Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

1,350 results found
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Mandibular fossa

The mandibular fossa or glenoid fossa is the smooth concave articular surface formed by both the squamous and petrous parts of the temporal bone. It forms the superior articular part of the temporomandibular joint and lodges the condyle of mandible.
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Temporal bone

The temporal bone is situated on the sides and the base of the cranium and lateral to the temporal lobe of the cerebrum. The temporal bone is one of the most important calvarial and skull base bones. The temporal bone is very complex and consists of five parts: squamous part mastoid part petr...
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Oculomotor nerve palsy

Oculomotor nerve palsies, or third nerve palsies, result in weakness of the muscles supplied by the oculomotor nerve, namely the superior rectus, inferior rectus, medial rectus, inferior oblique, and levator palpebrae superioris muscles. Clinical presentation Classically, patients present with...
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ACR Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System (ACR TI-RADS)

ACR TI-RADS is a reporting system for thyroid nodules on ultrasound proposed by the American College of Radiology (ACR) 1. This uses a standardised scoring system for reports providing users with recommendations for when to use fine needle aspiration (FNA) or ultrasound follow-up of suspicious ...
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Paraganglioma

Paragangliomas, sometimes called glomus tumours, are rare neuroendocrine tumours arising from paraganglia.  Terminology Paraganglia are clusters of neuroendocrine cells dispersed throughout the body and closely related to the autonomic nervous system, with either parasympathetic or sympathetic...
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Tumours of the base of skull (differential diagnosis)

Tumours of the base of skull are histologically varied and are often challenging to preoperatively diagnose and treat. Exactly which tumours are considered to be tumours of the base of skull is debatable. The broadest definition would include any tumour that involves or abuts the base of skull,...
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Nonchromaffin paraganglion cells

Nonchromaffin paraganglion cells are cells in the neuroendocine system that make up several clusters of chemoreceptive cells. These cells are associated with a supporting maxtrix and are found in close proximity to blood vessels and nerves (especially the glossopharyngeal and vagus nerves). They...
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Black eyebrow sign

Black eyebrow sign is the description given on plain facial radiographs to intra-orbital air 1. Air rises into the most superior aspect of the orbit, almost always in the context of a facial fracture, in a linear fashion, giving the appearance of an eyebrow. The fracture is usually an orbital b...
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Multinodular goitre

Multinodular goitre (commonly abbreviated to MNG) is defined as an enlarged thyroid gland (i.e. goitre) due to multiple nodules which may have normal, decreased or increased function.  Terminology When increased activity and hyperthyroidism are present then the condition is referred to a toxic...
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Hypopharyngeal tumours (T staging)

T staging of hypopharyngeal tumours is as follows: Definition The hypopharynx includes the pyriform sinuses, the lateral and posterior hypopharyngeal walls, and the postcricoid region. T1: tumour is limited to one subsite of the hypopharynx and 2 cm or less in greatest dimension T2: tumour i...
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Anatomy curriculum

The anatomy curriculum is one of our curriculum articles and aims to be a collection of articles that represent the core anatomy knowledge for radiologists and imaging specialists. General anatomy Neuroanatomy Head and neck anatomy Thoracic anatomy Abdominal and pelvic anatomy Spinal anat...
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Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma

Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibromas (JNA) are a rare benign but locally aggressive vascular tumour. Epidemiology Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibromas occur almost exclusively in males and usually in adolescence (~15 years). They account for only 0.5% of all head and neck tumours 2, but are ...
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Asterion

The asterion is the junction on the side of the posteroinferior calvarium where three sutures meet: parietomastoid suture occipitomastoid suture lambdoid suture It represents the site of the closed mastoid fontanelle. It is located at the posterior end of the parietotemporal suture, whereas ...
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Sphenosquamosal suture

The sphenosquamosal suture is a vertical cranial suture between the sphenoid and temporal bones bilaterally. It is formed by the articulation between the posterior border of the greater wing of the sphenoid bone and the anterior border of the squamous part of the temporal bone 1. It is located l...
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Sphenofrontal suture

The sphenofrontal suture is a cranial suture where the frontal bone meets the sphenoid bone bilaterally. From an anterior perspective of the skull, this suture appears in the roof of the bony orbits. From a lateral perspective, it appears as the meeting of the inferoposterior edges of the fronta...
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Cranial vault

The cranial vault, also known as the skull vault, skullcap or calvaria, is the cranial space that encases and protects the brain together with the base of the skull (chondrocranium). The cranial vault and the base of skull together form the neurocranium. Terminology Although commonly seen in r...
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Occipitotemporal suture

The occipitotemporal/occipitomastoid suture is the obliquely oriented articulation of the anterior border of the squamous occipital bone and the mastoid portion of the temporal bone. A mastoid foramen is occasionally located near or in it. The occipitotemporal suture and the parietotemporal sut...
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Lambdoid suture

The lamdboid suture is the junction between the superior border of the occipital bone and the posterior borders of the right and left parietal bones. It normally fuses at approximately 26 years of age.
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Sagittal suture

The sagittal suture is the midline articulation that joins the two parietal bones. Related pathology premature fusion of the sagittal suture results in scaphocephaly normal fusion of the sagittal suture occurs at approximately 22 years of age
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Squamosal suture

The squamosal or squamous suture is the cranial suture between the temporal and parietal bones bilaterally. From the pterion, it extends posteriorly, curves inferiorly and continues as the parietotemporal suture. Along with growth of the pterion, the asterion and at the frontozygomatic suture, ...
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Sialocele

Sialoceles are cystic spaces (usually saliva containing) arising within a salivary gland. Pathology They are essentially post- traumatic or iatrogenic in nature. The proposed mechanism includes laceration of the salivary glad duct or ductal stenosis with subsequent dilatation. Clinical presen...
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External auditory canal osteoma

External auditory canal osteomas are rare focal pedunculated bony overgrowths of the osseous external auditory canal. Radiographic features solitary pedunculated bony overgrowth of the external auditory canal usually at the bony cartilaginous junction unilateral large lesions may be associat...
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Accessory parotid gland

Accessory parotid glands are a normal variant and represent ectopic salivary tissue separate from, but usually in close proximity to, the main parotid glands. Epidemiology Accessory parotid glands are commonly picked up incidentally on ultrasound; seen in ~20% of the general population 2. Gro...
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Parotid gland

The parotid gland is the largest of the salivary glands and secretes saliva via the parotid duct into the oral cavity to facilitate mastication and swallowing. It is located in the parotid space.  Gross anatomy The parotid gland is wrapped around the mandibular ramus and extends to a position ...
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Laryngocele

Laryngocele refers to dilatation of the saccule of the laryngeal ventricle. On imaging, these lesions are generally characterised as well-defined, thin-walled, fluid or air-filled cystic lesions in the paraglottic space. The communication with the laryngeal ventricle is not always identified, a...
Article

Thyroseq

Thyroseq® is an expanded gene classifier test designed for further evaluation of indeterminate thyroid nodules on fine needle aspiration (FNA). In particular, it is designed to further evaluate nodules that show atypia of undetermined significance / follicular lesion of undetermined significance...
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Lambda

The lambda is the midline bony landmark where the lambdoid sutures and sagittal suture meet, between the occipital and two parietal bones. It may be a depression and therefore palpable. Accessory occiptal bones are common near the lambda, usually associated with the lambdoid sutures. It is the ...
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Optic nerve

The optic nerve is the second cranial nerve which along with the olfactory nerve (CN I) is really an extension of the central nervous system, not surrounded by Schwann cells with first sensory bipolar cell body located peripherally in the retina. Their central processes synapse on ganglion cells...
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Lacrimal gland masses

Lacrimal gland masses​ can be classified into two broad groups - inflammatory (~50%) and neoplastic, either lymphoma (25%) or salivary gland type tumours (~25%).  Pathology Inflammatory sarcoidosis affects ~25% of patients with systemic disease orbital inflammatory pseudotumour lacrimal gl...
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Calcification of the globe (differential)

Calcification of the globe has many causes, varying from the benign to malignant. When calcification is seen of the posterior half of the globe, it could relate to any of the layers (scleral, choroidal or retinal), as it is not possible to separate them out on CT. Retinal drusen: 1% population...
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Inion

The inion is the tip of external occipital protuberance (EOP), the midline bony prominence in the occipital bone where the ligamentum nuchae and trapezius muscle attaches. It is usually easily palpable. It is the the surface marking of the internal attachment of the tentorium cerebelli. It is ...
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Vertebral artery

The vertebral arteries (VA) are paired arteries, each arising from the respective subclavian artery and ascending in the neck to supply the posterior fossa and occipital lobes, as well as provide segmental vertebral and spinal column blood supply. Summary origin: branches off the 1st part of t...
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Thyroid gland

The thyroid gland is an endocrine organ in the neck which is completely enveloped by pretracheal fascia (middle-layer of the deep cervical fascia) and lies in the visceral space.  Gross anatomy The thyroid extends from C5 to T1 and lies anterior to the thyroid and cricoid cartilages of the lar...
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Goitre

Goitre (rarely thyromegaly) refers to enlargement of the thyroid gland. It can occur from multiple conditions. Clearly the absence of thyroid enlargement does not preclude significant thyroid pathology. The definition of a goitre depends on age and sex; below are the upper limits of normal for ...
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Lagophthalmos

Lagophthalmos refers to the inability of an individual to completely close the eyelids and can result in drying of the eyes and irritation, and even permanent damage. Pathology Aetiology most common in facial nerve palsies (e.g. Bell palsy)  trauma/surgery: scarring of the eyelids 1 (cicatri...
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Floor of mouth

The floor of mouth is an oral cavity subsite and is a common location of oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma.  Gross anatomy The floor of mouth is a U-shaped space which extends (and includes) from the oral cavity mucosa superiorly, and the mylohyoid muscle sling 2,3.  Boundaries superiorly:...
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Maxillary torus

Maxillary tori are analogous to mandibular tori and are composed of densely mineralised bone usually devoid of a medullary cavity. Unlike in the mandible, where they arise on the inner surface, when arising from the maxilla they may project both inwards (in which case they arise from the midline...
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Paranasal sinus mucocele

Paranasal sinus mucoceles represent complete opacification of one or more paranasal sinuses by mucus, often associated with bony expansion due to obstruction of the nasal sinus drainage. Clinical presentation Clinical presentation depends on two factors: location and direction of expansion p...
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Osteoma

Osteomas are benign mature bony growths, seen almost exclusively in bones formed in membrane (e.g. skull).  Terminology When they arise from bone they may be referred to as a "homoplastic osteoma", and when they arise in soft tissue they may be referred to as a "heteroplastic osteoma". Clinic...
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Hard palate

The hard palate is the anterior horizontal bony part of the palate that forms the roof of the oral cavity and floor of the nasal cavity. Most of the hard palate is formed by the palatine processes of the maxillae, the horizontal plates of the palatine bones complete it posteriorly. On its inferi...
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Orbital metastasis

Orbital metastases are relatively uncommon, but some primary tumours do have a predilection to metastasise to the orbit. This article concerns itself with extraocular metastases, rather than intraocular tumours or direct extension of tumours from neighbouring regions. For a discussion of intrao...
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Hashimoto thyroiditis

Hashimoto thyroiditis, also known as lymphocytic thyroiditis or chronic autoimmune thyroiditis, is a subtype of autoimmune thyroiditis. It is one of the most common thyroid disorders.  Epidemiology Typically affects middle-aged females (30-50 year age group with an F:M ratio of 10-15:1).  Cli...
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Pulsatile tinnitus

The clinical symptom of pulsatile tinnitus can occur from a number of causes. They include vascular congenital  venous dehiscent jugular bulb high riding jugular bulb laterally placed sigmoid sinus venous diverticulum abnormal mastoid emissary veins arterial aberrant internal carotid ...
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Facial palsy

Facial palsy refers to the neurological syndrome of facial paralysis. It can result from a broad range of physiological insults to the facial nerve or its central nervous system origins. The most common causes of this is Bell palsy.  Terminology While facial palsy refers to the clinical presen...
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Middle thyroid vein

The middle thyroid vein is a tributary of the internal jugular vein. Gross anatomy Origin and course The middle thyroid vein arises from the lateral surface of the thyroid. It traverses laterally to the internal jugular vein, passing anterior to the common carotid artery and posterior to the ...
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Vitreous haemorrhage

Vitreous haemorrhage refers to bleeding into the vitreous chamber. Epidemiology Vitreous haemorrhage has an incidence of approximately 7 in 100000 1,2.   Clinical features The most common clinical presentation is with sudden, painless visual loss to varying degrees of severity 2. Associated ...
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Pyramidal lobe of thyroid

The pyramidal lobe of thyroid is a normal anatomic variant. It is seen as a third thyroid lobe and is present in 10-30% of the population. It represents a persistent remnant of the thyroglossal duct. It usually arises from the right or left side of the isthmus extending in a cranial direction; ...
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Transsphenoidal hypophysectomy

Transsphenoidal hypophysectomy is a commonly used surgical approach for pituitary region masses, with many significant advantages over open craniotomy.  History The transsphenoidal approach was first described in 1907 by Schloffer, modified by Halstead and subsequently popularised by Harvey Cu...
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Sinonasal lymphoma

Sinonasal lymphoma refers to the involvement of the nasal cavity and/or paranasal sinuses with lymphoma. It can be primary or secondary. Clinical presentation Presenting symptoms of sinonasal lymphoma are variable but are usually similar to those of benign inflammatory diseases. The clinical s...
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Lemierre syndrome

Lemierre syndrome refers to thrombophlebitis of the jugular veins with distant metastatic sepsis in the setting of initial oropharyngeal infection such as pharyngitis/tonsillitis with or without peritonsillar or retropharyngeal abscess. Epidemiology Since the advent of antibiotics, the inciden...
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Tympanic membrane retraction

Tympanic membrane retraction usually occurs when a portion of the tympanic membrane becomes weakened and is pulled inwards by the negative pressure within the middle ear.  Pathology As the tympanic membrane is pulled inwards (medially), it can become draped over the ossicles, resulting in a va...
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Pars tensa

The pars tensa is the tense portion of the tympanic membrane and refers to the main portion of the membrane. It extends from the anterior and posterior malleolar folds at the level of the lateral process of malleus to the inferior extent of the tympanic membrane at its attachment. Associated p...
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Tympanic membrane

The tympanic membrane is a thin membrane that separates the external ear from the middle ear. It acts to transmit sound waves from air in the external auditory canal (EAC) to the ossicles of the middle ear. Gross anatomy The tympanic membrane is shaped like a flat cone pointing into the middle...
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Prussak space

Prussak space is a subcomponent of the lateral epitympanic space and extends from the level of the scutum to the umbo. This space is best demonstrated on the oblique coronal image.  Gross anatomy Boundaries lateral: pars flaccida of the tympanic membrane medial: neck of the malleus  superio...
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Congenital goitre

Congenital goitre is a rare cause of neck swelling in neonates and is demonstrated as diffuse/nodular thyroid gland enlargement. Epidemiology It is a common endocrine disease in newborns and affects approximately 1:2000-4000 live births. Clinical presentation There may be a difficult vaginal...
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Lymph node enlargement

Lymph node enlargement (rarely lymphadenomegaly) is often used synonymously with lymphadenopathy, which is not strictly correct. Terminology Lymphadenopathy (or adenopathy) is, if anything, a broader term, referring to any pathology of lymph nodes, not necessarily resulting in increased size; ...
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Infantile haemangioma

Infantile haemangiomas are benign vascular neoplasms that are the most common head and neck tumours of infancy. They can occur virtually anywhere, but the majority are found in the head and neck regions. This article aims to be a generic discussion of the condition, for detailed and more specif...
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Congenital hypothyroidism

Congenital hypothyroidism (CHT), previously known as cretinism, can be of thyroidal or central (hypothalamic/pituitary) origin and can have a widely diverse molecular aetiology. Clinical presentation Most children are asymptomatic at birth and are diagnosed after screening. In untreated CHT pa...
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Paranasal sinus and facial bone radiography

Paranasal sinus and facial bone radiography is the radiological investigation of the facial bones and paranasal sinuses. Plain radiography of the facial bones is still often used in the setting of trauma, postoperative assessments and dental radiography.
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Cervical thymus

The cervical thymus refers to the ectopic location of thymus at the cervical level above the brachiocephalic vein. Clinical presentation A cervical thymus usually presents before adolescence as a painless unilateral midline or lateral neck mass. Pathology Aetiology Around the 4th to 5th wee...
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Thyroglossal duct cyst

Thyroglossal duct cysts (TGDC's) are the most common type of congenital neck cysts and paediatric neck masses. They are typically located in the midline and are the most common midline neck mass in young patients. They can be diagnosed with multiple imaging modalities, including ultrasound, CT, ...
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Inferior ophthalmic vein

The inferior ophthalmic vein (IOV) is a vein of the inferior orbit and is smaller than the more well known superior ophthalmic vein. Gross anatomy The vein forms at the confluence of several veins within the anteroinferior orbit along the infraorbital margin from facial vein tributaries. It co...
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Superior ophthalmic vein

The superior ophthalmic vein is a prominent vein of the orbit that is seen on CT and may be enlarged or tortuous in various disease entities. Gross anatomy The vein forms at the confluence of several veins within the superior orbit above the medial palpebral ligament: the angular, supratrochle...
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Carotid body tumour

Carotid body tumour, also known as a chemodectoma or carotid body paraganglioma, is a highly vascular glomus tumour that arises from the paraganglion cells of the carotid body. It is located at the carotid bifurcation with characteristic splaying of the ICA and ECA.  Epidemiology Typically, ca...
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Inverted papilloma

Inverted papillomas are a type of Schneiderian papilloma. They are uncommon with distinctive pathological and imaging features. Terminology  The term inverted papilloma is also used to describe a urothelial lesion. For a discussion of that entity, please refer to inverted papilloma of the urin...
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Sarcoidosis

Sarcoidosis is a non-caseating granulomatous multi-system disease with a wide range of clinical and radiographic manifestations.  Individual systemic manifestations are discussed in respective articles:  pulmonary and mediastinal manifestations cardiac manifestations  musculoskeletal manifes...
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Cervical adenitis

Cervical adenitis refers to the inflammation of lymph nodes in the neck. Epidemiology Most common cause of a paediatric neck mass following non-specific infectious/inflammatory insults. Clinical presentation In the paediatric population, a child will present with a painful cervical mass. Pa...
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Subgaleal haematoma

Subgaleal haematoma describes scalp bleeding in the potential space between the periosteum and the galea aponeurosis. It is a rare but possibly lethal emergency. Epidemiology Moderate to severe presentations occur in 1.5 of 10 000 live births. It most commonly occurs after vacuum-assisted and ...
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Heerfordt syndrome

Heerfordt syndrome, also known as Heerfordt-Waldenström syndrome or uveoparotid fever, is a variant of sarcoidosis, comprising of: fever parotid enlargement facial palsy ocular involvement (anterior uveitis) Epidemiology The exact prevalence is unknown, as only isolated case reports exist....
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Sialolithiasis

Sialolithiasis refers to the formation of concrements (sialoliths) inside the ducts or parenchyma of salivary glands and most commonly occurs in the submandibular glands and their ducts. Epidemiology Sialolithiasis is the most common disease of salivary glands, accounting for approximately 50%...
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Zygoma

The zygoma (also known as zygomatic bone or malar bone) is an important facial bone which forms the prominence of the cheek. It is roughly quadrangular in shape. Gross anatomy Zygoma has three surfaces, five borders, and two processes. Surfaces anterolateral surface is convex, pierced at its...
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Adhesive otitis media

Adhesive otitis media is a form of chronic otitis media where there is a adhesion of medial ear structures as a result of chronic inflammation. There are often complete or partial adhesions between the thin retracted and atrophic pars tensa and the medial wall of the middle ear. See also otiti...
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Otitis media

Otitis media refers to inflammation or infection of the middle ear cavity. It is commonly seen in children and is termed otomastoiditis when inflammation spreads to involve the mastoid. Clinical presentation Common complaints include otalgia, otorrhoea, headache, fever, and systemic upset. In ...
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Odontogenic keratocyst

Odontogenic keratocysts (OKC), previously known as keratocystic odontogenic tumours (KCOT or KOT), are benign cystic lesions involving the mandible or maxilla and are believed to arise from dental lamina. Whether these lesions are developmental or neoplastic is controversial, with the 2017 WHO c...
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Hanging and strangulation (trauma)

Hanging and strangulation are injuries involving constricting pressure applied to the neck. Epidemiology In America hangings are the second most common form of suicide after firearm use. In other parts of the world due to the relative difficulty in accessing firearms, hangings are the most com...
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Muscles of mastication

The muscles of mastication can be divided into primary and secondary groups according to whether they connect the mandible directly to the skull or if they attach to other structures in the neck, e.g. hyoid, thyroid cartilage. Primary temporalis muscle masseter muscle medial pterygoid muscle...
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Inferior alveolar nerve

The inferior alveolar nerve or inferior dental nerve is a mixed sensory and motor branch of the posterior division of the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve in the pterogomandibular space of the oral cavity. Gross anatomy The inferior alveolar nerve divides off the posterior division ...
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Salt and pepper sign (skull)

Salt and pepper sign or pepper pot skull refers to multiple tiny well-defined lucencies in the calvaria caused by resorption of trabecular bone in hyperparathyroidism. There is a loss of definition between the inner and outer tables of the skull and a ground-glass appearance as well as spotty de...
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Von Hippel-Lindau disease

Von Hippel-Lindau (vHL) disease is characterised by the development of numerous benign and malignant tumours in different organs (at least 40 types 1) due to mutations in the VHL tumour suppressor gene on chromosome 3. Epidemiology The disease is rare with an estimated prevalence of 1:35,000-5...
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Squamous cell carcinoma (tongue)

Squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue has tobacco smoking and alcohol ingestion as major risk factors and spans two regions: the anterior two-thirds (oral tongue) is a common subtype of squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity whereas the posterior third (base of tongue) is considered part of ...
Article

Arrested pneumatisation of the skull base

Arrested pneumatisation of the skull base is an anatomical variant that most commonly occurs in association with the sphenoid sinus. It is known that the sphenoid bones undergo early fatty marrow conversion antecedent to normal pneumatisation. However, for unclear reasons, some individuals exper...
Article

Amaurosis fugax

Amaurosis fugax is the transient monocular loss of vision, normally lasting a few seconds to a few minutes, secondary to vascular ischaemia or insufficiency.  Epidemiology It has an incidence of 50,000 per year in the United States.  Clinical presentation Patients present with transient mono...
Article

Foramen caecum

The foramen caecum represents a primitive tract between the anterior cranial fossa and the nasal space. It is located along the anterior cranial fossa, anterior to the cribriform plate of the ethmoid bone and posterior to the frontal bone, within the frontoethmoidal suture. It lies at a variable...
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Concha bullosa

Concha bullosa (plural: conchae bullosae) (also known as middle turbinate pneumatisation) is a common finding and although associated with deviation of the nasal septum, it is usually of little clinical importance. Epidemiology Concha bullosa is a normal variant and is one of the most common v...
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Dehiscence

Dehiscence is a general term referring to 'splitting open' and is used in a variety of contexts in medicine generally and radiology more specifically.  The two most common usages are: splitting open of a wound (e.g. sternal dehiscence) loss of bone separating one structure from another (e.g. ...
Article

Killian dehiscence

The Killian dehiscence is a triangular shaped area of weakness in the muscular wall of the pharynx, between the transverse and oblique bundles of the inferior pharyngeal constrictor 1. Gross anatomy It is located in the posterior wall of the laryngopharynx, slightly above the origin of the oes...
Article

Mandible

The mandible is the single midline bone of the lower jaw. It consists of a curved, horizontal portion, the body, and two perpendicular portions, the rami, which unite with the ends of the body nearly at right angles (angle of the jaw). It articulates with both temporal bones at the mandibular fo...
Article

Stafne cyst

Stafne cysts, also known as a static bone cavity of the mandible or lingual salivary gland inclusion defect, are cortical defects near the angle of the mandible below the mandibular canal. Strictly speaking, it is not a cyst since it does not contain any fluid. It is usually an incidental findin...
Article

Mandibular osteoradionecrosis

Mandibular osteoradionecrosis (ORN) is more common after radiation therapy for head and neck malignancies due to the superficial position of the mandible, which exposes it to high radiation. The maxilla can also be involved, but this is less frequent.  Epidemiology Mandibular ORN may occur in ...
Article

Coca-Cola bottle sign (thyroid eye disease)

The Coca-Cola bottle sign refers to the appearance of the muscles of the orbit in thyroid eye disease.  The belly of the muscle enlarges with sparing of the tendinous insertion, giving the appearance of the traditional Coca-Cola bottle. The enlargement of the muscles follows the I'M SLOW format...
Article

Extraocular muscle involvement in thyroid associated orbitopathy (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember the order in which extraocular muscles are involved in thyroid-associated orbitopathy (TAO) is: I'M SLOw Mnemonic I: inferior rectus M: medial rectus S: superior rectus L: lateral rectus O: obliques There is some debate about this however. Some claim superior rectu...
Article

Fissula ante fenestram

The fissula ante fenestram (FAF), also known as the cochlear cleft, is a small connective tissue-filled cleft located where the tendon of the tensor tympani muscle turns laterally toward the malleus. It is situated immediately anterior to the oval window, and posterior to the cochleariform proce...
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Mumps

Mumps is a (usually) self-limited viral infection that often occurs in epidemics among children. Its incidence has markedly diminished in countries with childhood vaccination programs, but can still be seen in patient who have not received vaccinations or who have waning immunity. Clinical feat...

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