Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

1,306 results found
Article

Hiccup

Hiccups (or hiccoughs), medical term singultus, are an unpleasant phenomenon, experienced by everyone on occasion, and usually self-limiting. However the much rarer intractable chronic form can be extremely debilitating. Epidemiology Hiccups are a symptom that has probably been experienced by ...
Article

Dysphagia

Dysphagia refers to subjective awareness of difficulty or obstruction during swallowing. It is a relatively common and increasingly prevalent clinical problem. Odynophagia is the medial term for painful swallowing. Fluoroscopy is the mainstay of imaging assessment but manometry can help evaluat...
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Senile calcific scleral plaques

Senile calcific scleral plaques, also known as senile scleral plaques (SSP), are benign scleral degenerations common in elderly individuals. They are a common incidental finding on CT imaging. Epidemiology The prevalence of SSP increases with age, from ~2.5% at age 60, to 25% at age 80 years a...
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Normal head and neck imaging examples

This article lists examples of normal imaging of the head and neck and surrounding structures, divided by region and modality. Neck For normal spinal imaging, please see: normal spinal imaging Plain radiographs soft tissue: example 1 soft tissue: example 2 CT soft tissue contrast: exampl...
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Trochlear apparatus calcification

Trochlear apparatus calcification in the orbit is a common incidental finding on CT of the head, found in ~12.5% of patients. There is no association with diabetes mellitus but an association has been demonstrated with autoimmune disease and elevated ALP 1,2. 
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Calcification of the globe (differential)

Calcification of the globe has many causes, varying from the benign to malignant. When calcification is seen of the posterior half of the globe, it could relate to any of the layers (scleral, choroidal or retinal), as it is not possible to separate them out on CT. Retinal drusen: 1% population...
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Facial fractures

Facial fractures are commonly caused by blunt or penetrating trauma sustained during motor vehicle accidents, assaults, and falls. The facial bones are thin and relatively fragile making them susceptible to injury. Epidemiology Males are affected more commonly than females and facial fractures...
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Le Fort fracture classification

Le Fort fractures are fractures of the midface, which collectively involve separation of all or a portion of the midface from the skull base. In order to be separated from the skull base, the pterygoid plates of the sphenoid bone need to be involved as these connect the midface to the sphenoid b...
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Silent sinus syndrome

The silent sinus syndrome represents maxillary sinus atelectasis that results in painless enophthalmos, hypoglobus and facial asymmetry 1-3. Some authors restrict the term to patients with no history of sinusitis, trauma or surgery 2. Epidemiology Silent sinus syndrome usually presents in the ...
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Chronic invasive fungal sinusitis

Chronic invasive fungal sinusitis is a form of invasive fungal sinusitis.  Clinical presentation The condition has a more prolonged course than acute invasive fungal sinusitis, usually more than 12 weeks 5. Patients are usually immunocompetent or have a milder level of immunocompromise. There ...
Article

Scleromalacia perforans

Scleromalacia perforans (or non-inflammatory necrotising scleritis) is a severe and very rare form of scleritis. Epidemiology Associations rheumatoid arthritis Crohn disease ulcerative colitis systemic lupus erythematosus Behçet disease 5 relapsing polychondritis 5 granulomatosis with p...
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Scleritis

Scleritis refers to inflammation of the sclera. It has a wide range of causes. Epidemiology It can affect age group but usually those between ages 30 and 50 years. There is a recognised increased female predilection (F:M of ~2:1). Pathology Information on the pathogenesis of scleritis is lim...
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Globe rupture

Globe rupture is an ophthalmologic emergency. A ruptured globe or an open-globe injury must be assessed in any patient who has suffered orbital trauma because open-globe injuries are a major cause of blindness. In a blunt trauma, ruptures are most common at the insertions of the intraocular mus...
Article

Behçet disease

Behçet disease is a multisystemic and chronic inflammatory vasculitis of unknown aetiology. Epidemiology The mean age at which Behçet disease occurs is 20-30 years. The disease is most prevalent in the Mediterranean region, Middle East and East Asia. The highest incidence has been reported in ...
Article

Accessory sutures

The parietal and occipital bones in particular are common regions for accessory sutures because of their multiple ossification centres. It is important to know these anatomic variations, mainly on the head trauma image studies in children, where it could be difficult to differentiate non-depres...
Article

Head and neck cancer therapy response interpretation (Hopkins criteria)

The head and neck cancer therapy response interpretation (Hopkins criteria) is a qualitative system of interpretation for therapy response assessment using PET-CT. Background Widely used options for therapy response assessment are clinical examination, histopathology, CT  and MR imaging, howev...
Article

Nasopharyngeal carcinoma

Nasopharyngeal carcinomas (NPC) are the most common primary malignancy of the nasopharynx. It is of squamous cell origin, some types of which are strongly associated with the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Epidemiology Nasopharyngeal carcinoma accounts for ~70% of all primary malignancies of the na...
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Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (staging)

Nasopharyngeal carcinoma staging uses the TNM staging system with derived stage groupings.  TNM staging Primary tumour (T) Tx: primary tumour cannot be assessed T0: no evidence of primary tumour Tis: carcinoma in situ T1: tumour is confined to the nasopharynx T2: tumour extends to soft ti...
Article

Inverted papilloma

Inverted papillomas are a type of Schneiderian papilloma. They are uncommon with distinctive pathological and imaging features. Terminology  The term inverted papilloma is also used to describe a urothelial lesion. For a discussion of that entity, please refer to inverted papilloma of the urin...
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Vertebral artery

The vertebral arteries (VA) are paired arteries, each arising from the respective subclavian artery and ascending in the neck to supply the posterior fossa and occipital lobes, as well as provide segmental vertebral and spinal column blood supply. Summary origin: branches off the 1st part of t...
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Superior meatus

The superior meatus is an air passage of the lateral nasal cavity located between the superior nasal concha and lateral nasal wall. The posterior ethmoid air cells and sphenoid sinuses drain into the superior meatus.​ See also nasal meatus
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Nasal meatus

The nasal meatuses are distinct air passages of the lateral nasal cavity located inferior to each nasal conchae. Terminology The plural of meatus is meatus (Latin noun of the fourth declension) or meatuses. Meati is incorrect.  Gross anatomy There are three main nasal meatuses: superior mea...
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Paranasal sinus mucocele

Paranasal sinus mucoceles represent complete opacification of one or more paranasal sinuses by mucus, often associated with bony expansion due to obstruction of the nasal sinus drainage. Clinical presentation Clinical presentation depends on two factors: location and direction of expansion p...
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Nasal cycle

The nasal cycle is a normal physiological process that occurs in the nasal cavity characterised by alternating partial congestion and decongestion of the nasal venous sinusoids of the nasal turbinates. Radiographic features CT The nasal cycle is often seen on CT scan of the paranasal sinuses ...
Article

Acute sinusitis

Acute sinusitis is an acute inflammation of the paranasal sinus mucosa that lasts less than four weeks and can occur in any of the paranasal sinuses. If the nasal cavity mucosa is also involved then the term rhinosinusitis may be used. Clinical presentation Fever, headache, postnasal discharge...
Article

Mucoepidermoid carcinoma of salivary glands

Mucoepidermoid carcinoma is a tumour that usually occurs in the salivary glands. It can mimic most other tumours of the glands, and therefore is often considered in the differential.  Epidemiology Mucoepidermoid carcinomas are seen throughout all adult age groups, but are most common in middle...
Article

Thyroglossal duct cyst

Thyroglossal duct cysts (TGDC) are the most common congenital neck cyst. They are typically located in the midline and are the most common midline neck mass in young patients. They can be diagnosed with multiple imaging modalities, including ultrasound, CT, and MRI. Epidemiology Thyroglossal d...
Article

Oculomotor nerve

The oculomotor nerve is the third of the cranial nerves and arises from the midbrain. It is responsible for the movements of four of the six extra-ocular muscles, the other two being innervated by the trochlear and abducens nerves. Gross anatomy Nucleus and cisternal portion The oculomotor nu...
Article

Paranasal sinuses retention cysts

Retention cysts of paranasal sinuses are benign lesions usually discovered incidentally on a plain sinus radiograph or cross-sectional imaging of the head. They do not usually cause symptoms.  Terminology They are also referred to as mucous retention cysts. Epidemiology It is difficult to es...
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Preauricular sinus

Preauricular sinuses are common congenital abnormalities that are typically small blind-ended openings near the ascending limb of the helix. These can be a simple pit or have a sinus tract and/or cystic component. Epidemiology They are most common in East Asian populations with an incidence of...
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Lund-Mackay score

The Lund-Mackay score is a widely used method for radiologic staging of chronic rhinosinusitis 1. When reading a CT scan of the paranasal sinuses and ostiomeatal complex, the reader assigns each sinus a score of: 0 (no abnormality) 1 (partial opacification) or 2 (complete opacification) The...
Article

Acute invasive fungal sinusitis

Acute invasive fungal sinusitis is the most aggressive form of fungal sinusitis. It is seen particularly in immunocompromised patients and is the source of significant morbidity and mortality. It should be distinguished from the other two forms of invasive fungal sinusitis, chronic invasive fung...
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Allergic fungal sinusitis

Allergic fungal sinusitis is the most common form of fungal sinusitis and is common in warm and humid climates. On imaging, it usually presents as opacification and expansion of multiple paranasal sinuses, unilaterally or bilaterally, with content that is centrally hyperdense on CT. MRI shows T2...
Article

Granulomatous invasive fungal sinusitis

Granulomatous invasive fungal sinusitis, sometimes termed granulomatous invasive fungal sinusitis, is a form of invasive fungal sinusitis. Reports describing the imaging findings have been uncommon 1. Epidemiology It is rare and been mainly reported in Sudan, India, Pakistan and sometimes in t...
Article

Sinonasal polyposis

Sinonasal polyposis refers to the presence of multiple benign polyps in the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses. Epidemiology It is most commonly encountered in adults and rare in children. Polyps are the most common expansile lesions of the nasal cavity 8. Incidence increases in patients with ...
Article

Functional endoscopic sinus surgery

Functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) is a type of paranasal sinus surgery performed intranasally using a rigid endoscope. Its primary objective is to restore physiological ventilation and mucociliary transport 1. Paranasal sinus imaging is crucial in preoperative planning and is also incr...
Article

Chronic sinusitis

Chronic sinusitis refers to ongoing long-term sinus infection-inflammation that often develops secondary to a prolonged/refractory acute sinus infection. Epidemiology It most commonly affects young to middle-aged adults but can uncommonly also affect children. Clinical presentation Chronic s...
Article

Kuhn classification

Kuhn classification is an anatomical classification for the subtypes of frontal cells. type 1 (~37%): a single air cell above the agger nasi cell type 2 (~19%): two or more air cells above the agger nasi cell type 3 (~7%): a single large cell above the agger nasi cell that extends into the fr...
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ATA guidelines for assessment of thyroid nodules

The American Thyroid Association (ATA) guidelines for assessment of thyroid nodules are meant to improve inter- and intra-reader consistency during assessment of thyroid nodules on ultrasound, and to facilitate communication with referring endocrinologists. The 2015 guidelines stress the import...
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ACR Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System (ACR TI-RADS)

ACR TI-RADS is a reporting system for thyroid nodules on ultrasound proposed by the American College of Radiology (ACR) 1. This uses a standardised scoring system for reports providing users with recommendations for when to use fine needle aspiration (FNA) or ultrasound follow-up of suspicious ...
Article

Recessus terminalis

Recessus terminalis is the name given to a blind-ending ethmoid infundibulum. It is an anatomical variant that occurs when the uncinate process inserts more laterally than usual onto the lamina papyracea. Practical points sinonasal disease extending into the recess terminalis may displace the ...
Article

Uncinate process

The uncinate process of the ethmoid bone is a thin hook-like osseous structure of the wall of the lateral nasal cavity. Gross anatomy Together with the ethmoid bulla, it forms the boundaries of the hiatus semilunaris and ethmoid infundibulum. The course of the free edge of the uncinate proces...
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Robin sequence

Robin sequence, also called Pierre Robin syndrome or Pierre Robin anamaloid, is a congenital condition characterised by facial abnormalities. Its aetiology has no genetic base, but rather, is reliant on a sequence of events, one following the other. Terminology Robin sequence is the preferred ...
Article

Pterygomaxillary fissure

The pterygomaxillary fissure is a triangular shaped lateral opening of pterygopalatine fossa. Gross anatomy It is located in the medial aspect of the temporal fossa and is formed by the divergence of the maxilla from the pterygoid process of the sphenoid bone. It connects the infratemporal fos...
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Paragangliomas of the head and neck

Paragangliomas of the head and neck are rare, representing <0.5% of all head and neck tumours. They arise in a number of locations along the carotid sheath and middle ear including the carotid bifurcation, vagal ganglia, jugular bulb, and tympanic plexus. For a general discussion of the patholo...
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Frontal ostium

The frontal ostium is an opening of the frontal sinus below the frontal infundibulum that drains into the frontal recess. Together with the frontal infundibulum and recess, it forms the frontal sinus outflow tract.
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Frontal infundibulum

The frontal infundibulum is a term that refers to the funnel-shaped inferior narrowing of the frontal sinus. Together with the frontal ostium and frontal recess, it forms the frontal sinus outflow tract.
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Frontal recess

The frontal recess is an opening in the inferior aspect of the frontal sinuses that allows drainage of the sinus. Terminology The frontal recess is also known as the nasofrontal duct. However, since it doesn't have bony walls of its own, it is more appropriately referred to as a recess rather ...
Article

Supraorbital cells

Supraorbital air cells are an anatomical variant of the paranasal sinuses. They consist of cells originating from the anterior ethmoid air cells extending posteriorly and superiorly over the orbit from the frontal recess. They may mimic septated frontal sinuses as their posterior wall is the sku...
Article

Castleman disease

Castleman disease, also known as angiofollicular lymph node hyperplasia or giant lymph node hyperplasia, is an uncommon benign B-cell lymphoproliferative condition. It can affect several regions of the body although commonly described as a solitary mediastinal mass. There are two distinct subty...
Article

Frontal intersinus septal cells

Frontal intersinus septal cells, also known as interfrontal sinus septal cells, are a subtype of medial frontal recess cells. Gross anatomy The frnotal intersinus septal cells lie within the intersinus septum between the frontal sinuses. They usually drain in the medial aspect of the frontal r...
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Suprabullar cells

The suprabullar cells are a subset of variably present frontal recess cells located above the ethmoid bulla. Terminology They are nearly identical to frontal bullar cells. The distinguishing features with the latter are that the suprabullar cells are located entirely below the frontal ostium a...
Article

Frontal bullar cells

The frontal bullar cells are a subset of variably present frontal recess cells located above the ethmoid bulla. Terminology They are nearly identical to suprabullar cells. The distinguishing features with the latter are that the frontal bullar cells are located above the frontal ostium and ext...
Article

Agger nasi cells

Agger nasi air cells are the most anterior ethmoidal air cells lying anterolateral and inferior to the frontal recess and anterior and above the attachment of the middle turbinate. They are located within the lacrimal bone and therefore have as lateral relations the orbit, the lacrimal sac and t...
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Lateral lamella

The lateral lamella is the name given to the lateral boundary of the cribriform plate. It runs vertically and joins the fovea ethmoidalis inferomedially. It is the thinnest part of the cribriform plate. Practical points The lateral lamella needs to be assessed on pre-functional endoscopic sinu...
Article

Anterior ethmoidal artery

The anterior ethmoid artery is a branch of the ophthalmic artery. It supplies the anterior and middle ethmoidal sinuses, frontal sinus, the lateral nasal wall and the nasal septum (see nasal cavity). Gross anatomy It traverses the anterior ethmoidal foramen with the anterior ethmoidal nerve (w...
Article

Labyrinthine artery

The labyrinthine artery, also known as the auditory artery or internal auditory artery, is a long and slender artery that is the main arterial supply to the vestibular apparatus and cochlea. It usually originates from the AICA (~85%), although it can also branch from the basilar artery (~15%), ...
Article

Peritonsillar abscess

Peritonsillar abscess or quinsy is the most common deep neck infection, almost always secondary to acute or recurrent tonsillitis. Epidemiology Peritonsillar abscesses are most common in 20-40 year-olds with a predominance for males and for smokers. It is less common in children but immunosupp...
Article

Splenius cervicis muscle

The splenius cervicis is part of the superficial layer of the intrinsic back muscles. It is one of the two muscles in this group, the other being the splenius capitis. Summary origin: spinous processes of T3-T6 insertion: transverse processes of C1-C3 innervation: dorsal rami of the lower ce...
Article

Nasal bone

The nasal bones are paired oblong upper central facial bones placed side by side between the frontal processes of the maxilla, jointly forming the nasal ridge. Gross anatomy The nasal bone has two surfaces: external surface attaches the procerus and nasalis muscles internal, which is transve...
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Suprabullar recess

The suprabullar recess is a potential opening (cleft) between the bulla lamella and skull base located along the posterior margin of the frontal recess with which it may communicate directly. It is present when the bulla lamella is incomplete superiorly. The term ​sinus lateralis is sometimes u...
Article

I-131

I-131​ (or 131I) is a radioisotope used in the diagnosis and treatment of thyroid lesions. It is one of the oldest radiotracers used in nuclear medicine, in use for over 50 years. It is predominately used in thyroid ablation therapy, for patients post thyroidectomy, and for metastatic thyroid ca...
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Chondrosarcoma of the skull base

Chondrosarcomas of the base of the skull are rare compared with other skull base tumours but are an important differential diagnosis as surgical resection and management are affected by the preoperative diagnosis. Epidemiology Chondrosarcomas of the base of the skull make up only a small fract...
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Thyroseq

Thyroseq is an expanded gene classifier test designed for further evaluation of indeterminate thyroid nodules on fine needle aspiration (FNA). In particular, it is designed to further evaluate nodules that show atypia of undetermined significance / follicular lesion of undetermined significance ...
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Orbital metastasis

Orbital metastases are relatively uncommon, but some primary tumours do have a predilection to metastasise to the orbit. This article concerns itself with extraocular metastases, rather than intraocular tumours or direct extension of tumours from neighbouring regions. For a discussion of intrao...
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Nasal septal perforation

Nasal septal perforation may affect either the bony, or cartilaginous septum. Most commonly it affects the anterior septal cartilaginous area although with syphilis it characteristically affects the bony septum. Clinical presentation Symptoms include a nasal discharge, nasal congestion (loss o...
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Orbital inflammatory disease (differential)

The differential diagnosis of orbital inflammatory diseases (including orbital pseudotumours) can be divided based on their location into: dacryoadenitis of lacrimal glands myositis of extraocular muscles perineuritis of optic nerve orbital cellulitis preseptal postseptal orbital apiciti...
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Epistaxis

Epistaxis (nosebleed) is very common and has a broad differential diagnosis in clinical practice. In clinical practice, anterior epistaxis are mainly located in Kiesselbach's plexus and posterior epistaxis (5% of all epistaxis) in Woodruff's plexus. Epidemiology Epistaxis is very common, with ...
Article

Obstruction of nasolacrimal drainage apparatus

Obstruction of nasolacrimal drainage apparatus results in epiphora and can be primary or secondary, congenital or acquired. Obstruction can occur in canaliculi, lacrimal sac, or nasolacrimal duct (post saccular) levels. Congenital obstruction is usually secondary to persistence of the membrane ...
Article

Nasal septum perforation (mnemonic)

A not-very-useful mnemonic for the causes of nasal septum perforation is: Say Water Coke Syrup Sugarwater Lemonade or say Nothing  Mnemonic S: sarcoidosis W: Wegener granulomatosis (now known as granulomatosis with polyangiitis) C: cocaine S: syphilis S: surgery L: leprosy or say N: no...
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Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (orbital manifestations)

Ophthalmologic manifestations of granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) (previously known as Wegener granulomatosis), both ocular and orbital, have been reported in 40-50% of GPA patients 1-3 and can occur in either the classic or limited form of the disease.4 Ophthalmologic disease occasionally...
Article

Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (upper respiratory tract manifestations)

The upper respiratory tract manifestations of granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) (previously known as Wegener granulomatosis) are common and affect most patients. . Granulomatosis with polyangiitis is a multisystem systemic necrotizing non-caseating granulomatous vasculitis affecting small t...
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Adenoid cystic carcinoma of lacrimal glands

Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) of the lacrimal glands is an extraconal malignancy usually originating from the orbital lobe of the lacrimal gland. Clinical presentation It often presents with orbital pain and paresthesia, since this type of tumour is frequently associated with perineural sprea...
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Idiopathic orbital inflammation

Idiopathic orbital inflammation (IOI), also known as orbital pseudotumour and nonspecific orbital inflammation, is an idiopathic inflammatory condition that most commonly involves the extraocular muscles. Less commonly there is inflammatory change involving the uvea, sclera, lacrimal gland, and ...
Article

Sinonasal lymphoma

Sinonasal lymphoma refers to the involvement of the nasal cavity and/or paranasal sinuses with lymphoma. It can be primary or secondary. Clinical presentation Presenting symptoms of sinonasal lymphoma are variable but are usually similar to those of benign inflammatory diseases. The clinical s...
Article

Craniotomy

Craniotomy is a surgical procedure where a piece of calvarial bone is removed to allow intracranial exposure. The bone flap is replaced at the end of the procedure, usually secured with microplates and screws. If the bone flap is not replaced it is either a craniectomy or cranioplasty.  Classif...
Article

Oropharyngeal tumours (T staging)

T staging of oropharyngeal tumours is as follows: Definition The oropharynx includes the base of the tongue, the inferior surface of the soft palate and uvula, the anterior and posterior tonsillar pillars, the glossotonsillar sulci, the pharyngeal tonsils, and the lateral and posterior pharyng...
Article

Congenital cholesteatoma

Congenital cholesteatomas are identical to epidermoid cysts, differing only in name and location.  Pathology They are intraosseous inclusions of ectoderm, and are therefore comprised of keratin debris and cholesterol. Characteristically, they are located at the petrous apex. In contrast middle...
Article

Multiple endocrine neoplasia type I

Multiple endocrine neoplasia type I (MEN1), also known as Wermer syndrome, is an autosomal dominant genetic disease that results in proliferative lesions in multiple endocrine organs, particularly the pituitary gland, islet cells of the pancreas and parathyroid glands.  There are other multiple...
Article

Rhinocerebral mucormycosis

Rhinocerebral mucormycosis refers to an uncommon form of invasive fungal sinus infection. Clinical presentation The presentation can vary, ranging from exophthalmos, rhinorrhoea, and ophthalmoplegia with loss of visual acuity and peripheral facial palsies occurring rarely 4. Pathology It ori...
Article

Persistent ossiculum terminale

The ossiculum terminale appears as a secondary ossification centre of the dens between 3-6 years and normally fuses by 12 years. Failure of fusion results in a persistent ossiculum terminale (also called Bergmann's ossicle or ossiculum terminale of Bergmann) and is considered a normal anatomical...
Article

Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the salivary glands

Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) of the salivary glands is the most common malignancy involving the minor salivary glands and the second most common malignancy involving the parotid gland. Pathology Adenoid cystic carcinomas arise more commonly in the minor salivary glands (~55%) than in the maj...
Article

Perineural spread of tumour

Perineural spread of tumour is a form of local invasion in which primary tumours cells spread along the tissues of the nerve sheath.  It is a well-recognised phenomenon in head and neck cancers. Terminology An important distinction has to be made between perineural invasion (PNI) and perineura...
Article

Adenoid cystic carcinoma

Adenoid cystic carcinomas are a rare histological subtype of adenocarcinoma. Pathology Adenoid cystic carcinomas are generally considered low grade 4. The tumours have a notable tendency for perineural spread. Location They have a wide distribution and mainly occur in relation to the airways...
Article

Paradoxical middle turbinate

Paradoxical middle turbinate is a rare developmental cause of nasal obstruction. It refers to an inferomedially curved middle turbinate edge with the concave surface facing the nasal septum and usually occurs bilaterally. Epidemiology Paradoxical middle turbinate is a rarely encountered anomal...
Article

Sinonasal adenocarcinoma

Sinonasal adenocarcinomas are primary tumours of the sinonasal region with glandular differentiation. They are grossly classified as salivary and non-salivary subtypes. However, generally in the literature and IARC/WHO classification, the term Sinonasal adenocarcinoma refers to non-salivary aden...
Article

Iodinated contrast-induced thyrotoxicosis

Iodinated contrast-induced thyrotoxicosis is rare and may occur in patients with pre-existing thyroid disease and through complications of thyrotoxicosis (e.g. cardiac arrhythmia) may be fatal. Patients with a normal thyroid gland are unaffected.  Patients with existing thyrotoxicosis should no...
Article

Middle nasal concha

The middle nasal conchae or turbinates are one of the pairs of conchae in the nose. Gross anatomy The middle nasal concha consists of the medial surface of the labyrinth of ethmoid which is a thin lamella that descends from the undersurface of the cribriform plate and ends in a free, convolute...
Article

Supreme nasal concha

The supreme nasal concha or turbinate is one of the conchae in the nose and is a bony projection, arising from the medial surface of the labyrinth of the ethmoid above the superior nasal concha. Its presence is variable and has been reported in up to 52% of subjects 1. The air passage between t...
Article

Maxillary ostium

The maxillary ostium or maxillary hiatus is an opening that forms the drainage channel of the maxillary sinus and is also one of the components of the ostiomeatal unit. It is located posteriorly and medially near the roof of the maxillary sinus measuring approximately 2-4 mm. It drains into the ...
Article

Inferior nasal concha

The inferior nasal conchae or turbinates are one of the pairs of conchae in the nose. Gross anatomy It extends horizontally along the lateral wall of the nasal cavity and consists of a lamina of spongy bone, curled upon itself like a scroll. The inferior nasal conchae are considered a pair of ...
Article

Supreme meatus

The supreme meatus is an air passage of the lateral nasal cavity located between the supreme nasal concha and lateral nasal wall. The ostium of a posterior ethmoidal air cell may be seen in the supreme meatus. Terminology The plural of meatus is meatus (Latin noun of the fourth declension) or ...
Article

Inferior meatus

The inferior meatus is an air passage of the lateral nasal cavity located between the inferior nasal concha and lateral nasal wall. The nasolacrimal duct drains into the inferior meatus. Terminology The plural of meatus is meatus (Latin noun of the fourth declension) or meatuses. Meati is inco...

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