
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Vagal nerve stimulator

Vagal nerve stimulators are an implantable device used to treat a number of conditions although the mechanism of action has not been completely elucidated.  Indications Vagal nerve stimulators are indicated in patients with 1: intractable epilepsy Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (off-label) treatme...
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Vagal schwannoma

Vagal schwannomas are uncommon benign masses that can occur anywhere along the course of the vagus nerve but most commonly occur in the cervical region. Epidemiology Most commonly occurs in the 3rd to 5th decades. No sex predilection 3. Clinical presentation Patients may be asymptomatic. Whe...
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Vallecula

The epiglottic valleculae are paired depressions in the oropharynx located anterior to the epiglottis and posterior to the base of tongue.  They are located between the lateral glossoepiglottic folds and the median glossoepiglottic fold. Etymology Vallecula is Latin for "small valley", a combi...
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Valsalva maneuver

The Valsalva maneuver is the forced expiration of air against a closed airway, resulting in increased intra-abdominal, intrathoracic, and pharyngeal pressure. It can be performed against a closed glottis or by one closing the mouth and pinching the nose while forcibly exhaling. It is commonly u...
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Van der Woude syndrome

van der Woude syndrome (VWS) is characterized by the association of congenital lower lip fistulae/pits with cleft lip and/or palate. It is one of the most common clefting syndromes in humans 1 and affected individuals have a high prevalence of hypodontia. Pathology Genetics It carries an aut...
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Van Wyk Grumbach syndrome

Von Wyk Grumbach syndrome is characterized by chronic hypothyroidism with high levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), delayed bone age, precocious puberty but lacking pubic and axillary hair growth 1.  Epidemiology The acquired form of hypothyroidism is seen in children caused by chronic...
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Venous lake (disambiguation)

The term venous lakes may refer to: cutaneous venous lakes, often occurring on the lower lip 1 osseous venous lakes occurring in the skull 2 placental (venous) lakes 3
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Venous lake (skull)

Venous lakes in the skull are an anatomical variant of enlarged emissary veins within the diploic space. Radiographic features Venous lakes appear as round-to-oval lucencies, often in the inner table, that demonstrate vivid post-contrast enhancement 1. 
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Ventral cord syndrome

Ventral cord syndrome (also known as anterior cord syndrome) is one of the incomplete cord syndromes and affects the anterior parts of the cord resulting in a pattern of neurological dysfunction dominated by motor paralysis and loss of pain, temperature and autonomic function. Anterior spinal ar...
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Vernet syndrome

Vernet syndrome, also known as jugular foramen syndrome, is a constellation of cranial nerve palsies due to compression from a jugular foramen lesion, such as a glomus jugulare tumor, schwannoma, or metastasis 2. Clinical presentation It consists of motor paralysis of: glossopharyngeal nerve ...
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Vertebral artery

The vertebral arteries (VA) are paired arteries, each arising from the respective subclavian artery and ascending in the neck to supply the posterior fossa and occipital lobes, as well as provide segmental vertebral and spinal column blood supply. Summary origin: branches of the 1st part of th...
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Vertebral artery dissection

Vertebral artery dissection, like arterial dissection elsewhere, is a result of blood entering the media through a tear in the intima. It is potentially lethal and can be difficult to diagnose clinically and radiologically. Epidemiology Vertebral artery dissections have an incidence of 1-5 per...
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Vertebral artery ectasia

Vertebral artery ectasia refers to an abnormal dilatation of the vertebral artery. It is also known as a dolichoarterial loop (of Danziger). Clinical presentation Symptoms occur due to radicular compression or pathologic fracture (rare) from extensive bone erosion. Generally, patients present ...
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Vertebral artery hypoplasia

Vertebral artery hypoplasia is a congenital anatomical variation characterized by underdevelopment of the vertebral artery. Epidemiology The prevalence of hypoplastic vertebral arteries is reported to be 2-6% from autopsy and angiograms 1. Clinical presentation These are an asymptomatic anat...
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Vertebrobasilar insufficiency

Vertebrobasilar insufficiency is a clinical syndrome caused by transient ischemia of the vertebrobasilar circulation, formed by the vertebral and basilar arteries, which forms the posterior circulation of the brain 1.  Epidemiology Vertebrobasilar insufficiency is largely caused by atheroscler...
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Vertex

The vertex is the midline bony landmark at the most superior part of the calvaria in the standard anatomical position, near the midpoint of the sagittal suture (i.e. between the bregma and lambda). It is one of the skull landmarks, craniometric points for radiological or anthropological skull m...
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Vertical muscle of the tongue

The vertical muscle of the tongue is one of the four intrinsic muscles of the tongue which alters the shape of the tongue mass, being entirely confined to the tongue without an extraglossal attachment (cf. extrinsic muscles of the tongue). Gross anatomy The muscles fibers attach proximally to ...
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Vestibular aqueduct

The vestibular aqueduct is a structure of the inner ear being part of the osseous labyrinth. It contains the endolymphatic duct and sac. It normally has a diameter of approximately 1.5 mm (similar to the posterior semicircular canal) and runs from the vestibule in a transverse direction to the l...
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Vestibular ganglion

The vestibular or Scarpa's ganglion is the ganglion of the vestibular branch of the vestibulocochlear nerve. It contains the cell bodies of the vestibular nerve as the superior and inferior vestibular branches unite and is located within the nerve as it passes through the lateral aspect of the i...
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Vestibular line of Lapayowker

The vestibular line of Lapayowker refers to a vertical line passing down the most lateral aspect of vestibular apparatus. The petrous part of internal carotid artery lies medial to this line but lies lateral to it in the case of an aberrant internal carotid artery which is the characteristic ang...
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Vestibular schwannoma

Vestibular schwannomas, also known as acoustic neuromas, are relatively common tumors that arise from the vestibulocochlear nerve (CN VIII) and represent ~80% of cerebellopontine angle (CPA) masses. Bilateral vestibular schwannomas are strongly suggestive of neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2). On i...
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Vestibule (disambiguation)

A vestibule is an anatomical term and refers to a small cavity at the proximal end of a tube. It may refer to: vestibule (aorta) vestibule (ear) vestibule (larynx) vestibule (mouth) vestibule (nose) vestibule (esophagus) vestibule (vulva) History and etymology Vestibule derives ultimate...
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Vestibule (ear)

The vestibule is an approximately 4 mm central chamber of the bony labyrinth. It is dominated by depressions housing parts of the membranous labyrinth: utricle (elliptical recess) saccule (spherical recess) basal end of the cochlear duct (cochlear recess) It is located medial to the tympanic...
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Vestibulocochlear nerve

The vestibulocochlear nerve (CN VIII) is the eighth cranial nerve and has two roles: innervation to the cochlea for hearing innervation to the vestibule for acceleration and balance senses Gross anatomy Nuclei There are two special sensory cochlear nuclei and four special sensory vestibular...
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Videofluoroscopic swallow study

Videofluoroscopic swallow studies (also often called modified barium swallow studies) are a variation on traditional barium swallow studies. Although typical barium swallow studies / esophagrams evaluate the pharynx, the goal in these studies is to even more closely evaluate the oral cavity, pha...
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Vidian artery

There are two arteries passing through Vidian canal from the pterygopalatine fossa to the petrous portion of the ICA. One is a branch of the internal maxillary artery (itself a branch of the ECA) and the other is from the C2 segment of the ICA. It therefore forms one of the ICA to ECA anastamoses.
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Vidian nerve

Vidian nerve, also known as the nerve of the pterygoid canal or nerve of the Vidian canal, is so named because of the canal in which it travels: the Vidian canal. It is formed by the confluence of two nerves: greater superfical petrosal nerve (from the geniculate ganglion of the facial nerve) ...
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Visceral space

The visceral space or compartment is a deep compartment of the head and neck that contains the thyroid gland, larynx, trachea, upper esophagus, hypopharynx and, in some definitions, oropharynx and nasopharynx. Terminology Of the deep head and neck compartments, the visceral space has the most ...
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Vitreous body

The vitreous body or vitreous humor is a transparent, avascular gel that occupies ~80% of the globe and helps to maintain the position of the retina and the shape of the globe.  Gross anatomy Situated within the globe between the lens and the optic cup, its anterior surface is indented by the...
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Vitreous hemorrhage

Vitreous hemorrhage refers to bleeding into the vitreous chamber. Epidemiology Vitreous hemorrhage has an incidence of approximately 7 in 100000 1,2.   Clinical presentation The most common clinical presentation is with sudden, painless visual loss to varying degrees of severity 2. Associate...
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Vocal cord paralysis

Vocal cord paralysis/paresis (VCP), also known as vocal fold paralysis/paresis, refers to the impaired mobility of the true vocal cord or fold due to neurologic dysfunction. Clinical presentation Unilateral vocal cord paralysis usually presents with dysphonia (hoarseness), characterized as a b...
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Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada syndrome

Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada syndrome is a multisystem disorder characterized by granulomatous panuveitis with exudative retinal detachments that is often associated with neurologic and cutaneous manifestations. Epidemiology Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada usually affected those of Asian, Middle Eastern, Asian I...
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Vomer

The vomer is one of the facial bones and forms the postero-inferior part of the bony nasal septum. It is unpaired and lies in the midline between the two nasal cavities. It is a thin flat bone that is trapezoidal in shape with two surfaces that are obliquely grooved by the sphenopalatine (nasop...
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Vomerovaginal canal

The vomerovaginal canal is a small paired variably present canal between the alae of the vomer and the vaginal processes of the sphenoid bone body. It is medial to the palatovaginal canal. When present it transmits the sphenopalatine vessels. Practical points Knowledge of the anatomy of vomer...
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Von Hippel-Lindau disease

Von Hippel-Lindau (vHL) disease is characterized by the development of numerous benign and malignant tumors in different organs (at least 40 types 1) due to mutations in the VHL tumor suppressor gene on chromosome 3. Epidemiology The disease is rare with an estimated prevalence of 1:35,000-50,...
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Wackenheims line

Wackenheims line (also known as the clivus canal line or basilar line) is formed by drawing a line along the clivus and extending it inferiorly to the upper cervical canal. Normally the tip of the dens is ventral and tangential to this line. In basilar invagination odontoid process transects th...
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Waldeyer's ring

Waldeyer's ring is a ring of lymphoid tissue located in the nasopharynx and oropharynx at the entrance to the aerodigestive tract. Gross anatomy The structures composing this ring are: palatine tonsils (also called the faucial tonsils) adenoid tonsils (nasopharyngeal tonsils) the lateral ba...
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Warthin tumor

Warthin tumors, also known as lymphomatous papillary cystadenomas, are benign, sharply demarcated tumors of the salivary gland. They are of lymphoid origin and most commonly arise from parotid gland tail. They may be bilateral or multifocal in up to 20% of cases and are the most common neoplasti...

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